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Low density lipoprotein

Bruce S Sachais, Beth H Shaz
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic apheresis is a term used to describe a group of treatments where blood components are separated in real time, and one component is removed, exchanged, and/or treated to remove pathogenic substances from the circulation. Plasma exchange, which removed all plasma components, and lipid apheresis which selectively removes lipoproteins from circulation, have both been used to treat atherosclerotic vascular diseases. METHODS: To review the literature regarding the application of therapeutic apheresis for atherosclerotic vascular diseases...
July 16, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
Qi Yu, Fang Wang, Xiaodong Meng, Yiren Gong, Yanli Wang, Cangbao Xu, Siwang Wang
Low‑density lipoprotein receptors (LDLRs) may serve a role in the diabetogenic effect of statins; however, the effects of statins on LDLR expression and its regulation in the pancreas and islets have yet to be determined. To exclude the long‑term effects of treatment with atorvastatin, which allows mice to adapt, male C57BL/j and apolipoprotein E‑deficient mice were acutely treated with oral atorvastatin for 6 weeks, and glucose homeostasis and LDLR expression in the pancreas and islets were examined...
July 3, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Lumin Bo, Hongyu Fu, Junchi Yang
Crohn's disease (CD) is a type of inflammatory bowel disease that cannot be fully cured by medication or surgery. In the present study, the aim was to understand the underlying mechanisms of CD. Two CD microarray datasets were downloaded from The Gene Expression Omnibus database: GSE36807 (13 CD and 7 normal samples) and GSE59071 (8 CD and 11 normal samples). A series of bioinformatics analyses were conducted, including weighted gene co‑expression network analysis to identify stable modules, and analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between CD and normal samples...
July 9, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Shuangshuang Yin, Shaonan Yang, Xudong Pan, Aijun Ma, Juanjuan Ma, Haotian Pei, Yi Dong, Shu Li, Wei Li, Xinran Bi
Endothelial cell autophagy has a protective role in inhibiting inflammation and preventing the development of atherosclerosis, which may be regulated by microRNA (miR)‑155. The present study aimed to investigate the mechanisms of autophagy in the development of atherosclerosis. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells model in vitro and using oxidized low‑density lipoprotein (ox‑LDL) stimulated cells to simulate the atherosclerosis. MiR‑155 mimics, miR‑155 inhibitors, and a negative control were respectively transfected in human umbilical vein endothelial cells to analyzed alterations in the expression of miR‑155...
June 29, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Antonietta Arcella, Sara Palchetti, Luca Digiacomo, Daniela Pozzi, Anna Laura Capriotti, Luigi Frati, Maria Antonietta Oliva, Georgia Tsaouli, Rossella Rota, Isabella Screpanti, Morteza Mahmoudi, Giulio Caracciolo
Temozolomide (TMZ) is the current first-line chemotherapy for treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). However, similar to other brain therapeutic compounds, access of TMZ to brain tumors is impaired by the blood-brain barrier (BBB) leading to poor response for GBM patients. To overcome this major hurdle, we have synthesized a set of TMZ-encapsulating nanomedicines made of four cationic liposome (CL) formulations with systematic changes in lipid composition and physical-chemical properties. The targeting nature of this nanomedicine is provided by the recruitment of proteins, with natural targeting capacity, in the biomolecular corona (BC) layer that forms around CLs after exposure to human plasma (HP)...
July 17, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Gencer Baris, François Mach
Low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) is a well-accepted causal risk factor for athero-thrombotic cardiovascular disease, as demonstrated in large epidemiological studies, including Mendelian randomization data. Several randomized controlled trials and meta-analyzes have shown that lipid lowering therapies, such as statins and more recently the non-statin agents ezetimibe and Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin Kexin type 9 (PCSK9) monoclonal antibodies (mAb), reduce cardiovascular events across a broad range of baseline LDL-C levels...
June 22, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Slobodan M Janković, Danka Tešić, Marina Kostić
Evolocumab is fully human monoclonal antibody which binds to proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), and prevents its blocking effect on recycling of liver low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) receptors. Areas covered: The aim of this review was to assess efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of evolocumab in adult patients with high cardiovascular risk. Major research databases MEDLINE, EBSCO and CENTRAL were systematically searched for relevant study reports. Expert commentary: Even when given in full doses, statins augmented with ezetimibe and cholesterol-binding resins could not reduce cholesterol baseline level for more than 66%, while evolocumab reduces cholesterol level for 75% or even more...
July 17, 2018: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
Didi Huang, Zhicheng Liu, Bin Xu, Jinhong Yuan
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of acupuncture and moxibustion on severe obesity complicated with hyperlipidemia in different genders and their comprehensive effect, lipid indexes, and obesity indexes. METHODS: A total of 264 patients of severe obesity complicated with hyperlipidemia were assigned into a male group (106 cases) and a female group (158 cases).According to their clinical symptoms and patterns, acupuncture and moxibustion differentiation therapies were applied for stomach and intestine heat type, spleen deficiency and dampness resistance type, phlegm-dampness internal resistance type, liver depression and spleen deficiency type, spleen and kidney yang deficiency type and yin deficiency and blood stasis type.The obesity indexes were weight (W), obesity degree (A), body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (F); the blood lipid indexes were total cholesterol (TC),triglyceride (TG),low density lipoprotein (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein (HDL-C)...
July 12, 2018: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
Yi-Ting Wang, Rui-Kun Guo, Zhi-Cheng Li, Rui Zhang, Li Li, Han-Yu Li, Jun-Lin Zhang, Qian-Qian Han, Fang Liu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the levels of serum soluble CD36 (sCD36) in patients of diabetes mellitus (DM) with chronic kidney disease (CKD),and to analyze its correlation with clinical indicators. METHODS: A total of 161 patients with CKD were enrolled in this study. The patients were divided into two groups according to whether they had DM or not: DM+CKD group and non-DM CKD group. The levels of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and the combination of atherosclerotic plaques were measured by color Doppler ultrasonography...
May 2018: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
Kai Wu, Ying Cai
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment, significantly reducing processing speed and executive function, is the critical consequence of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), in which genetic variations have been studied. In this study, we explore the role of SNP43 (G/A) and SNP63 (C/T) polymorphism in the CAPN10 on cognitive impairment process in cerebral SVD. METHODS: Cerebral SVD patients (n = 224) and healthy controls (n = 187) were recruited. The relationship between frequency distribution of SNP43 (G/A) and SNP63 (T/C) genotype and allele in CAPN10 gene, and cognitive impairment was examined...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
Rami S Najjar, Carolyn E Moore, Baxter D Montgomery
BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is a highly atherogenic lipoprotein and is minimally effected by lifestyle changes. While some drugs can reduce Lp(a), diet has not consistently shown definitive reduction of this biomarker. The effect of consuming a plant-based diet on serum Lp(a) concentrations have not been previously evaluated. HYPOTHESIS: Consumption of a defined, plant-based for four weeks reduces Lp(a). METHODS: Secondary analysis of a previous trial was conducted, in which overweight and obese individuals (n=31) with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations >100 mg/dL consumed a defined, plant-based diet for four weeks...
July 16, 2018: Clinical Cardiology
Shigemasa Tani, Rei Matsuo, Naoya Matsumoto
It has been demonstrated that regular fish consumption is associated with a reduced mortality from atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). However, data are scarce regarding the correlation between the changes in the serum eicosapentaenoic acid/arachidonic acid (EPA/AA) ratio associated with regular fish consumption and the changes in the serum lipid profile variables. This study was designed as a hospital-based longitudinal study to investigate the relationship between the changes in the serum EPA/AA ratio and changes of the serum lipid levels in patients with one or more risk factors for ASCVD...
July 16, 2018: Heart and Vessels
Kepei Zhang, Shigao Zhou, Chunyan Wang, Hanchen Xu, Li Zhang
Objective: Acupuncture, as one of the complementary and alternative medicines, represents an efficient therapeutic option for obesity control. We conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the effectiveness of acupuncture in obesity and also summarized the available studies on exploring the mechanisms. Design: We searched six databases from the inception to April 2017 without language restriction. Eligible studies consisted of acupuncture with comparative controls ((1) sham acupuncture, (2) no treatment, (3) diet and exercise, and (4) conventional medicine)...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Chih-Yuan Wang, Tse-Ya Yu, Shyang-Rong Shih, Kuo-Chin Huang, Tien-Chun Chang
This study examined associations of thyroid hormone levels and insulin resistance (IR) in non-diabetic individuals. Using a cross-sectional design, 2007-2008 data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were analyzed. NHANES participants ≥20 years of age with complete data of interest were included. The homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) was used to quantify IR, and treated as a continuous variable. Self-reported diabetes or a fasting glucose ≥7 mmol/L were used as criteria to exclude diabetic subjects...
July 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Youming Xiong, Xinran Li, Meng Xiong, Sindhu Vikash, Pan Liu, Meng Wang, Yufan Zhu, Wen Yuan, Qiuping Zhang, Boqiao Fu, Caiqin Qin
PURPOSE: Chitosan is an easily accessible and biocompatible natural molecule which facilitate the immune system. In recent studies, chitosan is being applied to the drug nanosphere to deliver drugs. However, whether chitosan could promote health under exercising condition remains yet to be elucidated. Hence, we designed to investigate the effect of chitosan on swimming rats. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into four groups, exercise with chitosan, exercise with water, sedentary with chitosan, and sedentary with water...
July 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Robert S Rosenson, Robert A Hegele, Sergio Fazio, Christopher P Cannon
Variants in proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) provide insights into mechanisms regulating low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels. Human monoclonal antibodies that target PCSK9 lower LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) levels by 55% to 72% in different high-risk patient groups. Clinical trials with PCSK9 inhibitors have demonstrated reductions in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease events, particularly in patients with recent acute coronary syndrome, multivessel coronary artery disease, or peripheral arterial disease...
July 17, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Maria Giovanna Lupo, Nicola Ferri
Genetic and clinical studies have demonstrated that loss-of-function variants in the angiopoietin-like 3 (ANGPTL3) gene are associated with decreased plasma levels of triglycerides (TGs), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), which leads to a significant reduction in cardiovascular risk. For this reason, ANGPTL3 is considered an important new pharmacological target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) together with more conventional lipid lowering therapies, such as statins and anti proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) monoclonal antibodies...
July 14, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
Constantine E Kosmas, Alba Muñoz Estrella, Andreas Sourlas, Delia Silverio, Elizabeth Hilario, Peter D Montan, Eliscer Guzman
The discovery of proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9), a serine protease which binds to the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors and targets the receptors for lysosomal degradation, offered an additional route through which plasma LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels can be controlled. Initially, the therapeutic approaches to reduce circulating levels of PCSK9 were focused on the use of monoclonal antibodies. To that effect, evolocumab and alirocumab, two human monoclonal antibodies directed against PCSK9, given on a background of statin therapy, have been shown to markedly decrease LDL-C levels and significantly reduce cardiovascular risk...
July 13, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Hakan Cetin, Angela Vincent
Autoimmune myasthenic syndromes are antibody-mediated disorders of the neuromuscular junction. Common antigenic targets are the acetylcholine receptor or muscle specific kinase (MuSK) in myasthenia gravis (MG) and the voltage-gated calcium channel in Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome. There is evidence that antibodies directed against other antigens such as low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4) are also involved in MG. The mechanisms by which various antibodies exert their pathogenic effect depend on the IgG subclass and also the epitope location on the antigens...
June 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Ji-Jin Yao, Xiao-Jun He, Wayne R Lawrence, Wang-Jian Zhang, Jia Kou, Fan Zhang, Guan-Qun Zhou, Si-Yang Wang, Ying Sun
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Lipoproteins have been reported to be associated with prognosis in various cancers; however, the prognostic value of lipoproteins in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remains largely unknown. We aim to asses the role of circulating lipoproteins in locoregionally advanced NPC patients. METHODS: Between October 2009 and August 2012, a total of 1,081 patients with stage III-IVB NPC were included in the analysis. Circulating high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) are the two key lipoproteins, which were measured at baseline...
July 16, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
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