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thyroid in pregnancy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102101/thyroid-in-pregnancy-from-physiology-to-screening
#1
Drahomira Springer, Jan Jiskra, Zdenka Limanova, Tomas Zima, Eliska Potlukova
Thyroid hormones are crucial for the growth and maturation of many target tissues, especially the brain and skeleton. During critical periods in the first trimester of pregnancy, maternal thyroxine is essential for fetal development as it supplies thyroid hormone-dependent tissues. The ontogeny of mature thyroid function involves organogenesis, and maturation of the hypothalamus, pituitary and the thyroid gland; and it is almost complete by the 12th-14th gestational week. In case of maternal hypothyroidism, substitution with levothyroxine must be started in early pregnancy...
January 19, 2017: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089504/review-nutrient-sulfate-supply-from-mother-to-fetus-placental-adaptive-responses-during-human-and-animal-gestation
#2
REVIEW
P A Dawson, K Richard, A Perkins, Z Zhang, D G Simmons
Nutrient sulfate has numerous roles in mammalian physiology and is essential for healthy fetal growth and development. The fetus has limited capacity to generate sulfate and relies on sulfate supplied from the maternal circulation via placental sulfate transporters. The placenta also has a high sulfate requirement for numerous molecular and cellular functions, including sulfate conjugation (sulfonation) to estrogen and thyroid hormone which leads to their inactivation. Accordingly, the ratio of sulfonated (inactive) to unconjugated (active) hormones modulates endocrine function in fetal, placental and maternal tissues...
January 4, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079354/effect-of-excess-iodine-intake-on-thyroid-on-human-health
#3
Eftychia G Koukkou, Nikolaos D Roupas, Kostas B Markou
INTRODUCTION: The recommended daily intake of iodide, is 150 μg for adolescents and adults, 175 μg for pregnancy and 200 μg for lactation. Thyroid gland is an effective collector of iodine. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: The active iodine uptake along the basolateral membrane of thyroid cell is followed by its transport to the apical edge of the cell and then to the follicle lumen. TSH acts through cAMP and stimulates NIS gene expression and protein synthesis. The major proportion of iodine in the thyroid gland is bound to Thyroglobulin...
January 12, 2017: Minerva Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060899/longitudinal-profiles-of-thyroid-hormone-parameters-in-pregnancy-and-associations-with-preterm-birth
#4
Lauren E Johns, Kelly K Ferguson, Thomas F McElrath, Bhramar Mukherjee, Ellen W Seely, John D Meeker
INTRODUCTION: Overt thyroid disease in pregnancy is associated with numerous maternal and neonatal complications including preterm birth. Less is known about the contribution of trimester-specific subclinical alterations in individual thyroid hormones, especially in late gestation, on the risk of preterm birth. Herein, we examined the associations between subclinical changes in maternal thyroid hormone concentrations (TSH, total T3, free and total T4), measured at multiple time points in pregnancy, and the odds of preterm birth in pregnant women without clinical thyroid disease...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056690/2016-guidelines-of-the-american-thyroid-association-for-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-thyroid-disease-during-pregnancy-and-the-postpartum
#5
Erik K Alexander, Elizabeth N Pearce, Gregory A Brent, Rosalind S Brown, Herbert Chen, Chrysoula Dosiou, William Grobman, Peter Laurberg, John H Lazarus, Susan J Mandel, Robin Peeters, Scott Sullivan
BACKGROUND: Thyroid disease in pregnancy is a common clinical problem. Since the American Thyroid Association's (ATA's) guidelines for the management of these disorders were first published in 2011, significant clinical and scientific advances have occurred in the field. The aim of these guidelines is to inform clinicians, patients, researchers, and health policy makers on published evidence relating to the diagnosis and management of thyroid disease in women during pregnancy, preconception and the postpartum period...
January 6, 2017: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056313/-hot-controversial-issues-in-management-of-thyroid-disorders-during-pregnancy
#6
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049387/stimulation-of-thyroid-function-by-hcg-during-pregnancy-a-risk-factor-for-thyroid-disease-and-a-mechanism-for-known-risk-factors
#7
Tim Korevaar, Yolanda B de Rijke, Layal Chaker, Marco Medici, Vincent Wv Jaddoe, Eric Ap Steegers, Theo J Visser, Robin Peeters
BACKGROUND: Thyroid autoimmunity is a major risk factor for gestational thyroid disease and recently various other risk factors have been identified, including maternal age, BMI and parity. hCG is an important determinant of gestational thyroid function, yet it is unknown to what extent differences in hCG concentration affect the risk for thyroid disease. We have recently shown that TPOAb positivity impairs the thyroidal response to hCG stimulation, which may suggest that this is a mechanism through which thyroid autoimmunity acts as a risk factor for thyroid disease...
January 3, 2017: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048640/su-f-t-222-dose-of-fetus-and-infant-following-accidental-intakes-of-i-131-by-the-mother
#8
Y Wang, P Hu
PURPOSE: To estimate the calculation of absorbed dose to the fetus and infants from intakes of I-131 by the mother. Thus provide some advice to the radioprotection of radioactive accident. METHODS: In this clinical case, a staff of nuclear medicine accidently intake I-131 during (10-12 weeks) and after pregnancy. The infant was born at full term, but both lobes of the thyroid gland were found to be absent (bilobar thyroid agenesis). It was suspected that the fetal thyroid agenesis may be related with mother's contamination of I-131 during pregnancy...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040126/prediction-of-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-at-first-trimester-in-low-risk-pregnancies
#9
Pınar Kumru, Resul Arisoy, Emre Erdogdu, Oya Demirci, Mustecep Kavrut, Cem Ardıc, Nihan Aslaner, Aysen Ozkoral, Aktug Ertekin
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the relationship among the sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and cholesterol panel values to predict subsequent gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in low-risk pregnancies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-eight pregnant women with GDM and 295 low-risk pregnant women without GDM were included in this study. Maternal blood samples were obtained during the first trimester examination to determine the SHBG, HbA1c, fasting blood glucose, insulin, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine, total cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels...
December 2016: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039875/first-trimester-isolated-maternal-hypothyroxinemia-adverse-maternal-metabolic-profile-and-impact-on-the-obstetrical-outcome
#10
Raluca Maria Furnica, Damien Gruson, John H Lazarus, Dominique Maiter, Pierre Bernard, Chantal Daumerie
BACKGROUND: Isolated maternal hypothyroxinemia (IH) is defined as low maternal FT4 (<5(th) percentile) and normal TSH. There is concern on its potential negative effects on the mother and offspring. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of IH and to assess the consequences of hypothyroxinemia on the maternal and foetal outcomes. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: From a total of 1300 consecutive pregnant women recruited during the prenatal screen (mean gestational age, 11...
December 31, 2016: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034801/testing-the-correlation-between-experimentally-induced-hypothyroidism-during-pregnancy-and-autistic-like-symptoms-in-the-rat-offspring
#11
Francesca Melancia, Michela Servadio, Sara Schiavi, Patrizia Campolongo, Alexandre Giusti-Paiva, Viviana Trezza
Thyroid hormones are important for the development of the central nervous system. Since the fetal thyroid gland is not functioning until mid-gestation, transport of maternal thyroid hormones across the placenta is essential during the early phases of gestation. Maternal thyroid deficiency has been associated with a higher incidence of neurodevelopmental disorders in the newborns. The relationship between maternal hypothyroidism and the onset of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in the offspring, however, is still debated...
December 26, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017871/no-mediated-anticontractile-effect-of-the-endothelium-is-abolished-in-coronary-arteries-of-adult-rats-with-antenatal-early-postnatal-hypothyroidism
#12
Dina K Gaynullina, Svetlana I Sofronova, Ekaterina K Selivanova, Anastasia A Shvetsova, Anna A Borzykh, Anna P Sharova, Daria S Kostyunina, Andrey A Martyanov, Olga S Tarasova
INTRODUCTION: Thyroid hormones are essential for proper development of many systems and organs, including circulatory system. Thyroid deficiency during pregnancy may affect the cardiovascular function in children early on and later in adulthood. However, long-term effects of early thyroid deficiency are poorly understood. We hypothesized that antenatal/early postnatal hypothyroidism will influence anticontractile effect of NO in coronary arteries of adult rats. DESIGN AND METHODS: To model antenatal/early postnatal hypothyroidism dams were treated with 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) in drinking water (0...
December 23, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004764/sheehan-syndrome
#13
Züleyha Karaca, Bashir A Laway, Hatice S Dokmetas, Hulusi Atmaca, Fahrettin Kelestimur
Sheehan syndrome or postpartum hypopituitarism is a condition characterized by hypopituitarism due to necrosis of the pituitary gland. The initial insult is caused by massive postpartum haemorrhage (PPH), leading to impaired blood supply to the pituitary gland, which has become enlarged during pregnancy. Small sella turcica size, vasospasms (caused by PPH) and/or thrombosis (associated with pregnancy or coagulation disorders) are predisposing factors; autoimmunity might be involved in the progressive worsening of pituitary functions...
December 22, 2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994875/management-of-metastatic-thyroid-cancer-in-pregnancy-risk-and-uncertainty
#14
Christopher W Rowe, Kirsten Murray, Andrew Woods, Sandeep Gupta, Roger Smith, Katie Wynne
: Metastatic thyroid cancer is an uncommon condition to be present at the time of pregnancy, but presents a challenging paradigm of care. Clinicians must balance the competing interests of long-term maternal health, best achieved by iatrogenic hyperthyroidism, regular radioiodine therapy and avoidance of dietary iodine, against the priority to care for the developing foetus, with inevitable compromise. Additionally, epidemiological and cellular data support the role of oestrogen as a growth factor for benign and malignant thyrocytes, although communicating the magnitude of this risk to patients and caregivers, as well as the uncertain impact of any pregnancy on long-term prognosis, remains challenging...
2016: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984425/effects-of-sample-handling-and-analytical-procedures-on-thyroid-hormone-concentrations-in-pregnant-women-s-plasma
#15
Gro D Villanger, Emily Learner, Matthew P Longnecker, Helga Ask, Heidi Aase, R Thomas Zoeller, Gun P Knudsen, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud, Pål Zeiner, Stephanie M Engel
BACKGROUND: Maternal thyroid function is a critical mediator of fetal brain development. Pregnancy-related physiologic changes and handling conditions of blood samples may influence thyroid hormone biomarkers. We investigated the reliability of thyroid hormone biomarkers in plasma of pregnant women under various handling conditions. METHODS: We enrolled 17 pregnant women; collected serum and plasma were immediately frozen. Additional plasma aliquots were subjected to different handling conditions before the analysis of thyroid biomarkers: storage at room temperature for 24 or 48 hours before freezing and an extra freeze-thaw cycle...
December 12, 2016: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981252/thyroid-hormone-dysfunction-during-pregnancy-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Aynadis Alemu, Betelihem Terefe, Molla Abebe, Belete Biadgo
Thyroid dysfunctions such as hypothyroidism, thyrotoxicosis and thyroid nodules may develop during pregnancy leading to abortion, placental abruptions, preeclampsia, preterm delivery and reduced intellectual function in the offspring. Epidemiological data have shown the significant role of maternal thyroid hormone in fetal neurologic development and maternal health. It has been suggested that the deleterious effects of thyroid dysfunction can also extend beyond pregnancy and delivery to affect neuro-intellectual development in the early life of the child...
November 2016: International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine (Yazd, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978517/management-of-fetal-and-neonatal-graves-disease
#17
Juliane Léger
Fetal and neonatal autoimmune hyperthyroidism is a rare, serious but transient disorder. Early diagnosis and treatment are key objectives for an optimal prognosis and the well-being of the child. This review focuses on the management of these patients during the fetal and neonatal periods. We propose a diagnostic algorithm for high-risk pregnancies in mothers with current or past hyperthyroidism related to Graves' disease, involving repeated fetal thyroid gland assessments from 20 weeks of gestation onwards and maternal serum thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody (TRAb) determination, with close monitoring if TRAb levels exceed 2 to 3 times the upper limit of the normal range...
December 16, 2016: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27967219/a-survey-of-clinical-practice-patterns-in-management-of-graves-disease-in-the-middle-east-and-north-africa
#18
Salem A Beshyah, Aly B Khalil, Ibrahim H Sherif, Mahmoud M Benbarka, Syed Abbas Raza, Wiam Hussein, Ali S Alzahrani, Asma Chadli
OBJECTIVES: Graves' disease (GD) is commonly seen in endocrine clinical practice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the current diagnosis and management of patient's with GD in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). METHODOLOGY: An electronic survey on management of GD, using an online questionnaire of a large pool of practicing physicians was performed. Responses from 352 eligible and willing physicians were included in this study. They were mostly endocrinologists (157) and internal medicine physicians (116)...
December 14, 2016: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966300/relationship-between-gestational-transient-thyrotoxicosis-and-vitamin-d
#19
Ferit Kerim Küçükler, Yasin Şimşek, Ümit Görkem, Berçem Ayçiçek Doğan, Serdar Güler
BACKGROUND/AIM: Gestational transient thyrotoxicosis (GTT) is a transient, mild hyperthyroidism that occurs early in pregnancy and is due to human chorionic gonadotropin. There is no clear information about why only some pregnant women develop GTT. Previous papers stated that vitamin D plays a role in thyroid functions. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between vitamin D and GTT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-three patients diagnosed with GTT at the 6th to 10th weeks of gestation were included in the study (GTT group)...
November 17, 2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930576/hyperthyroidism-secondary-to-hysterosalpingography-an-extremely-rare-complication-a-case-report
#20
Guotao Ma, Rui Mao, Haixin Zhai
RATIONALE: Hysterosalpingography (HSG), a standard procedure for the evaluation of women with infertility and repetitive pregnancy loss, is associated with complications such as uterine perforation, infection, allergic reactions, syncope, hemorrhage and shock, and pulmonary or retinal embolus. However, hyperthyroidism has not been reported as one of its complications. PATIENT CONCERNS AND DIAGNOSES: We report the case of a 33-year-old euthyroid woman who presented to our hospital with palpitation, hand tremor, fatigue, and excessive sweating after HSG...
December 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
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