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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931083/in-vivo-virulence-of-mhc-adapted-aids-virus-serially-passaged-through-mhc-mismatched-hosts
#1
Sayuri Seki, Takushi Nomura, Masako Nishizawa, Hiroyuki Yamamoto, Hiroshi Ishii, Saori Matsuoka, Teiichiro Shiino, Hironori Sato, Kazuta Mizuta, Hiromi Sakawaki, Tomoyuki Miura, Taeko K Naruse, Akinori Kimura, Tetsuro Matano
CD8+ T-cell responses exert strong suppressive pressure on HIV replication and select for viral escape mutations. Some of these major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I)-associated mutations result in reduction of in vitro viral replicative capacity. While these mutations can revert after viral transmission to MHC-I-disparate hosts, recent studies have suggested that these MHC-I-associated mutations accumulate in populations and make viruses less pathogenic in vitro. Here, we directly show an increase in the in vivo virulence of an MHC-I-adapted virus serially-passaged through MHC-I-mismatched hosts in a macaque AIDS model despite a reduction in in vitro viral fitness...
September 20, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930983/personalized-peptide-arrays-for-detection-of-hla-alloantibodies-in-organ-transplantation
#2
Pan Liu, Tomokazu Souma, Andrew Zu-Sern Wei, Xueying Xie, Xunrong Luo, Jing Jin
In organ transplantation, the function and longevity of the graft critically rely on the success of controlling immunological rejection reactivity against human leukocyte antigens (HLA). Histocompatibility guidelines are based on laboratory tests of anti-HLA immunity, which presents either as pre-existing or de novo generated HLA antibodies that constitute a major transplantation barrier. Current tests are built on a single-antigen beads (SAB) platform using a fixed set of ~100 preselected recombinant HLA antigens to probe transplant sera...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929317/risk-alleles-for-iga-nephropathy-associated-snps-conferred-completely-opposite-effects-to-idiopathic-membranous-nephropathy-in-chinese-han
#3
Xiaosong Qin, Chen Wang, Guanting Lu, Mengle Peng, Guixue Cheng, Hongquan Zhu, Yun Cao, Jianhua Liu, Yuzhong Li, Hong Cai, Funing Yang, Yanhong Liu, Xiaoyu Chen, Liubing Li, Nan Wan, Xiaoting Wen, Shijun Li, Ruili Nie, Dongchun Qin, Yongzhe Li, Yong Liu
The coexistence of immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) and idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) in a few cases suggested that there could be existed a similar mechanism in pathogenesis of these two types of primary glomerulonephritis. In order to verify this hypothesis, a total of 23 reported IgAN-associated SNPs were genotyped in a cohort of 485 IMN patients and 569 healthy controls with Chinese Han origin. After Cochran-Armitage test for trend analysis, seven IgAN-associated SNPs located in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region were found to be significantly associated with the susceptibility of IMN, with rs9275596 as the top one (p = 1...
September 19, 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928828/screening-of-candidate-key-genes-associated-with-human-osteosarcoma-using-bioinformatics-analysis
#4
Kefeng Zhang, Jianwen Gao, Yong Ni
The aim of the present study was to identify the key genes associated with osteosarcoma (OS) using a bioinformatics approach. Microarray data (GSE36004) was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, including 19 OS cell lines and 6 normal controls. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the OS cell lines were identified using the Limma package, and differentially methylated regions were screened with methyAnalysis in R. Copy number analysis was performed and genes with copy number gains/losses were further screened using DNAcopy and cghMCR packages...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924054/immunosurveillance-and-immunoediting-of-breast-cancer-via-class-i-mhc-receptors
#5
Megan M Tu, Mir Munir A Rahim, Celine Sayed, Ahmad Bakur Mahmoud, Andrew P Makrigiannis
Ly49 receptors, which recognize 'self' class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC-I) molecules, enable natural killer (NK) cells to detect loss of MHC-I expression on transformed and virally-infected cells. The impact of NK cell-mediated MHC-I surveillance on immunoediting of breast cancer is still not fully understood. This work assesses the impact of Ly49 receptors on tumor development in terms of cancer control and in driving immune-evading cancer mutations. Genetically modified Ly49-deficient mice and those lacking NK cells through antibody depletion were less able to control E0771-derived mammary tumors in an MHC-I-dependent fashion...
September 18, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921638/graft-infiltrating-pd-l1-hi-cross-dressed-dendritic-cells-regulate-anti-donor-t-cell-responses-in-mouse-liver-transplant-tolerance
#6
Yoshihiro Ono, Angelica Perez-Gutierrez, Toshimasa Nakao, Helong Dai, Geoffrey Camirand, Osamu Yoshida, Shinichiro Yokota, Donna Beer Stolz, Mark A Ross, Adrian E Morelli, David A Geller, Angus W Thomson
While a key role of cross-dressing has been established in immunity to viral infection and more recently in the instigation of transplant rejection, its role in tolerance is unclear. Here, we investigated the role of intra-graft dendritic cells (DC) and cross-dressing in mouse major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-mismatched liver transplant tolerance that occurs without therapeutic immunosuppression. While donor interstitial DC diminished rapidly following transplantation, they were replaced in the liver by host DC that peaked on postoperative day (POD) 7 and persisted indefinitely...
September 16, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921473/the-development-and-diversity-of-ilcs-nk-cells-and-their-relevance-in-health-and-diseases
#7
Yuxia Zhang, Bing Huang
Next to T and B cells, natural killer (NK) cells are the third largest lymphocyte population. They are recently re-categorized as innate lymphocytes (ILCs), which also include ILC1, ILC2, ILC3, and the lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells. Both NK cells and ILC1 cells are designated as group 1 ILCs because they secrete interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). However, in contrast to ILC1 and all other ILCs, NK cells possess potent cytolytic functions that resemble cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL)...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919994/effect-of-entinostat-on-nk-cell-mediated-cytotoxicity-against-osteosarcoma-cells-and-osteosarcoma-lung-metastasis
#8
Simin Kiany, Gangxiong Huang, Eugenie S Kleinerman
There is a crucial need for a new therapeutic approach for osteosarcoma (OS) lung metastasis since this disease remains the main cause of mortality in OS. We previously demonstrated that natural killer (NK) cell therapy has minimal efficacy against OS metastasis. This study determined whether the histone deacetylase inhibitor entinostat could immunosensitize OS cells to NK cell lysis and increases the efficacy of NK cell therapy for OS lung metastasis. Entinostat upregulated ligands for NK cell-activating receptors (major histocompatibility complex [MHC] class I polypeptide-related chain A [MICA] and B [MICB]; UL16 binding proteins 1, 2, 5, and 6; and CD155) on OS cells both in vitro and in vivo and led to more susceptibility to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity in vitro...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919585/association-of-human-leukocyte-antigens-class-i-and-ii-with-graves-disease-in-iranian-population
#9
Zahra Mehraji, Ali Farazmand, Alireza Esteghamati, Sina Noshad, Maryam Sadr, Somayeh Amirzargar, Mir Saeed Yekaninejad, Aliakbar Amirzargar
BACKGROUND: Graves' disease (GD), a highly rampant autoimmune disorder of the thyroid gland, is responsible for 60-80% of the clinical cases of hyperthyroidism. Over the past decades, genetic association studies have identified several GD susceptibility loci in CTLA-4, TSHR and major histocompatibility complex regions. The information on the association between the human leukocyte antigens (HLA) and GD among Iranians is scarce. OBJECTIVE: To identify HLA polymorphisms that might confer susceptibility or protect against GD...
September 2017: Iranian Journal of Immunology: IJI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916719/kir2ds2-recognizes-conserved-peptides-derived-from-viral-helicases-in-the-context-of-hla-c
#10
Mohammed M Naiyer, Sorcha A Cassidy, Andrea Magri, Vanessa Cowton, Kevin Chen, Salah Mansour, Hariklia Kranidioti, Berenice Mbirbindi, Pauline Rettman, Scott Harris, Liam J Fanning, Arend Mulder, Franz H J Claas, Andrew D Davidson, Arvind H Patel, Marco A Purbhoo, Salim I Khakoo
Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are rapidly evolving species-specific natural killer (NK) cell receptors associated with protection against multiple different human viral infections. We report that the activating receptor KIR2DS2 directly recognizes viral peptides derived from conserved regions of flaviviral superfamily 2 RNA helicases in the context of major histocompatibility complex class I. We started by documenting that peptide LNPSVAATL from the hepatitis C virus (HCV) helicase binds HLA-C*0102, leading to NK cell activation through engagement of KIR2DS2...
September 15, 2017: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912775/shared-and-distinct-phenotypes-and-functions-of-human-cd161-v%C3%AE-7-2-t-cell-subsets
#11
Ayako Kurioka, Aminu S Jahun, Rachel F Hannaway, Lucy J Walker, Joannah R Fergusson, Eva Sverremark-Ekström, Alexandra J Corbett, James E Ussher, Christian B Willberg, Paul Klenerman
Human mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are an important T cell subset that are enriched in tissues and possess potent effector functions. Typically such cells are marked by their expression of Vα7.2-Jα33/Jα20/Jα12 T cell receptors, and functionally they are major histocompatibility complex class I-related protein 1 (MR1)-restricted, responding to bacterially derived riboflavin synthesis intermediates. MAIT cells are contained within the CD161++ Vα7.2+ T cell population, the majority of which express the CD8 receptor (CD8+), while a smaller fraction expresses neither CD8 or CD4 coreceptor (double negative; DN) and a further minority are CD4+...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912571/comparative-global-immune-related-gene-profiling-of-somatic-cells-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-and-their-derivatives-implication-for-human-lymphocyte-proliferation
#12
Chia-Eng Wu, Chen-Wei Yu, Kai-Wei Chang, Wen-Hsi Chou, Chen-Yu Lu, Elisa Ghelfi, Fang-Chun Wu, Pey-Shynan Jan, Mei-Chi Huang, Patrick Allard, Shau-Ping Lin, Hong-Nerng Ho, Hsin-Fu Chen
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced PSCs (iPSCs), represent potentially unlimited cell sources for clinical applications. Previous studies have suggested that hPSCs may benefit from immune privilege and limited immunogenicity, as reflected by the reduced expression of major histocompatibility complex class-related molecules. Here we investigated the global immune-related gene expression profiles of human ESCs, hiPSCs and somatic cells and identified candidate immune-related genes that may alter their immunogenicity...
September 15, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906466/therapeutic-effect-of-exogenous-truncated-ik-protein-in-inflammatory-arthritis
#13
Seulgi Choi, HyeLim Park, SeoYeon Jung, Eun-Kyung Kim, Mi-La Cho, Jun-Ki Min, Su-Jin Moon, Sang-Myeong Lee, Jang-Hee Cho, Dong-Hee Lee, Jae-Hwan Nam
Inhibitor K562 (IK) protein was first isolated from the culture medium of K562, a leukemia cell line. It is known to be an inhibitory regulator of interferon-γ-induced major histocompatibility complex class (MHC) II expression. Previously, we found that transgenic (Tg) mice constitutively expressing truncated IK (tIK) showed reduced numbers of pathogenic Th1 and Th17 cells, which are known to be involved in the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Here, we investigated whether exogenous tIK protein has a therapeutic effect in arthritis in disease models and analyzed its mechanism...
September 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903988/the-use-of-reverse-vaccinology-in-the-design-and-construction-of-nano-glycoconjugate-vaccines-against-burkholderia-pseudomallei
#14
Laura A Muruato, Daniel Tapia, Christopher L Hatcher, Mridul Kalita, Paul J Brett, Anthony E Gregory, James E Samuel, Richard W Titball, Alfredo G Torres
Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bpm) is a Gram negative, facultative intracellular pathogen that causes the disease melioidosis in humans and other mammals. Respiratory infection with B. pseudomallei leads to a fulminant and often fatal disease. It has previously been shown that glycoconjugate vaccines can provide significant protection against lethal challenge; however, the limited number of known Burkholderia antigens has slowed progress towards vaccine development. The objective of this study was to identify novel antigens and evaluate their protective capacity when incorporated into a nano-glycoconjugate vaccine platform...
September 13, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902875/interferon-%C3%AE-treatment-in-vitro-elicits-some-of-the-changes-in-cathepsin-s-and-antigen-presentation-characteristic-of-lacrimal-glands-and-corneas-from-the-nod-mouse-model-of-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome
#15
Zhen Meng, Wannita Klinngam, Maria C Edman, Sarah F Hamm-Alvarez
Inflammation and impaired secretion by lacrimal and salivary glands are hallmarks of the autoimmune disease, Sjögren's Syndrome. These changes in the lacrimal gland promote dryness and inflammation of the ocular surface, causing pain, irritation and corneal damage. The changes that initiate and sustain autoimmune inflammation in the lacrimal gland are not well-established. Here we demonstrate that interferon-γ (IFN-γ) is significantly elevated in lacrimal gland and tears of the male NOD mouse, a model of autoimmune dacryoadenitis which exhibits many ocular characteristics of Sjögren's Syndrome, by 12 weeks of age early in lacrimal gland inflammation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901565/review-article-next-generation-transformative-advances-in-the-pathogenesis-and-management-of-autoimmune-hepatitis
#16
REVIEW
A J Czaja
BACKGROUND: Advances in autoimmune hepatitis that transform current concepts of pathogenesis and management can be anticipated as products of ongoing investigations driven by unmet clinical needs and an evolving biotechnology. AIM: To describe the advances that are likely to become transformative in autoimmune hepatitis, based on the direction of current investigations. METHODS: Pertinent abstracts were identified in PubMed by multiple search terms...
September 13, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901417/discrimination-of-the-heterogeneity-of-bone-marrow%C3%A2-derived-dendritic-cells
#17
Jing Wang, Xiaomin Dai, Chiaching Hsu, Changsheng Ming, Ying He, Ji Zhang, Lai Wei, Ping Zhou, Cong-Yi Wang, Jun Yang, Nianqiao Gong
The present study aimed to discriminate different subsets of cultured dendritic cells (DCs) to evaluate their immunological characteristics. DCs offer an important foundation for immunological studies, and mouse bone marrow (BM) cells cultured with granulocyte‑macrophage colony‑stimulating factor (GM‑CSF) have been used extensively to generate CD11c+/major histocompatibility complex II+ BM‑derived DCs (BMDCs). Immature DCs are considered to have strong migration and phagocytic antigen‑capturing abilities, whereas mature DCs are thought to activate naive T cells and express high levels of costimulatory cytokines and adhesion molecules...
September 8, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901194/acute-renal-graft-versus-host-disease-in-a-murine-model-of-allogeneic-bone-marrow-transplantation
#18
Peter M Schmid, Abdellatif Bouazzaoui, Karin Schmid, Christoph Birner, Christian Schach, Lars S Maier, Ernst Holler, Dierk H Endemann
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a very common complication after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and is associated with a poor prognosis. Generally, the kidneys are assumed to not be no direct targets of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), and renal impairment is often attributed to several other factors occurring in the early phase after BMT. Our study aimed to prove the existence of renal GvHD in a fully major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-mismatched model of BALB/c mice conditioned and transplanted according to 2 different intensity protocols...
August 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900681/regulatory-dendritic-cells
#19
Katsuaki Sato, Tomofumi Uto, Tomohiro Fukaya, Hideaki Takagi
Dendritic cells (DCs) comprise heterogeneous subsets, functionally classified into conventional DCs (cDCs) and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs). DCs are considered to be essential antigen (Ag)-presenting cells (APCs) that play crucial roles in activation and fine-tuning of innate and adaptive immunity under inflammatory conditions, as well as induction of immune tolerance to maintain immune homeostasis under steady-state conditions. Furthermore, DC functions can be modified and influenced by stimulation with various extrinsic factors, such as ligands for pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) and cytokines...
September 13, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898542/maximizing-donor-allocation-a-review-of-unos-region-9-donor-heart-turn-downs
#20
Donna Mancini, Daniel Goldstein, Samantha Taylor, Leway Chen, Alan Gass, Samantha DeLair, Sean Pinney
This study was performed to determine if organ selection practices for heart utilization by Region 9 transplant programs were optimal, and to identify opportunities to increase local organ recovery. A retrospective review of de-identified region-wide donor data 1/1/10-12/31/13 was performed. Over the study period 537 heart donors were identified, of which 321 (60%) were transplanted. 216 consented hearts were not used; 190 of these were not recovered, and 26 were recovered but not transplanted. 245/321 (76%) hearts were transplanted at one of 5 regional programs, 15 (5%) were transplanted out of region as primary offers, and 61 (19%) were turned down in region and exported...
September 12, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
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