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Low density lipoprotein

Hui-Min Shen, Chun Chen, Ji-Yang Jiang, Yi-Lin Zheng, Wen-Feng Cai, Bin Wang, Zhen Ling, Liu Tang, Yuan-Hang Wang, Gang-Gang Shi
ETHNO-PHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (HRS), a folk medicine named Zhujin in China, possess anti-tumor, antioxidant, antibacterial, low density lipoprotein oxidation prevention and macrophage death prevention effects. The leaves and red flowers of HRS have been traditionally used to treat with furuncle and ulceration. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the efficacy and possible mechanism of the N-butyl alcohol extract of HRS (NHRS) red flowers in wound healing by analyzing the collagen fiber deposition, angiogenic activity and macrophages action of the NHRS...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Qian-Chao He, Yu-Ying Hu, Qing-Ping Zhang, Lu-Lu Tan, Yong-Hui Liu, Tai Liu, Yue-Qiang Hu, Qing Li, Ni Liang
The aim of this meta-analysis was to detect whether three identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs646776, rs599839, and rs17465637) at 1p13.3 and 1q41 are associated with lipid levels and the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). Databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and BIOSIS were systematically searched. The pooled effects were expressed as odds ratio or standardized mean difference or mean difference with 95% confidence intervals. A total of 14 studies with 57,916 patients were included in the meta-analysis...
January 2017: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
Jing Wu, Caiqin Wu, Wenjing Fan, Jie Zhou, Ling Xu
BACKGROUND: Left ventricular (LV) remodeling is closely linked to the progression of heart failure. There are limited data on the epidemiology of new onset LV remodeling among elderly women, which requires further investigation. METHOD: We examined data from a community-based cohort of women aged > 65 years, who had received > 2 echocardiography scans from 2009 to 2014. Exclusion criteria for patients included prior echocardiographic evidence of left ventricular enlargement (LVE) or hypertrophy (LVH)...
January 14, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
Binxian Ye, Li Zhao, Wei Shen, Yan Ren, Bo Lin, Maosheng Chen, Junda Tang, Xinxin Jiang, Yiwen Li, Qiang He
Objective: To investigate the changes of aortic stiffness and its influencing factors in patients with chronic kidney diseases (CKD). Methods: Eightyfour patients with CKD from Department of Nephrology, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital were divided into the dialysis group (CKD stage 5, n=48) and non-dialysis group (CKD stage 3-5, n=36). Clinical data, biochemical parameters and echocardiography findings were collected. SphygmoCor pulse wave analysis system was used to obtain pulse wave analysis (PWA) parameters including central aortic systolic blood pressure (CSP), central pulse pressure (CPP), augmented pressure (AP), augmentation index (AIX), and heart rate 75-adjusted augmentation index (HR75AIX)...
May 25, 2016: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
Takayuki Kimura, Kevin Tse, Sara McArdle, Teresa Gerhardt, Jacqueline Miller, Zbigniew Mikulski, John Sidney, Alessandro Sette, Dennis Wolf, Klaus Ley
Although immunization with MHC class II-restricted ApoB peptides has been shown to be atheroprotective, the mechanism is unclear. Here, we investigated CD4(+) T cell populations in immunized atherosclerotic mice. Peptides (16-mers) from mouse ApoB, the core protein of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), were screened for binding to I-A(b) by computer prediction and confirmed by radiolabeled peptide competition. Three new peptides, P101 (FGKQGFFPDSVNKALY, 5.5 nM IC50), P102 (TLYALSHAVNSYFDVD, 6.8 nM), and P103 (LYYKEDKTSLSASAAS, 95 nM) were tested in an atherosclerosis model (Apoe(-/-) mice on western diet)...
January 13, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Yi Zhang, Jing Zhao, Shu-Feng Zhou, Zhi-Ling Yu, Xiao-Yan Wang, Pei-Li Zhu, Zhu-Sheng Chu, Si-Yuan Pan, Ming Xie, Kam-Ming Ko
BACKGROUND: It has been demonstrated that acute oral administration of schisandrin B (Sch B), an active dibenzocyclooctadiene isolated from Schisandrae Fructus (a commonly used traditional Chinese herb), increased serum and hepatic triglyceride (TG) levels and hepatic mass in mice. The present study aimed to investigate the biochemical mechanism underlying the Sch B-induced hypertriglyceridemia, hepatic steatosis and hepatomegaly. METHODS: Male ICR mice were given a single oral dose of Sch B (0...
January 13, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
Toshiyuki Hayashi, Tomoyasu Fukui, Noriko Nakanishi, Saki Yamamoto, Masako Tomoyasu, Anna Osamura, Makoto Ohara, Takeshi Yamamoto, Yasuki Ito, Tsutomu Hirano
BACKGROUND: The sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors have been reported to increase both low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (C). This study aimed to determine how SGLT-2 inhibitors affect LDL and HDL-C subspecies. METHODS: This single center, open-label, randomized, prospective study included 80 patients with type 2 diabetes taking prescribed oral hypoglycemic agents. Patients were allocated to receive dapagliflozin (n = 40) or sitagliptin (n = 40) as add-on treatment...
January 13, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
Hessah Mohammed Al-Muzafar, Kamal Adel Amin
BACKGROUND: A high fat diet has an essential role in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This condition is characterized by hepatic fat accumulation (steatosis) and is associated with obesity, diabetes, and fibrosis or cirrhosis of the liver. Probiotics may be useful in the treatment of steatosis. This study examined the effects of an ingested probiotic formulation on the lipid profiles, liver functions, leptin levels, and inflammatory marker levels of rats with NAFLD that had been induced via high fat and sucrose diet (HFSD)...
January 13, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Khalid Khalaf Alharbi, Rabbani Syed, Fawiziah Khalaf Alharbi, Imran Ali Khan
BACKGROUND: Obesity is known to be a complex disorder caused by both genetic and environmental factors. Patients with obesity tend to develop cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Previous studies have revealed that obesity is associated with genetic variations including those found in the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene, which also affects lipid profiles. Hence, in this study, we aimed to perform a molecular characterization of APOE gene polymorphisms found in overweight subjects within a Saudi population...
January 2017: Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
Yao Dai, Yongxiang Cao, Zhigao Zhang, Srikanth Vallurupalli, Jawahar L Mehta
PURPOSE: Xanthine oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of xanthine to uric acid. This process generates excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) that play an important role in atherogenesis. Recent studies show that LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NLRP3), a component of the inflammasome, may be involved in the formation of foam cells, a hallmark of atherosclerosis. This study was designed to study the role of various scavenger receptors and NLRP3 inflammasome in xanthine oxidase and uric acid-induced foam cell formation...
January 13, 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
Yongting Luo, Hongxia Duan, Yining Qian, Liqun Feng, Zhenzhen Wu, Fei Wang, Jing Feng, Dongling Yang, Zhihai Qin, Xiyun Yan
The persistence of cholesterol-engorged macrophages (foam cells) in the artery wall fuels the development of atherosclerosis. However, the mechanism that regulates the formation of macrophage foam cells and impedes their emigration out of inflamed plaques is still elusive. Here, we report that adhesion receptor CD146 controls the formation of macrophage foam cells and their retention within the plaque during atherosclerosis exacerbation. CD146 is expressed on the macrophages in human and mouse atheroma and can be upregulated by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)...
January 13, 2017: Cell Research
A Vogt
BACKGROUND: Hypercholesterolemias are known risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Although statins have reduced the cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and further therapeutic measures are available, treatment goals are often not achieved. In cases of very high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol or of intolerability, the established therapies are often not sufficiently effective or cannot be used in adequate doses. For these high-risk patients further treatment options are required...
January 12, 2017: Der Internist
Alexander Victor Anand David, Radhakrishnan Arulmoli, Subramani Parasuraman
Antioxidants are substances that may protect cells from the damage caused by unstable molecules such as free radicals. Flavonoids are phenolic substances widely found in fruits and vegetables. The previous studies showed that the ingestion of flavonoids reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases, metabolic disorders, and certain types of cancer. These effects are due to the physiological activity of flavonoids in the reduction of oxidative stress, inhibiting low-density lipoproteins oxidation and platelet aggregation, and acting as vasodilators in blood vessels...
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Reviews
James S Pankow, Weihong Tang, Nathan Pankratz, Weihua Guan, Lu-Chen Weng, Mary Cushman, Eric Boerwinkle, Aarossn R Folsom
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have identified common genetic variants in 4 chromosomal regions that together account for 14% to 15% of the variance in circulating levels of protein C. To further characterize the genetic architecture of protein C, we obtained denser coverage at some loci, extended investigation of protein C to low-frequency and rare variants, and searched for new associations in genes known to influence protein C. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Genetic associations with protein C antigen level were evaluated in ≤10 778 European and 3190 black participants aged 45 to 64 years...
January 12, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
F Moretti, N Pellegrini, E Salvatici, V Rovelli, G Banderali, G Radaelli, F Scazzina, M Giovannini, E Verduci
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: No data exist in the current literature on the glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) of the diet of phenylketonuric (PKU) children. The aims of this study were to examine the dietary GI and GL in PKU children on a low-phenylalanine (Phe)-diet and to evaluate whether an association may exist between the carbohydrate quality and the metabolic profile. METHODS: Twenty-one PKU children (age 5-11 years) and 21 healthy children, gender and age matched, were enrolled...
November 21, 2016: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
James H O'Keefe, James J DiNicolantonio, Carl J Lavie
Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the physiologically normal levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and the thresholds for development of atherosclerosis and adverse coronary events are in the 30- to 70-mg/dl range. More patients have been studied in randomized controlled trials assessing the effects of statins on outcomes than any other drug class in the history of medicine. This cumulative body of evidence documents that atherosclerosis progression is halted and coronary heart disease events are minimized when statin therapy with or without ezetimibe, and possibly proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors, is used to drive down the LDL-C to a range of about 30 to 50 mg/dl...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
Sofia Pérez-Calahorra, Rosa María Sánchez-Hernández, Núria Plana, Victoria Marco-Benedi, Juan Pedro-Botet, Fátima Almagro, Angel Brea, Juan Francisco Ascaso, Carlos Lahoz, Fernando Civeira
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is characterized by high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol with co-dominant transmission and high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), although with high variability among subjects. Currently, CVD stratification tools for heterozygous FH (HeFH) are not available. A definition of severe HeFH has been recently proposed by the International Atherosclerosis Society (IAS), but it has not been validated. Our study aims to see clinical characteristics and prevalence of CVD in subjects defined as severe HeFH by IAS criteria...
December 2, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
Yong Kang Tao, Pu Lin Yu, Yong Ping Bai, Sheng Tao Yan, Shui Ping Zhao, Guo Qiang Zhang
OBJECTIVE: PERK/eIF2α/CHOP is a major signaling pathway mediating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress related with atherosclerosis. Oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) also induces endothelial apoptosis and plays a vital role in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. The present study was conducted to explore the regulatory effect of ox-LDL on PERK/eIF2α/CHOP signaling pathway in vascular endothelial cells. METHODS: The effects of ox-LDL on PERK and p-eIF2α protein expression of primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were investigated by Western blot analysis...
December 2016: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
Maria Saumoy, Juan M Tiraboschi, Jordi Ordoñez-Llanos, Esteban Ribera, Pere Domingo, Josep Mallolas, Jordi Curto, Josep M Gatell, Daniel Podzamczer
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to determine the impact of tenofovir or abacavir discontinuation on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) phenotype and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) activity in HIV-infected patients treated with lopinavir/ritonavir plus 2 nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI). METHODS: Multicenter, open-label study. Patients were randomized to continue with lopinavir/ritonavir plus 2 NRTI (triple therapy) or to switch to lopinavir/ritonavir plus lamivudine (dual therapy)...
January 12, 2017: HIV Clinical Trials
Hyemyoung Ahn, Gwang-Woong Go
PineXol, extracted from Korean red pine bark, has beneficial effects, such as antioxidant, anti3 inflammatory, and anti-lipogenic activities in vitro. We tested the hypothesis that PineXol supplementation could have anti-obesity effects on mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Four-week old male C57BL/6 mice were fed normal chow (18% kcal from fat) or HFD (60% kcal from fat). HFD-fed animals were also subjected to PineXol treatment at a dose of 10 or 50 mg/kg body weight (BW) (PX10 or PX50, respectively) body weight...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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