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Photo aging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640607/primary-and-photochemically-aged-aerosol-emissions-from-biomass-cookstoves-chemical-and-physical-characterization
#1
Stephen M Reece, Aditya Sinha, Andrew P Grieshop
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation during photo-oxidation of primary emissions from cookstoves used in developing countries may make important contributions to their climate and air quality impacts. We present results from laboratory experiments with a field portable oxidation flow reactor (F-OFR) to study the evolution of emissions over hours to weeks of equivalent atmospheric aging. Lab tests, using dry red oak, measured fresh and aged emissions from a 3 stone fire (TSF), a "rocket" natural draft stove (NDS) and a forced draft gasifier stove (FDGS), in order of increasing modified combustion efficiency (MCE) and decreasing particulate matter emission factors (EF)...
June 22, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640603/changes-in-light-absorptivity-of-molecular-weight-separated-brown-carbon-due-to-photolytic-aging
#2
Jenny Pui Shan Wong, Athanasios Nenes, Rodney J Weber
Brown carbon (BrC) are those organic compounds in atmospheric aerosols that absorb solar radiation and may play an important role on planetary radiative forcing and climate. However, little is known about the production and loss mechanisms of BrC in the atmosphere. Here, we study how the light absorptivity of BrC from wood smoke and secondary BrC generated from reaction of ammonium sulfate with methylglyoxal changes under photolytic aging by UVA radiation in the aqueous phase. Owing to its chemical complexity, BrC is separated by molecular weight using size exclusion chromatography and the response of each molecular weight fraction to aging is studied...
June 22, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632764/accuracy-and-reliability-of-retinal-photo-grading-for-diabetic-retinopathy-remote-graders-from-a-developing-country-and-standard-retinal-photo-grader-in-australia
#3
Fakir M Amirul Islam
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the accuracy and reliability of fundus retinal photos graded by local graders in Bangladesh with those graded by an expert at the Centre for Eye Research Australia (CERA) in the context of mass scale diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening in Bangladesh. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study of 3,104 adults identified 213 (7.2%) eligible patients with diabetes of age ≥ 40 years in 2012-2013. Retinal photographs were collected using a non-mydriatic digital fundus retinal camera and a two-field imaging protocol...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624312/non-lens-based-surgical-techniques-for-presbyopia-correction
#4
R Bilbao-Calabuig, F Llovet-Osuna
INTRODUCTION: Presbyopia is the most prevalent refractive error. With a progressive aging population, its surgical correction is an important challenge for the ophthalmology community, as well as the millions of patients who suffer from it, and who are increasingly demanding alternatives to its correction with glasses or contact lenses. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A review is presented with a synthesised discussion on the pathophysiological theories of presbyopia and an updated and analytical description of the non-lens involvement surgical techniques used to treat presbyopia...
June 14, 2017: Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622014/relationship-between-anterior-occlusion-and-frontal-sinus-size
#5
Omar T Said, P Emile Rossouw, Leonard S Fishman, Changyong Feng
OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between anterior occlusion and frontal sinus size. METHODS: The patient database at the Eastman Institute for Oral Health, University of Rochester, was searched for male patients older than 15 years and females older than 13 years of age. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, participants' photos and lateral cephalometric and posteroanterior radiographs were examined then classified into a control class I group (n = 20, 15...
June 16, 2017: Angle Orthodontist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617738/the-whitaker-classification-of-craniosynostosis-outcomes-an-assessment-of-inter-rater-reliability
#6
Ari M Wes, Sanjay Naran, James Sun, Daniel Mazzaferro, Wen Xu, Phuong Nguyen, Linton A Whitaker, Scott P Bartlett, Jesse A Taylor
PURPOSE: The Whitaker classification (WC) is a simple and widely used system for describing aesthetic outcomes after craniosynostosis surgery. The purpose of this study is to evaluate its inter-rater reliability for patients who have undergone frontal-orbital surgery. METHODS: A retrospective review of patients with craniosynostosis who underwent surgical intervention at a tertiary referral center was conducted. Inclusion criteria were: single-suture craniosynostosis, surgical intervention before age two years, and photographs taken prior to revisions between 5 and 20 years of age...
June 14, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608681/activated-ion-electron-transfer-dissociation-enables-comprehensive-top-down-protein-fragmentation
#7
Nicholas M Riley, Michael S Westphall, Joshua J Coon
Here we report the first demonstration of near-complete sequence coverage of intact proteins using activated ion-electron transfer dissociation (AI-ETD), a method that leverages concurrent infrared photoactivation to enhance electron-driven dissociation. AI-ETD produces mainly c/z-type product ions and provides comprehensive (77-97%) protein sequence coverage, outperforming HCD, ETD, and EThcD for all proteins investigated. AI-ETD also maintains this performance across precursor ion charge states, mitigating charge-state dependence that limits traditional approaches...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605809/retinal-macrophages-synthesize-c3-and-activate-complement-in-amd-and-in-models-of-focal-retinal-degeneration
#8
Riccardo Natoli, Nilisha Fernando, Haihan Jiao, Tanja Racic, Michele Madigan, Nigel L Barnett, Joshua A Chu-Tan, Krisztina Valter, Jan Provis, Matt Rutar
Purpose: Complement system dysregulation is strongly linked to the progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Deposition of complement including C3 within the lesions in atrophic AMD is thought to contribute to lesion growth, although the contribution of local cellular sources remains unclear. We investigated the role of retinal microglia and macrophages in complement activation within atrophic lesions, in AMD and in models of focal retinal degeneration. Methods: Human AMD donor retinas were labeled for C3 expression via in situ hybridization...
June 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604673/diffusion-engineering-of-ions-and-charge-carriers-for-stable-efficient-perovskite-solar-cells
#9
Enbing Bi, Han Chen, Fengxian Xie, Yongzhen Wu, Wei Chen, Yanjie Su, Ashraful Islam, Michael Grätzel, Xudong Yang, Liyuan Han
Long-term stability is crucial for the future application of perovskite solar cells, a promising low-cost photovoltaic technology that has rapidly advanced in the recent years. Here, we designed a nanostructured carbon layer to suppress the diffusion of ions/molecules within perovskite solar cells, an important degradation process in the device. Furthermore, this nanocarbon layer benefited the diffusion of electron charge carriers to enable a high-energy conversion efficiency. Finally, the efficiency on a perovskite solar cell with an aperture area of 1...
June 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599308/an-ultra-sensitive-biophysical-risk-assessment-of-light-effect-on-skin-cells
#10
Devasier Bennet, Buddolla Viswanath, Sanghyo Kim, Jeong Ho An
The aim of this study was to analyze photo-dynamic and photo-pathology changes of different color light radiations on human adult skin cells. We used a real-time biophysical and biomechanics monitoring system for light-induced cellular changes in an in vitro model to find mechanisms of the initial and continuous degenerative process. Cells were exposed to intermittent, mild and intense (1-180 min) light with On/Off cycles, using blue, green, red and white light. Cellular ultra-structural changes, damages, and ECM impair function were evaluated by up/down-regulation of biophysical, biomechanical and biochemical properties...
May 24, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596466/-clocks-behavior-and-cognition
#11
Akinori Futamura, Azusa Shiromaru, Takeshi Kuroda, Motoyasu Honma, Ryuta Kinno, Kenjiro Ono, Mitsuru Kawamura
The nerve center responsible for controlling our circadian rhythm is located in a cluster of cells known as the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the hypothalamus. Various physiological functions such as sleep, arousal, blood pressure, body temperature, and hormone secretion are regulated in a 24-hour rhythm by this circuit. Somatic cells of other organs have a peripheral clock gene and by synchronizing the rhythm of the central and peripheral clocks, it is possible to live a healthy life. Due to aging and degenerative disease, circadian rhythm gradually collapses...
June 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587261/ulmus-macrocarpa-hance-extracts-attenuated-h%C3%A2-o%C3%A2-and-uvb-induced-skin-photo-aging-by-activating-antioxidant-enzymes-and-inhibiting-mapk-pathways
#12
Sun-Il Choi, Jin-Ha Lee, Jae-Min Kim, Tae-Dong Jung, Bong-Yeon Cho, Seung-Hyun Choi, Dae-Won Lee, Jinkyung Kim, Jong-Yea Kim, Ok-Hawn Lee
To protect from reactive oxygen species (ROS) damages, skin cells have evolved to have antioxidant enzymes, such as copper and zinc-dependent superoxide dismutase (SOD1), mitochondrial manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (SOD2), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and glutathione reductase (GR), and suppressed the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways, such as c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38. Bioactive compounds analyses were performed using a high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector (HPLC-PDA) system...
June 5, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584858/a-longitudinal-population-study-of-the-impact-of-cataract-extraction-on-sleep-quality
#13
Yanjun Chen, David M Nondahl, Carla R Schubert, Dayna S Dalton, Adam J Paulsen, Barbara E K Klein, Ronald Klein, Karen J Cruickshanks
PURPOSE: To investigate the longitudinal effects of cataract extraction on sleep quality in two discrete population cohorts. METHODS: 301 participants who had senile cataract in both eyes at the baseline examination were selected from two large longitudinal epidemiologic studies of age-related eye disease, hearing, olfaction, and cognition. The participants were divided into two groups: one had cataract surgery (CS) in both eyes, and the other had no cataract surgery (NCS) in either eye by the follow up examination...
2017: Cogent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584665/multimodal-imaging-in-an-unusual-cluster-of-multiple-evanescent-white-dot-syndrome
#14
Orly Gal-Or, Ethan Priel, Irit Rosenblatt, Shiri Shulman, Michal Kramer
OBJECTIVE: To describe an unusual cluster of multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS) encountered within a 3-month period. METHODS: This retrospective observation study is comprised of seven patients who presented with MEWDS in a 3-month period in central Israel. Data were collected from patients' medical records on clinical, multimodal imaging, and viral serology findings. RESULTS: Six women and one man of mean age 31.5 ± 7.2 years...
2017: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578562/development-and-initial-validation-of-the-alcohol-expectancy-task-aet
#15
Emmanuel Kuntsche, Sandra Kuntsche
BACKGROUND: Although studies have shown that alcohol expectancies are prominent predictors of alcohol initiation and subsequent drinking levels, the questionnaires used to assess these expectancies among young adolescents have been criticized as being time-intensive, biased and inappropriate. METHODS: In response, we developed the Alcohol Expectancy Task (AET), in which eight scenarios featuring adults in everyday situations and in different emotional states, accompanied by photos of a range of beverages (four alcoholic, eight non-alcoholic) are displayed on a tablet screen, and participants are then asked to tap on the beverage they think the given person had been drinking...
June 4, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574094/effect-of-storage-medium-and-aging-duration-on-mechanical-properties-of-self-adhesive-resin-based-cements
#16
Anja Liebermann, Nicoleta Ilie, Malgorzata Roos, Bogna Stawarczyk
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of storage medium and aging duration on Martens hardness (HM) and indentation modulus (EIT) of self-adhesive resin-based cements (SARCs). METHODS: A total of 416 discs were fabricated from 8 SARCs (n = 52 per SARC): (i) BeautyCem (BEA), (ii) Bifix SE (BIF), (iii) Clearfil SA Cement Automix (CLE), (iv) RelyX Unicem2 Automix (RXU), (v) SeT (SET), (vi) SmartCem 2 (SMC), (vii) SoloCem (SOC) and (viii) SpeedCEM (SPC)...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Functional Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573008/common-reef-building-coral-in-the-northern-red-sea-resistant-to-elevated-temperature-and-acidification
#17
Thomas Krueger, Noa Horwitz, Julia Bodin, Maria-Evangelia Giovani, Stéphane Escrig, Anders Meibom, Maoz Fine
Coral reefs are currently experiencing substantial ecological impoverishment as a result of anthropogenic stressors, and the majority of reefs are facing immediate risk. Increasing ocean surface temperatures induce frequent coral mass bleaching events-the breakdown of the nutritional photo-symbiosis with intracellular algae (genus: Symbiodinium). Here, we report that Stylophora pistillata from a highly diverse reef in the Gulf of Aqaba showed no signs of bleaching despite spending 1.5 months at 1-2°C above their long-term summer maximum (amounting to 11 degree heating weeks) and a seawater pH of 7...
May 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570634/neuroprotective-effect-of-bilberry-extract-in-a-murine-model-of-photo-stressed-retina
#18
Hideto Osada, Tomohiro Okamoto, Hirohiko Kawashima, Eriko Toda, Seiji Miyake, Norihiro Nagai, Saori Kobayashi, Kazuo Tsubota, Yoko Ozawa
Excessive exposure to light promotes degenerative and blinding retinal diseases such as age-related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. However, the underlying mechanisms of photo-induced retinal degeneration are not fully understood, and a generalizable preventive intervention has not been proposed. Bilberry extract is an antioxidant-rich supplement that ameliorates ocular symptoms. However, its effects on photo-stressed retinas have not been clarified. In this study, we examined the neuroprotective effects of bilberry extract against photo-stress in murine retinas...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28568473/facial-skin-photo-aging-and-development-of-hyperpigmented-spots-from-children-to-middle-aged-japanese-woman
#19
Y Takahashi, Y Fukushima, K Kondo, M Ichihashi
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Facial skin hyperpigmention caused by chronic sun exposure is a major skin complaint, however, its characteristics and influential factors are still limitedly known. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey in healthy Japanese women aged from 6 to 62 years (n=169) was conducted using a facial image analyzer VISIA(™) for knowing onset age of hyperpigmented spot formation, its chronological changes, and influence of environmental factors. RESULTS: UV Pigmented Spot (PS) Score was positively correlated with age (R=...
June 1, 2017: Skin Research and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566905/the-effect-of-rhus-verniciflua-stokes-extracts-on-photo-aged-mouse-skin
#20
Hannah Hong, Minyoung Jung, Sung Jay Choe, Jung-Bae Kim, Eung Ho Choi
BACKGROUND: Rhus verniciflua Stokes (RV) has traditionally been used in Korea as an indigenous food (Rhus chicken soup) and as an herbal medicinal plant. While the anticancer, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory properties of RV have been actively studied in the medical field, its antioxidant effects in the skin that resist the reactive oxygen species in keratinocytes and fibroblasts is less understood. OBJECTIVE: We designed to evaluate the effects of R. verniciflua Stokes extract (RVE) on the photo-aged skin by an in vitro experiment using human fibroblasts and an in vivo experiment using a photo-aged murine model...
June 2017: Annals of Dermatology
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