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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098178/lithium-accumulates-in-neurogenic-brain-regions-as-revealed-by-high-resolution-ion-imaging
#1
Giulia Zanni, Wojciech Michno, Elena Di Martino, Anna Tjärnlund-Wolf, Jean Pettersson, Charlotte Elizabeth Mason, Gustaf Hellspong, Klas Blomgren, Jörg Hanrieder
Lithium (Li) is a potent mood stabilizer and displays neuroprotective and neurogenic properties. Despite extensive investigations, the mechanisms of action have not been fully elucidated, especially in the juvenile, developing brain. Here we characterized lithium distribution in the juvenile mouse brain during 28 days of continuous treatment that result in clinically relevant serum concentrations. By using Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry- (ToF-SIMS) based imaging we were able to delineate temporospatial lithium profile throughout the brain and concurrent distribution of endogenous lipids with high chemical specificity and spatial resolution...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091541/apelin-receptor-homodimer-oligomers-revealed-by-single-molecule-imaging-and-novel-g-protein-dependent-signaling
#2
Xin Cai, Bo Bai, Rumin Zhang, Chunmei Wang, Jing Chen
The apelin receptor (APJ) belongs to family A of the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and is a potential pharmacotherapeutic target for heart failure, hypertension, and other cardiovascular diseases. There is evidence APJ heterodimerizes with other GPCRs; however, the existence of APJ homodimers and oligomers remains to be investigated. Here, we measured APJ monomer-homodimer-oligomer interconversion by monitoring APJ dynamically on cells and compared their proportions, spatial arrangement, and mobility using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, resonance energy transfer, and proximity biotinylation...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088857/methane-activation-by-tantalum-carbide-cluster-anions-ta2c4
#3
Hai-Fang Li, Yan-Xia Zhao, Zhen Yuan, Qing-Yu Liu, Zi-Yu Li, Xiao-Na Li, Chuan-Gang Ning, Shenggui He
Methane activation by transition metals is of fundamental interest and practical importance, as this process is extensively involved in the natural gas conversion to fuels and value-added chemicals. While single-metal centers have been well recognized as active sites for methane activation, the active center composed of two or more metal atoms is rarely addressed and the detailed reaction mechanism remains unclear. Here, by using state-of-the-art time-of-flight mass spectrometry, cryogenic anion photoelectron imaging spectroscopy, and quantum chemical calculations, the cooperation of the two Ta atoms in a dinuclear carbide cluster Ta2C4- for methane activation has been identified...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087424/clinical-applications-of-maldi-imaging-technologies-in-cancer-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Yasemin Ucal, Zeynep Aslıhan Durer, Hakan Atak, Elif Kadioglu, Betul Sahin, Abdurrahman Coskun, Ahmet Tarık Baykal, Aysel Ozpinar
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) enables localization of analytes of interest along with histology. More specifically, MALDI-IMS identifies the distributions of proteins, peptides, small molecules, lipids, and drugs and their metabolites in tissues, with high spatial resolution. This unique capacity to directly analyze tissue samples without the need for lengthy sample preparation reduces technical variability and renders MALDI-IMS ideal for the identification of potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and disease gradation...
January 10, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087213/cholesterolomics-an-update
#5
William J Griffiths, Jonas Abdel-Khalik, Eylan Yutuc, Alwena H Morgan, Ian Gilmore, Thomas Hearn, Yuqin Wang
Cholesterolomics can be regarded as the identification and quantification of cholesterol, its precursors post squalene, and metabolites of cholesterol and of its precursors, in a biological sample. These molecules include 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, steroid hormones and bile acids and intermediates in their respective biosynthetic pathways. In this short article we will concentrate our attention on intermediates in bile acid biosynthesis pathways, in particular oxysterols and cholestenoic acids. These molecular classes are implicated in the aetiology of a diverse array of diseases including autoimmune disease, Parkinson's disease, motor neuron disease, breast cancer, the lysosomal storage disease Niemann-Pick type C and the autosomal recessive disorder Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome...
January 10, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080031/a-new-approach-to-sensitize-antitumor-monofunctional-platinum-ii-complexes-via-short-time-photo-irradiation
#6
Xuling Xue, Chengcheng Zhu, Huachao Chen, Yang Bai, Xiangchao Shi, Yang Jiao, Zhongyan Chen, Yupeng Miao, Weijiang He, Zijian Guo
Sensitizing the antitumor activity of monofunctional Pt(II) complexes is a reliable approach to developing antitumor agents different from the classic Pt-based drugs. Considering the poor intracellular accumulation of monofunctional Pt(II) complexes, in this study, the photosensitizing monofunctional Pt(II) complex Pt-BA was derived from a weak BODIPY (boron-dipyrromethene)-derived photosensitizer BA, with the purpose to improve its antitumor cytotoxicity via enhancing its intracellular accumulation with a short time photo-irradiation...
December 6, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078990/mass-spectrometry-imaging-in-nanomedicine-unraveling-the-potential-of-msi-for-the-detection-of-nanoparticles-in-neuroscience
#7
Florian Py Barré, Ron Ma Heeren, Nina Ogrinc Potočnik
Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) can uniquely detect thousands of compounds allowing both their identification and localization within biological tissue samples. MSI is an interdisciplinary science that crosses the borders of physics, chemistry and biology, and enables local molecular analysis at a broad range of length scales: From the subcellular level to whole body tissue sections. The spatial resolution of some mass spectrometers now allows nano-scale research, crucial for studies in nanomedicine. Recent developments in MSI have enabled the optimization and localization of drug delivery with nanoparticles within the body and in specific organs such as kidney, liver and brain...
January 11, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078485/a-simple-method-for-improving-the-spatial-resolution-in-infrared-laser-ablation-mass-spectrometry-imaging
#8
Juha-Pekka Hieta, Anu Vaikkinen, Samuli Auno, Heikki Räikkönen, Markus Haapala, Gianmario Scotti, Jaakko Kopra, Petteri Piepponen, Tiina J Kauppila
In mass spectrometry imaging of tissues, the size of structures that can be distinguished is determined by the spatial resolution of the imaging technique. Here, the spatial resolution of IR laser ablation is markedly improved by increasing the distance between the laser and the focusing lens. As the distance between the laser and the lens is increased from 1 to 18 m, the ablation spot size decreases from 440 to 44 μm. This way, only the collimated center of the divergent laser beam is directed on the focusing lens, which results in better focusing of the beam...
January 11, 2017: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071735/spatial-mapping-of-metals-in-tissue-sections-using-combination-of-mass-spectrometry-and-histology-through-image-registration
#9
Jiri Anyz, Lenka Vyslouzilova, Tomas Vaculovic, Michaela Tvrdonova, Viktor Kanicky, Hajo Haase, Vratislav Horak, Olga Stepankova, Zbynek Heger, Vojtech Adam
We describe a new procedure for the parallel mapping of selected metals in histologically characterized tissue samples. Mapping is achieved via image registration of digital data obtained from two neighbouring cryosections by scanning the first as a histological sample and subjecting the second to laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. This computer supported procedure enables determination of the distribution and content of metals of interest directly in the chosen histological zones and represents a substantial improvement over the standard approach, which determines these values in tissue homogenates or whole tissue sections...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067754/moderate-renal-failure-accentuates-t1-signal-enhancement-in-the-deep-cerebellar-nuclei-of-gadodiamide-treated-rats
#10
Marlène Rasschaert, Jean-Marc Idée, Philippe Robert, Nathalie Fretellier, Véronique Vives, Xavier Violas, Sébastien Ballet, Claire Corot
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this preclinical study was to investigate whether moderate chronic kidney disease is a factor in potentiating gadolinium (Gd) uptake in the brain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comparative study was performed on renally impaired (subtotal nephrectomy) rats versus rats with normal renal function. The animals received 4 daily injections of 0.6 mmol Gd/kg a week for 5 weeks (cumulative dose of 12 mmol Gd/kg) of gadodiamide or saline solution. The MR signal enhancement in the deep cerebellar nuclei was monitored by weekly magnetic resonance imaging examinations...
November 28, 2016: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065319/xenopus-extract-approaches-to-studying-microtubule-organization-and-signaling-in-cytokinesis
#11
C M Field, J F Pelletier, T J Mitchison
We report optimized methods for preparing actin-intact Xenopus egg extract. This extract is minimally perturbed, undiluted egg cytoplasm where the cell cycle can be experimentally controlled. It contains abundant organelles and glycogen and supports active metabolism and cytoskeletal dynamics that closely mimic egg physiology. The concentration of the most abundant ∼11,000 proteins is known from mass spectrometry. Actin-intact egg extract can be used for analysis of actin dynamics and interaction of actin with other cytoplasmic systems, as well as microtubule organization...
2017: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060285/preparation-and-in-vitro-characterization-of-dendrimer-based-contrast-agents-for-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#12
Serhat Gündüz, Tanja Savić, Đorđe Toljić, Goran Angelovski
Paramagnetic complexes of gadolinium(III) with acyclic or macrocyclic chelates are the most commonly used contrast agents (CAs) for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Their purpose is to enhance the relaxation rate of water protons in tissue, thus increasing the MR image contrast and the specificity of the MRI measurements. Current clinically approved contrast agents are low molecular weight molecules that are rapidly cleared from the body. The use of dendrimers as carriers of paramagnetic chelators can play an important role in the future development of more efficient MRI contrast agents...
December 4, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056889/dimensionality-reduction-based-fusion-approaches-for-imaging-and-non-imaging-biomedical-data-concepts-workflow-and-use-cases
#13
Satish E Viswanath, Pallavi Tiwari, George Lee, Anant Madabhushi
BACKGROUND: With a wide array of multi-modal, multi-protocol, and multi-scale biomedical data being routinely acquired for disease characterization, there is a pressing need for quantitative tools to combine these varied channels of information. The goal of these integrated predictors is to combine these varied sources of information, while improving on the predictive ability of any individual modality. A number of application-specific data fusion methods have been previously proposed in the literature which have attempted to reconcile the differences in dimensionalities and length scales across different modalities...
January 5, 2017: BMC Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054081/imaging-metals-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#14
REVIEW
M Aschner, C Palinski, M Sperling, U Karst, T Schwerdtle, J Bornhorst
Systemic trafficking and storage of essential metal ions play fundamental roles in living organisms by serving as essential cofactors in various cellular processes. Thereby metal quantification and localization are critical steps in understanding metal homeostasis, and how their dyshomeostasis might contribute to disease etiology and the ensuing pathologies. Furthermore, the amount and distribution of metals in organisms can provide insight into their underlying mechanisms of toxicity and toxicokinetics. While in vivo studies on metal imaging in mammalian experimental animals are complex, time- and resource-consuming, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C...
January 5, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051095/optical-high-content-nanoscopy-of-epigenetic-marks-decodes-phenotypic-divergence-in-stem-cells
#15
Joseph J Kim, Neal K Bennett, Mitchel S Devita, Sanjay Chahar, Satish Viswanath, Eunjee A Lee, Giyoung Jung, Paul P Shao, Erin P Childers, Shichong Liu, Anthony Kulesa, Benjamin A Garcia, Matthew L Becker, Nathaniel S Hwang, Anant Madabhushi, Michael P Verzi, Prabhas V Moghe
While distinct stem cell phenotypes follow global changes in chromatin marks, single-cell chromatin technologies are unable to resolve or predict stem cell fates. We propose the first such use of optical high content nanoscopy of histone epigenetic marks (epi-marks) in stem cells to classify emergent cell states. By combining nanoscopy with epi-mark textural image informatics, we developed a novel approach, termed EDICTS (Epi-mark Descriptor Imaging of Cell Transitional States), to discern chromatin organizational changes, demarcate lineage gradations across a range of stem cell types and robustly track lineage restriction kinetics...
January 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050871/five-micron-high-resolution-maldi-mass-spectrometry-imaging-with-simple-interchangeable-multi-resolution-optical-system
#16
Adam D Feenstra, Maria Emilia Dueñas, Young Jin Lee
High-spatial resolution mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is crucial for the mapping of chemical distributions at the cellular and subcellular level. In this work, we improved our previous laser optical system for matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI)-MSI, from ~9 μm practical laser spot size to a practical laser spot size of ~4 μm, thereby allowing for 5 μm resolution imaging without oversampling. This is accomplished through a combination of spatial filtering, beam expansion, and reduction of the final focal length...
January 3, 2017: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050841/topochemical-analysis-of-cell-wall-components-by-tof-sims
#17
Dan Aoki, Kazuhiko Fukushima
Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) is a recently developing analytical tool and a type of imaging mass spectrometry. TOF-SIMS provides mass spectral information with a lateral resolution on the order of submicrons, with widespread applicability. Sometimes, it is described as a surface analysis method without the requirement for sample pretreatment; however, several points need to be taken into account for the complete utilization of the capabilities of TOF-SIMS. In this chapter, we introduce methods for TOF-SIMS sample treatments, as well as basic knowledge of wood samples TOF-SIMS spectral and image data analysis...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049690/rewiring-of-embryonic-glucose-metabolism-via-suppression-of-pfk-1-and-aldolase-during-mouse-chorioallantoic-branching
#18
Hidenobu Miyazawa, Yoshifumi Yamaguchi, Yuki Sugiura, Kurara Honda, Koki Kondo, Fumio Matsuda, Takehiro Yamamoto, Makoto Suematsu, Masayuki Miura
Adapting the energy metabolism state to changing bioenergetic demands is essential for mammalian development accompanying massive cell proliferation and cell differentiation. However, it remains unclear how developing embryos meet the changing bioenergetic demands during the chorioallantoic branching (CB) stage, when the maternal-fetal exchange of gases and nutrients is promoted. In this study, using metabolome analysis with mass-labeled glucose, we found that developing embryos redirected glucose carbon flow into the pentose phosphate pathway via suppression of the key glycolytic enzymes PFK-1 and aldolase during CB...
January 1, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042343/limited-tumor-tissue-drug-penetration-contributes-to-primary-resistance-against-angiogenesis-inhibitors
#19
Szilvia Torok, Melinda Rezeli, Olga Kelemen, Akos Vegvari, Kenichi Watanabe, Yutaka Sugihara, Anna Tisza, Timea Marton, Ildiko Kovacs, Jozsef Tovari, Viktoria Laszlo, Thomas H Helbich, Balazs Hegedus, Thomas Klikovits, Mir Alireza Hoda, Walter Klepetko, Sandor Paku, Gyorgy Marko-Varga, Balazs Dome
Resistance mechanisms against antiangiogenic drugs are unclear. Here, we correlated the antitumor and antivascular properties of five different antiangiogenic receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (RTKIs) (motesanib, pazopanib, sorafenib, sunitinib, vatalanib) with their intratumoral distribution data obtained by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI). In the first mouse model, only sunitinib exhibited broad-spectrum antivascular and antitumor activities by simultaneously suppressing vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2) and desmin expression, and by increasing intratumoral hypoxia and inhibiting both tumor growth and vascularisation significantly...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041894/lipid-desaturation-is-a-metabolic-marker-and-therapeutic-target-of-ovarian-cancer-stem-cells
#20
Junjie Li, Salvatore Condello, Jessica Thomes-Pepin, Xiaoxiao Ma, Yu Xia, Thomas D Hurley, Daniela Matei, Ji-Xin Cheng
Lack of sensitive single-cell analysis tools has limited the characterization of metabolic activity in cancer stem cells. By hyperspectral-stimulated Raman scattering imaging of single living cells and mass spectrometry analysis of extracted lipids, we report here significantly increased levels of unsaturated lipids in ovarian cancer stem cells (CSCs) as compared to non-CSCs. Higher lipid unsaturation levels were also detected in CSC-enriched spheroids compared to monolayer cultures of ovarian cancer cell lines or primary cells...
December 8, 2016: Cell Stem Cell
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