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Kangkana Kataki, Parikhit Borthakur, Namrata Kumari, Manab Deka, Amal Ch Kataki, Subhash Medhi
BACKGROUND: During Hepatitis B virus infection, the pathogen sensors Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a role in innate immunity system. AIM: The study aimed to investigate mRNA expression levels of TLR2 and TLR3 in Hepatitis B virus (HBV) mediated chronic hepatitis B (CHB), cirrhosis (CIRR) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to correlate viral load with severity of these diseases and expression of TLRs. METHOD: A total of 180 HBV DNA positive samples were selected for the study...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Seong Hee Kang, Keunhee Kang, Jong Eun Yeon, Young Sun Lee, Tae Suk Kim, Yang Jae Yoo, Sang Jun Suh, Eileen L Yoon, Young Kul Jung, Ji Hoon Kim, Yeon Seok Seo, Hyung Joon Yim, Kwan Soo Byun
BACKGROUND & AIM: Although the ideal end point for antiviral treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is loss of HBsAg, the typical clinical end points are HBeAg seroconversion in HBeAg-positive patients and long-term DNA suppression in HBeAg-negative patients. We evaluated the long-term antiviral response after cessation of lamivudine treatment in CHB patients. METHODS: A total of 157 patients who had discontinued lamivudine between 1997 and 2014 were enrolled (97 HBeAg-positive and 60 HBeAg-negative CHB patients)...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Satish Chirde
A 45 yrs male presented with angina. ECG showed transient CHB, T wave inversion in V3 to V6 and inferior leads. It was difficult to predict the culprit vessel based on ECG. Coronary angiography showed thrombotic lesions in LAD, LCX and OM which can potentially impact identification of culprit vessel and hence affect the management with primary PCI.
October 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
S Lee, S H Ahn, K S Jung, D Y Kim, B K Kim, S U Kim, O Baatarkhuu, H J Ku, K Han, J Y Park
We compared the viral suppressive efficacy of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) mono-rescue therapy (TDF group) and TDF plus entecavir (ETV) combination-rescue therapy (TDF + ETV group) in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients with lamivudine resistance and entecavir resistance. One hundred and thirty-three CHB patients with lamivudine and entecavir resistance were investigated. Ninety-six patients were treated with TDF and 37 with TDF + ETV for at least 6 months. We compared the virologic response rate (HBV DNA level <20 IU/mL) between the two groups and identified the predictive factors of treatment outcome...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Seung Man Cho, Byung-Ho Choe
This review article was requested by editor-in-chief of this journal as 'pediatric CHB treatment' for the upcoming special issue. The main objective of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) treatment is diminishing the risk of complications related to chronic liver disease. In Asia, there are already some reports about hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected children. The key points of treatment in children with CHB infections are selection of which patients to treat and conformation of the optimal therapy time that would reduce viral resistance...
September 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
Sheikh Mohammad Fazle Akbar, Mamun Al-Mahtab, Md Sakilur Islam Khan, Ruksana Raihan, Ananta Shrestha
Although several antiviral drugs are now available for treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), sustained off-treatment clinical responses and containment of CHB-related complications are not achieved in majority of CHB patients by antiviral therapy. In addition, use of these drugs is endowed with substantial long term risk of viral resistance and drug toxicity. The infinite treatment regimens of antiviral drugs for CHB patients are also costly and usually unbearable by most patients of developing and resource-constrained countries...
September 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
Yi Shen, Sheng Zhang, Xulin Wang, Yuanyuan Wang, Jian Zhang, Gang Qin, Wenchao Li, Kun Ding, Lei Zhang, Feng Liang
BACKGROUND: Because whether hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection increases the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been a controversial topic, pair-wise and network meta-analyses of published literature were carried out to accurately evaluate the association between different phases of HBV infection and the risk of T2DM. METHODS: A comprehensive literature retrieval was conducted from the Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Chinese Database to identify epidemiological studies on the association between HBV infection and the risk of T2DM that were published from 1999 to 2015...
October 18, 2016: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Tao Wu, Ping Wang, Ting Zhang, Jian Zheng, Shuoyang Li, Jie Zeng, Masatoshi Kudo, Rongqin Zheng
BACKGROUND: Noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis has important clinical significance. Different techniques including two-dimensional shear-wave elastography (2D SWE) and real-time tissue elastography (RTE) are reported to be useful for the noninvasive diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis. All these techniques are affected by many factors. How to choose a reasonable method needs further studies. PURPOSE: This study was conducted to comparatively assess the diagnostic performance of 2D SWE and RTE in patients with Chronic Hepatitis B (CHB) and influence of inflammation on the stiffness values obtained by both techniques, so as to objectively assess the reasonable choice between these 2 elastography techniques for noninvasive assessment of hepatic fibrosis in clinical practice...
2016: Digestive Diseases
Azadeh Askari, Reza Nosratabadi, Mehdi Khaleghinia, Nahid Zainodini, Derek Kennedy, Ziba Shabani, Mohammad Kazemi Arababadi
Nucleotide-binding domain leucine repeats (NLRs) are required for the recognition of various molecules that are expressed within microbes and are able to actuate appropriate immune responses via activation of cytokines. The current study evaluates the expression levels of NLRP1 and NLRC4, which are components of inflammasomes, in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) virus-infected patients. This study recruited two series of CHB patients (each contained 60 patients) and 60 healthy controls. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was employed to evaluate mRNA expression levels of NLRP1, NLRP3, and NLRC4 as well as hepatitis B virus (HBV)-DNA copy number...
October 17, 2016: Viral Immunology
Ryan M Kwok, Tram T Tran
Chronic hepatitis B infection (CHB) is a known risk factor for malignancy. Unlike hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), less is known about the risk of non-HCC malignancy. However, epidemiology and pathologic evidence suggests a strong association between non-Hodgkin lymphoma and CHB. Data regarding the risk of other malignancies, such as pancreatic adenocarcinoma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, are mixed. Surveillance and appropriate treatment of infection and malignancy in these patients is essential. Further study of these associations is needed and may bring new insights in the pathogenesis and treatment of these diseases...
November 2016: Clinics in Liver Disease
Phunchai Charatcharoenwitthaya, Ananya Pongpaibul, Uayporn Kaosombatwattana, Patommatat Bhanthumkomol, Wimolrak Bandidniyamanon, Nonthalee Pausawasdi, Tawesak Tanwandee
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The clinical significance of steatohepatitis in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) remains unclear. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors for steatohepatitis in CHB, and to determine its correlation with liver fibrosis and response to antiviral therapy. METHODS: Liver histopathology of 256 consecutive CHB patients with serum HBV DNA >2,000 IU/ml were analyzed with clinical and laboratory characteristics. Virological and biochemical responses were prospectively assessed in the 112 patients treated with antiviral monotherapy...
October 14, 2016: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Rosa Zampino, Caterina Sagnelli, Adriana Boemio, Evangelista Sagnelli, Nicola Coppola
 Due to virological, host and socio-economic factors, the clinical presentation and treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) differs between developing and developed countries and may differ between one low-income country and another. National healthcare prevention and treatment policies, environmental factors, social habits and personal life-styles all influence HBV transmission and the clinical management and therapy of CHB. These factors can have a strong impact on the natural history of the disease and on Access to treatment and may eventually determine substantial changes in disease progression and the development of serious complications and hepatocellular carcinoma...
November 2016: Annals of Hepatology
Kevin Appourchaux, Safi Dokmak, Matthieu Resche-Rigon, Xavier Treton, Martine Lapalus, Charles-Henry Gattolliat, Emmanuelle Porchet, Michelle Martinot-Peignoux, Nathalie Boyer, Michel Vidaud, Pierre Bedossa, Patrick Marcellin, Ivan Bièche, Emilie Estrabaud, Tarik Asselah
Staging fibrosis is crucial for the prognosis and to determine the rapid need of treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and C (CHC). The expression of 13 fibrosis-related microRNAs (miRNAs) (miR-20a, miR-21, miR-27a, miR-27b, miR-29a, miR-29c, miR-92a, miR-122, miR-146a, miR-155, miR-221, miR-222, and miR-224) was analyzed in 194 serums and 177 liver biopsies of patients with either CHB or CHC to develop models to diagnose advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis (Metavir F3-F4). In CHB patients, the model (serum miR-122, serum miR-222, platelet count and alkaline phosphatase) was more accurate than APRI and FIB-4 to discriminate in between mild and moderate fibrosis (F1-F2) and F3-F4 (AUC of CHB model: 0...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Hye Won Lee, Sang Hoon Ahn
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Applying the same strategies for antiviral therapy and HCC surveillance to all chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients would be a burden worldwide. To properly manage CHB patients, it is necessary to identify and classify the risk for HCC development in such patients. Several HCC risk scores based on risk factors such as cirrhosis, age, male gender, and high viral load have been used, and have negative predictive values of ≥ 95%...
October 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Han Ah Lee, Yeon Seok Seo, Seung Woon Park, Sang Jung Park, Tae Hyung Kim, Sang Jun Suh, Young Kul Jung, Ji Hoon Kim, Hyunggin An, Hyung Joon Yim, Jong Eun Yeon, Kwan Soo Byun, Soon Ho Um
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Clear indicators for stopping antiviral therapy in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients are not yet available. Since the level of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is correlated with covalently closed circular DNA, the HBsAg titer might be a good indicator of the off-treatment response. This study aimed to determine the relationship between the HBsAg titer and the entecavir (ETV) off-treatment response. METHODS: This study analyzed 44 consecutive CHB patients (age, 44...
September 2016: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
Ioannis Varbobitis, George V Papatheodoridis
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary concern for patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Antiviral therapy has been reasonably the focus of interest for HCC prevention, with most studies reporting on the role of the chronologically preceding agents, interferon-alfa and lamivudine. The impact of interferon-alfa on the incidence of HCC is clearer in Asian patients and those with compensated cirrhosis, as several meta-analyses have consistently shown HCC risk reduction, compared to untreated patients. Nucleos(t)ide analogues also seem to have a favorable impact on the HCC incidence when data from randomized or matched controlled studies are considered...
September 2016: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
Jaemin Lee, Sun Hong Yoo, Won Sohn, Hyung Woo Kim, Yong Sun Choi, Jung Ho Won, Jin Young Heo, Sang Jong Park, Young Min Park
BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study aimed to clarify the effect of obesity on the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients receiving antiviral treatment. METHODS: This study applied a retrospective analysis to a historical cohort in Bundang Jesaeng Hospital. In total, 102 CHB patients were treated with entecavir as an initial treatment for CHB and checked for obesity using a body composition analyzer. Hepatic steatosis was measured semiquantitatively using Hamaguchi's scoring system in ultrasonography...
September 2016: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
Yuan Xue, Ming-Jie Wang, Su-Yuan Huang, Zhi-Tao Yang, De-Min Yu, Yue Han, Ming-Yu Zhu, Dao Huang, Dong-Hua Zhang, Qi-Ming Gong, Xin-Xin Zhang
BACKGROUND: CpG islands in hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome are potential targets for methylation mediated gene silencing, and may be involved in the pathogenesis of HBV infection. To date, their characteristics in HBV quasispecies (QS) remain largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of CpG islands in HBV QS. METHODS: Forty patients diagnosed as acute hepatitis B (AHB, n = 10), immune-tolerant HBV carriers (IT, n = 9), chronic hepatitis B (CHB, n = 11), or acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF, n = 10), were enrolled in this case-control study...
2016: SpringerPlus
G Y Ji, Y Wang, S Q Wu, Q Q Liu, J C Wu, M M Zhang, A J Sandford, J Q He
Anti-tuberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity (ATDH) is a serious adverse reaction to anti-tuberculosis (TB) treatment. Thioredoxin reductase 1 (TXNRD1), encoded by the TXNRD1 gene, is an important enzyme involved in oxidant challenge. TXNRD1 plays a key role in regulating cell growth and transformation, and protects cells against oxidative damage. We investigated the association between TXNRD1 polymorphisms and ATDH susceptibility. In this prospective study, 280 newly diagnosed TB patients were followed-up for 3 months after beginning anti-TB therapy...
September 2, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
M J Nielsen, M A Karsdal, K Kazankov, H Grønbaek, A Krag, D J Leeming, D Schuppan, J George
BACKGROUND: While morphological patterns differ, the molecular phenotype of liver fibrosis is considered a stereotypical response to chronic liver injury. However, with different cellular triggers and networks regulating fibrosis, the molecular responses of the injured liver may not be identical. AIM: To investigate whether differences in extracellular matrix (ECM) composition of the liver during fibrogenesis in two seemingly similar types of viral hepatitis could be reflected by differences in ECM turnover...
October 3, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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