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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335513/bioactive-potential-of-marine-macroalgae-from-the-central-red-sea-saudi-arabia-assessed-by-high-throughput-imaging-based-phenotypic-profiling
#1
Stephan Kremb, Constanze Müller, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Christian R Voolstra
Marine algae represent an important source of novel natural products. While their bioactive potential has been studied to some extent, limited information is available on marine algae from the Red Sea. This study aimed at the broad discovery of new bioactivities from a collection of twelve macroalgal species from the Central Red Sea. We used imaging-based High-Content Screening (HCS) with a diverse spectrum of cellular markers for detailed cytological profiling of fractionated algal extracts. The cytological profiles for 3 out of 60 algal fractions clustered closely to reference inhibitors and showed strong inhibitory activities on the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase in a single-enzyme biochemical assay, validating the suggested biological target...
March 20, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332827/subcellular-chemical-imaging-of-antibiotics-in-single-bacteria-using-c60-secondary-ion-mass-spectrometry
#2
Hua Tian, David A Six, Thomas Krucker, Jennifer A Leeds, Nicholas Winograd
The inherent difficulty of discovering new and effective antibacterials and the rapid development of resistance particularly in Gram-negative bacteria, illustrates the urgent need for new methods that enable rational drug design. Here we report the development of 3D imaging cluster secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) as a label-free approach to chemically map small molecules in aggregated and single Escherichia coli cells, with ~300 nm spatial resolution and high chemical sensitivity. The feasibility of quantitative analysis was explored, and a non-linear relationship between treatment dose and signal for tetracycline and ampicillin, two clinically-used antibacterials, was observed...
March 23, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332626/decreased-16-0-20-4-phosphatidylinositol-level-in-the-post-mortem-prefrontal-cortex-of-elderly-patients-with-schizophrenia
#3
Junya Matsumoto, Hiroki Nakanishi, Yasuto Kunii, Yuki Sugiura, Dai Yuki, Akira Wada, Mizuki Hino, Shin-Ichi Niwa, Takeshi Kondo, Michihiko Waki, Takahiro Hayasaka, Noritaka Masaki, Hiroyasu Akatsu, Yoshio Hashizume, Sakon Yamamoto, Shinji Sato, Takehiko Sasaki, Mitsutoshi Setou, Hirooki Yabe
The etiology of schizophrenia includes phospholipid abnormalities. Phospholipids are bioactive substances essential for brain function. To analyze differences in the quantity and types of phospholipids present in the brain tissue of patients with schizophrenia, we performed a global analysis of phospholipids in multiple brain samples using liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass/mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS/MS) and imaging mass spectrometry (IMS). We found significantly decreased 16:0/20:4-phosphatidylinositol (PI) levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in the brains from patients with schizophrenia in the LC-ESI/MS/MS, and that the 16:0/20:4-PI in grey matter was most prominently diminished according to the IMS experiments...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329870/application-of-imaging-techniques-to-cases-of-drug-induced-crystal-nephropathy-in-preclinical-studies
#4
B Lenz, A Brink, M Siam, A De Paepe, S Bassett, A Eichinger-Chapelon, P Maliver, R Neff, U Niederhauser, B Steinhuber, R Zurbach, T Singer, C Funk, F Schuler, M Albassam, S Schadt
A number of drugs can cause precipitates within renal tubules leading to crystal nephropathy. Crystal nephropathy is usually an exposure-related finding and is not uncommon in preclinical studies, where high doses are tested. An understanding of the nature of precipitates is important for human risk assessment and further development. Our aim was to investigate the ability of various imaging techniques to detect the presence of drugs or metabolites in renal crystals. We applied matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization - Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (MALDI-FTICR MS) imaging, Raman and infrared microspectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) spectroscopy and standard histopathology to cases of drug-induced crystal nephropathy, induced in rodents and primates by four compounds...
February 27, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327151/quantification-of-silver-nanoparticle-uptake-and-distribution-within-individual-human-macrophages-by-fib-sem-slice-and-view
#5
Erik Guehrs, Michael Schneider, Christian M Günther, Piet Hessing, Karen Heitz, Doreen Wittke, Ana López-Serrano Oliver, Norbert Jakubowski, Johanna Plendl, Stefan Eisebitt, Andrea Haase
BACKGROUND: Quantification of nanoparticle (NP) uptake in cells or tissues is very important for safety assessment. Often, electron microscopy based approaches are used for this purpose, which allow imaging at very high resolution. However, precise quantification of NP numbers in cells and tissues remains challenging. The aim of this study was to present a novel approach, that combines precise quantification of NPs in individual cells together with high resolution imaging of their intracellular distribution based on focused ion beam/ scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM) slice and view approaches...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325928/a-microplate-reader-based-system-for-visualizing-transcriptional-activity-during-in-vivo-microbial-interactions-in-space-and-time
#6
Rosanna C Hennessy, Peter Stougaard, Stefan Olsson
Here, we report the development of a microplate reader-based system for visualizing gene expression dynamics in living bacterial cells in response to a fungus in space and real-time. A bacterium expressing the red fluorescent protein mCherry fused to the promoter region of a regulator gene nunF indicating activation of an antifungal secondary metabolite gene cluster was used as a reporter system. Time-lapse image recordings of the reporter red signal and a green signal from fluorescent metabolites combined with microbial growth measurements showed that nunF-regulated gene transcription is switched on when the bacterium enters the deceleration growth phase and upon physical encounter with fungal hyphae...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325282/dna-aptamers-for-the-characterization-of-histological-structure-of-lung-adenocarcinoma
#7
Galina S Zamay, Tatiana I Ivanchenko, Tatiana N Zamay, Valentina L Grigorieva, Yury E Glazyrin, Olga S Kolovskaya, Irina V Garanzha, Andrey A Barinov, Alexey V Krat, Gleb G Mironov, Ana Gargaun, Dmitry V Veprintsev, Sergey S Bekuzarov, Andrey K Kirichenko, Ruslan A Zukov, Marina M Petrova, Andrey A Modestov, Maxim V Berezovski, Anna S Zamay
Nucleic acid aptamers are becoming popular as molecular probes for identification and imaging pathology and, at the same time, as a convenient platform for targeted therapy. Recent studies have shown that aptamers may be effectively used for tumor characterization and as commercially available monoclonal antibodies. Here we present three DNA aptamers binding to whole transformed lung cancer tissues, including tumor cells, connective tissues, and blood vessels. Protein targets have been revealed using affinity purification followed by mass spectrometry analyses, and they have been validated using a panel of correspondent antibodies and 3D imaging of tumor tissues...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321994/detection-and-imaging-of-chrome-yellow-lead-chromate-in-latent-prints-solid-residues-and-minerals-by-laser-desorption-ionization-mass-spectrometry-ldi-ms
#8
Zhaoyu Zheng, Julius Pavlov, Athula B Attygalle
In the past, Chrome Yellow (lead chromate, PbCrO4 ), a bright orange-red substance, has been widely used as an inorganic pigment in the production of paints, coatings, and plastics. Herein, we demonstrate that laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS) is a powerful tool for the detection of lead chromate in solid residues. In fact, lead chromate in trace amounts is easily detectable by LDI-MS even from residues left as latent prints. For example, a latent print obtained by stamping the exposed laterally cut surface of a pencil over 50 years old on an acetonitrile-moistened paper, was successfully imaged for both lead and chromate using a Synapt G2 HDMS mass spectrometer...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320070/dexpramipexole-improves-bioenergetics-and-outcome-in-experimental-stroke
#9
Mirko Muzzi, Elisabetta Gerace, Daniela Buonvicino, Elisabetta Coppi, Francesco Resta, Laura Formentini, Riccardo Zecchi, Laura Tigli, Daniele Guasti, Martina Ferri, Emidio Camaioni, Alessio Masi, Domenico E Pellegrini-Giampietro, Guido Mannaioni, Daniele Bani, Anna M Pugliese, Alberto Chiarugi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of dexpramipexole, a drug recently tested in ALS patients able to bind F1Fo ATP synthase and increase mitochondrial ATP production, on experimental ischemic brain injury. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The effects of dexpramipexole on bioenergetics, Ca(2+) fluxes, electrophysiological functions and death were evaluated in primary neural cultures and hippocampal slices exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). The drug's impact on infarct volumes and neurological functions was also evaluated in mice subjected to proximal or distal MCAo...
March 20, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318232/histology-compatible-maldi-mass-spectrometry-based-imaging-of-neuronal-lipids-for-subsequent-immunofluorescent-staining
#10
Ibrahim Kaya, Wojciech Michno, Dimitri Brinet, Yasmine Iacone, Giulia Zanni, Kaj Blennow, Henrik Zetterberg, Jörg Hanrieder
Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) enables acquisition of spatial distribution maps for molecular species in situ. This can provide comprehensive insights on the pathophysiology of different diseases. However, current sample preparation and MALDI-IMS acquisition methods have limitations in preserving molecular and histological tissue morphology, resulting in interfered correspondence of MALDI-IMS data with subsequently acquired immunofluorescent staining results...
March 20, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306235/gcib-tof-sims-high-resolution-imaging-of-cardiolipin-speciation-in-the-brain-identification-of-molecular-losses-after-traumatic-injury
#11
Hua Tian, Louis J Sparvero, Andrew A Amoscato, Anna Bloom, Hulya Bayir, Valerian E Kagan, Nicholas Winograd
Gas cluster ion beam secondary ion mass spectrometry (GCIB-SIMS) has shown the full potential of mapping intact lipids in biological systems with better than 10 µm lateral resolution. This study investigated further the capability of GCIB-SIMS in imaging high-mass signals from intact cardiolipin (CL) and gangliosides in normal brain and the effect of a controlled cortical impact model (CCI) of traumatic brain injury (TBI) on their distribution. A combination of enzymatic and chemical treatments was employed to suppress the signals from the most abundant phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)) and enhance the signals from the low abundance CLs and gangliosides to allow their GCIB-SIMS detection at 8 and 16 µm spatial resolution...
March 17, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302590/stable-isotope-analysis-of-dynamic-lipidomics
#12
Joost Brandsma, Andrew P Bailey, Grielof Koster, Alex P Gould, Anthony D Postle
Metabolic pathway flux is a fundamental element of biological activity, which can be quantified using a variety of mass spectrometric techniques to monitor incorporation of stable isotope-labelled substrates into metabolic products. This article contrasts developments in electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) for the measurement of lipid metabolism with more established gas chromatography mass spectrometry and isotope ratio mass spectrometry methodologies. ESI-MS combined with diagnostic tandem MS/MS scans permits the sensitive and specific analysis of stable isotope-labelled substrates into intact lipid molecular species without the requirement for lipid hydrolysis and derivatisation...
March 13, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300751/synthesis-and-evaluation-of-new-pyrazoline-derivatives-as-potential-anticancer-agents-in-hepg-2-cell-line
#13
Weijie Xu, Ying Pan, Hong Wang, Haiyan Li, Qing Peng, Duncan Wei, Cheng Chen, Jinhong Zheng
Cancer is a major public health concern worldwide. Adverse effects of cancer treatments still compromise patients' quality of life. To identify new potential anticancer agents, a series of novel pyrazoline derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for cytotoxic effects on HepG-2 (human liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line) and primary hepatocytes. Compound structures were confirmed by ¹H-NMR, mass spectrometry, and infrared imaging. An in vitro assay demonstrated that several compounds exerted cytotoxicity in the micromolar range...
March 16, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300637/integrated-mass-spectrometry-imaging-and-omics-workflows-on-the-same-tissue-section-using-grid-aided-parafilm-assisted-microdissection
#14
Jusal Quanico, Julien Franck, Maxence Wisztorski, Michel Salzet, Isabelle Fournier
BACKGROUND: In spite of the number of applications describing the use of MALDI MSI, one of its major drawbacks is the limited capability of identifying multiple compound classes directly on the same tissue section. METHODS: We demonstrate the use of grid-aided, parafilm-assisted microdissection to perform MALDI MS imaging and shotgun proteomics and metabolomics in a combined workflow and using only a single tissue section. The grid is generated by microspotting acid dye 25 using a piezoelectric microspotter, and this grid was used as a guide to locate regions of interest and as an aid during manual microdissection...
March 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294229/molecular-imaging-of-small-molecule-drugs-in-animal-tissues-using-laser-desorption-postionization-mass-spectrometry
#15
Jiaxin Chen, Yongjun Hu, Qiao Lu, Pengchao Wang, Huaqi Zhan
Localization and quantification of the target drug in tissues is a key indicator of efficacy in drug discovery. In contrast to established methods that require matrices and complex sample pretreatment steps, matrix-free and low cost in situ analysis of small molecule drugs by mass spectrometry (MS) remains challenging. Here, we present a novel approach, laser desorption postionization (LDPI), which is coupled to a linear time-of-flight (TOF) MS and used to image the distribution of acriflavine (ACF) directly from a histological section of mouse kidney without any matrix or sample pretreatment...
March 15, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294158/improved-maldi-imaging-ms-analysis-of-phospholipids-using-graphene-oxide-as-new-matrix
#16
Zhongjie Wang, Yan Cai, Yi Wang, Xinwen Zhou, Ying Zhang, Haojie Lu
Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is an increasingly important technique for detection and spatial localization of phospholipids on tissue. Due to the high abundance and being easy-to-ionize of phosphatidylcholine (PC), therefore, selecting matrix to yield signals of other lipids has become the most crucial factor for a successful MALDI-IMS analysis of phospholipids. Herein, graphene oxide (GO) was proposed as a new matrix to selectively enhance the detection of other types of phospholipids that are frequently suppressed by the presence of PC in positive mode...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292895/diagnosis-of-prostate-cancer-by-desorption-electrospray-ionization-mass-spectrometric-imaging-of-small-metabolites-and-lipids
#17
Shibdas Banerjee, Richard N Zare, Robert J Tibshirani, Christian A Kunder, Rosalie Nolley, Richard Fan, James D Brooks, Geoffrey A Sonn
Accurate identification of prostate cancer in frozen sections at the time of surgery can be challenging, limiting the surgeon's ability to best determine resection margins during prostatectomy. We performed desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI) on 54 banked human cancerous and normal prostate tissue specimens to investigate the spatial distribution of a wide variety of small metabolites, carbohydrates, and lipids. In contrast to several previous studies, our method included Krebs cycle intermediates (m/z <200), which we found to be highly informative in distinguishing cancer from benign tissue...
March 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290124/the-characterization-of-laser-ablation-patterns-and-a-new-definition-of-resolution-in-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-imaging-mass-spectrometry-maldi-ims
#18
Matthew B O'Rourke, Benjamin B A Raymond, Matthew P Padula
Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) is a technique that has seen a sharp rise in both use and development. Despite this rapid adoption, there have been few thorough investigations into the actual physical mechanisms that underlie the acquisition of IMS images. We therefore set out to characterize the effect of IMS laser ablation patterns on the surface of a sample. We also concluded that the governing factors that control spatial resolution have not been correctly defined and therefore propose a new definition of resolution...
March 13, 2017: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289929/co-encapsulation-of-amyloglucosidase-with-starch-and-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-as-basis-for-a-long-lasting-co2-release
#19
Pascal Humbert, Marina Vemmer, Marco Giampà, Hanna Bednarz, Karsten Niehaus, Anant V Patel
CO2 is known as a major attractant for many arthropod pests which can be exploited for pest control within novel attract-and-kill strategies. This study reports on the development of a slow-release system for CO2 based on calcium alginate beads containing granular corn starch, amyloglucosidase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our aim was to evaluate the conditions which influence the CO2 release and to clarify the biochemical reactions taking place within the beads. The amyloglucosidase was immobilized with a high encapsulation efficiency of 87% in Ca-alginate beads supplemented with corn starch and S...
April 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289709/imaging-mass-spectrometry-demonstrates-age-related-decline-in-human-adipose-plasticity
#20
Christelle Guillermier, Pouneh K Fazeli, Soomin Kim, Mingyue Lun, Jonah P Zuflacht, Jessica Milian, Hang Lee, Hugues Francois-Saint-Cyr, Francois Horreard, David Larson, Evan D Rosen, Richard T Lee, Claude P Lechene, Matthew L Steinhauser
Quantification of stable isotope tracers has revealed the dynamic state of living tissues. A new form of imaging mass spectrometry quantifies isotope ratios in domains much smaller than a cubic micron, enabling measurement of cell turnover and metabolism with stable isotope tracers at the single-cell level with a methodology we refer to as multi-isotope imaging mass spectrometry. In a first-in-human study, we utilize stable isotope tracers of DNA synthesis and de novo lipogenesis to prospectively measure cell birth and adipocyte lipid turnover...
March 9, 2017: JCI Insight
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