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Raghavendra Vadla, Devyani Haldar
Metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of cancer cells, but the mechanisms are not well understood. The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) controls cell growth and proliferation and plays a critical role in metabolic reprogramming in glioma. mTORC2 regulates cellular processes such as cell survival, metabolism, and proliferation by phosphorylation of AGC kinases. Components of mTORC2 are shown to localize to the nucleus, but whether mTORC2 modulates epigenetic modifications to regulate gene expression is not known...
November 16, 2017: Cell Cycle
Stefano Olmi, Riccardo Giorgi, Stefano Piero Bernardo Cioffi, Matteo Uccelli, Roberta Villa, Francesca Ciccarese, Bruno Scotto, Giorgio Castello, Gianluca Legnani, Giovanni Cesana
BACKGROUND: A debate is still surrounding the use of laparoscopic surgery for advanced gastric cancer (AGC) related to doubts about the requirements to satisfy oncologic criteria. The aim of this study is to analyze the oncological results, the intraoperative complications, and the short- and medium-term morbidity and mortality in patients with AGC who underwent subtotal laparoscopic gastrectomy (SLG) or total laparoscopic gastrectomy (TLG) with extended lymphadenectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed medical records of patients who underwent radical gastrectomy for AGC started laparoscopically with the intent of curative surgery, between July 2007 and October 2015...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
Zhenggang Zhu
Gastric cancer with peritoneal dissemination is usually considered to be oncologically unresectable and is known to have a very poor prognosis. Despite recent advances in systemic chemotherapy, peritoneal dissemination due to advanced gastric cancer (AGC) still remains the most life-threatening type of metastasis and recurrence, which usually causes ascites accumulation, intestinal obstruction, or hydronephrosis, and then seriously impairs the quality of life. In general, the median survival time of these cases is reported to be just only 6-9 months...
October 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Eng-Zhuan Ban, Munn-Sann Lye, Pei Pei Chong, Yoke-Yeow Yap, Siew Ying Crystale Lim, Hejar Abdul Rahman
BACKGROUND: 8-oxoG, a common DNA lesion resulting from reactive oxygen species (ROS), has been shown to be associated with cancer initiation. hOGG1 DNA glycosylase is the primary enzyme responsible for excision of 8-oxoG through base excision repair (BER). Integrins are members of a family of cell surface receptors that mediate the cell-cell and extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions. Integrins are involved in almost every aspect of carcinogenesis, from cell differentiation, cell proliferation, metastasis to angiogenesis...
2017: PloS One
Gokhan Boyraz, Derman Basaran, Mehmet Coskun Salman, Akbar Ibrahimov, Sevgen Onder, Orkun Akman, Nejat Ozgul, Kunter Yuce
Context: Atypical glandular cells (AGCs) result in the Papanicolaou (Pap) smear may be associated with significant genital and nongenital neoplastic processes. Aims: To evaluate the underlying histopathology in women who had AGCs on Pap smears. Settings and Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Patients and Methods: Clinicopathological data of patients who had AGC on Pap smears and underwent histological workup between January 2004 and December 2014 were retrieved from the computerized database of a tertiary care center...
October 2017: Journal of Cytology
Alana F Shain, Shirley Kwok, Ann K Folkins, Christina S Kong
The Lower Anogenital Squamous Terminology (LAST) Standardization Project for human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated lesions specifically recommends the use of p16 immunohistochemistry (IHC) as an adjunct to morphologic assessment of cervical biopsies interpreted as negative or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) from patients with prior high-risk Pap test results (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion [HSIL], atypical squamous cells cannot exclude HSIL, atypical glandular cells [AGC], or HPV16 atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance [ASC-US])...
November 3, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Takeshi Nishio, Hiroshi Fujiwara, Isaku Kanno
In general, axonal regeneration is very limited after transection of adult rat spinal cord. We previously demonstrated that regenerative axons reached the lesion site within 6hours of sharp transection with a thin scalpel. However, they failed to grow across the lesion site, where injured axon fragments (axon-glial complex, AGC) were accumulated. Considering a possible role of these axon fragments as physicochemical barriers, we examined the effects of prompt elimination of the barriers on axonal growth beyond the lesion site...
November 2, 2017: Neuroscience Research
Zhengyan Li, Gang Ji, Bin Bai, Deliang Yu, Yezhou Liu, Bo Lian, Qingchuan Zhao
BACKGROUND: There still remains controversy for the choice of resection extent for gastric cancer involving the middle-third of the stomach. The aim of this study was to compare the technical feasibility and long-term outcomes of laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy (LADG) versus laparoscopy-assisted total gastrectomy (LATG) for middle-third advanced gastric cancer (AGC) and to determine which is the optimal surgical procedure. METHODS: For this study, clinical data for 379 patients who underwent LADG or LATG with D2 lymph node dissection between April 2005 and June 2014 were analyzed retrospectively...
November 2, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
Federico Marchesi, Giuseppina De Sario, Stefano Cecchini, Francesca Tartamella, Matteo Riccò, Andrea Romboli
BACKGROUND: In the last decades, after some initial concern, laparoscopic subtotal gastrectomy (LSG) is gaining popularity also for the treatment of advanced gastric cancer (AGC). The aim of this study is to compare a single surgeon initial experience on LSG and open subtotal gastrectomy in terms of surgical safety and radicality, postoperative recovery and midterm oncological outcomes. METHODS: a case control study was conducted matching the first 13 LSG for AGC with 13 open procedures performed by the same surgeon...
October 23, 2017: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
Qingtian Ge, Hailin Wang, Xinbao Xu, Libin Xu, Leilei Zhai, Ran Tao
3-Phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1), a serine threonine kinase, belongs to the AGC kinase family and is associated with apoptosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of PDK1 (3-Phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase-1) in articular cartilage with osteoarthritis (OA) and to analyze the relationship between PDK1 and chondrocyte apoptosis. Immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of PDK1 in articular cartilage of OA patients and healthy controls...
October 18, 2017: Tissue & Cell
Praotasna Sombune, Phongphan Phienphanich, Sutanya Phuechpanpaisal, Sombat Muengtaweepongsa, Anuchit Ruamthanthong, Charturong Tantibundhit
This work investigated the potential of Deep Neural Network in detection of cerebral embolic signal (ES) from transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD). The resulting system is aimed to couple with TCD devices in diagnosing a risk of stroke in real-time with high accuracy. The Adaptive Gain Control (AGC) approach developed in our previous study is employed to capture suspected ESs in real-time. By using spectrograms of the same TCD signal dataset as that of our previous work as inputs and the same experimental setup, Deep Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), which can learn features while training, was investigated for its ability to bypass the traditional handcrafted feature extraction and selection process...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Arturo Orlacchio, Michela Ranieri, Martina Brave, Valeria Antico Arciuch, Toni Forde, Daniela De Martino, Karen E Anderson, Phillip Hawkins, Antonio Di Cristofano
Activation of the PI3K-AKT signaling cascade is a common critical event during malignant transformation. In this study, we used thyroid gland epithelial cells and a series of genetically engineered mouse strains as model systems to demonstrate that, while necessary, AKT activation is not sufficient for PI3K-driven transformation. Instead, transformation requires the activity of the PDK1-regulated AGC family of protein kinases. In particular, SGK1 was found to be essential for proliferation and survival of thyroid cancer cells harboring PI3K-activating mutations...
October 20, 2017: Cancer Research
A Nusrath Unissa, V N Azger Dusthackeer, Micheal Prem Kumar, P Nagarajan, S Sukumar, V Indira Kumari, A Ramya Lakshmi, L E Hanna
To understand the impact of efflux pump genes such as mmpL3 and mmpL7 on isoniazid (INH) resistance and to correlate with presence or absence of mutations in essential genes of INH resistance (katG, inhA, and nat) in clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). One hundred (75 resistant and 25 sensitive) clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis from India were selected for the study. The presence of mutations in specific regions of katG, inhA, and nat, efflux pump genes (mmpL3 and mmpL7) associated with INH resistance were analyzed using multiplex allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (MAS-PCR) and DNA sequencing methods, respectively...
December 2017: Tuberculosis
Shang-Chiung Chen, Matts Kagedal, Yuying Gao, Bei Wang, Marie-Laurence Harle-Yge, Sandhya Girish, Jin Jin, Chunze Li
PURPOSE: Ado-trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) is an antibody-drug conjugate comprising trastuzumab conjugated via a stable thioether linker to DM1, a highly potent cytotoxic agent. A population pharmacokinetics (PK) analysis was performed to characterize T-DM1 PK and evaluate the impact of patient characteristics on T-DM1 PK in previously treated patients with HER2-positive advanced gastric cancer (AGC). METHODS: Following T-DM1 weekly or every three weeks dosing, T-DM1 concentration measurements (n = 780) were collected from 136 patients in the GATSBY (NCT01641939) study and analyzed using nonlinear mixed effects modeling...
October 17, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Xiaolu Li, Hongming Wang, Bingwei Yang, Jiayue Huyan, Lijun Xu
A pulsed time-of-flight (TOF) measurement-based Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) system is more effective for medium-long range distances. As a key ranging unit, a time-pickoff circuit based on automatic gain control (AGC) and constant fraction discriminator (CFD) is designed to reduce the walk error and the timing jitter for obtaining the accurate time interval. Compared with Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) and the estimation of the timing jitter, four parameters-based Monte Carlo simulations are established to show how the range precision is influenced by the parameters, including pulse amplitude, pulse width, attenuation fraction and delay time of the CFD...
October 17, 2017: Sensors
Jian-Xian Lin, Chang-Ming Huang, Chao-Hui Zheng, Ping Li, Jian-Wei Xie, Jia-Bin Wang, Jun Lu, Qi-Yue Chen, Long-Long Cao, Mi Lin
BACKGROUND: D2 lymphadenectomy including No.10 lymph nodes (LNs) is the standard procedure for treating advanced gastric cancer (AGC) via total gastrectomy. However, there was no research focusing on the posterior LN dissection along the splenic vessels (No.10p LNs). This study is performed to assess the effect of dissecting No.10p LNs. METHODS: We analyzed 404 consecutive gastric cancer patients who underwent laparoscopic total gastrectomy (LTG) with D2 lymphadenectomy...
September 19, 2017: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
Hong Wang, Han Zheng, Qun Li, Yanmei Xu, Jianping Wang, Pengcheng Du, Xinqiong Li, Xiang Liu, Ling Zhang, Nianli Zou, Guodong Yan, Zhengdong Zhang, Huaiqi Jing, Jianguo Xu, Yanwen Xiong
Escherichia albertii is a newly described and emerging diarrheagenic pathogen responsible for outbreaks of gastroenteritis. Serotyping plays an important role in diagnosis and epidemiological studies for pathogens of public health importance. The diversity of O-antigen biosynthesis gene clusters (O-AGCs) provides the primary basis for serotyping. However, little is known about the distribution and diversity of O-AGCs of E. albertii strains. Here, we presented a complete sequence set for the O-AGCs from 52 E...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Rubén E Varela-M, Rodrigo Ochoa, Carlos E Muskus, Antonio Muro, Faustino Mollinedo
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is one of the world's most neglected diseases caused by at least 20 different species of the protozoan parasite Leishmania. Although new drugs have become recently available, current therapy for leishmaniasis is still unsatisfactory. A subgroup of serine/threonine protein kinases named as related to A and C protein kinases (RAC), or protein kinase B (PKB)/AKT, has been identified in several organisms including Trypanosoma cruzi parasites. PKB/AKT plays a critical role in mammalian cell signaling promoting cell survival and is a major drug target in cancer therapy...
October 10, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Kaushik Chowdhury, Suresh Kumar, Tanu Sharma, Ankit Sharma, Meenakshi Bhagat, Asangla Kamai, Bridget M Ford, Shailendra Asthana, Chandi C Mandal
Complexity in tissues affected by cancer arises from somatic mutations and epigenetic modifications in the genome. The mutation susceptible hotspots present within the genome indicate a non-random nature and/or a position specific selection of mutation. An association exists between the occurrence of mutations and epigenetic DNA methylation. This study is primarily aimed at determining mutation status, and identifying a signature for predicting mutation prone zones of tumor suppressor (TS) genes. Nearby sequences from the top five positions having a higher mutation frequency in each gene of 42 TS genes were selected from a cosmic database and were considered as mutation prone zones...
October 3, 2017: Gene
Hiroyuki Arai, Shuichi Hironaka, Keiko Minashi, Tadamichi Denda, Mototsugu Shimokawa, Taketo Yamaguchi
Background: Advanced gastric cancer (AGC) and systemic chemotherapy are some of the risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE). However, the cumulative incidence, risk factors and prognostic impact of VTE have not been evaluated in Japanese patients with AGC. Methods: This retrospective study included patients who received fluoropyrimidine-based first-line chemotherapy for AGC between September 2009 and July 2015 at our institution. VTE was diagnosed by computed tomography scan and was managed by anticoagulant therapy...
October 1, 2017: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
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