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Energy loss

P Schattschneider, S Löffler
Interaction of the probe with the specimen in an electron microscope inevitably leads to entanglement between the probe and the scatterer. In spite of the importance of entanglement in many areas of modern physics, this subject has not been touched in the literature. Here, we develop some ideas about entanglement in electron microscopy for a number of scattering mechanisms. The relationship between entropy, density matrices, and coherence is discussed. In addition, we explore the questions "Why is Bragg scattering coherent and energy loss incoherent?" and "When does decoherence play a role?" It seems to be possible to measure decoherence on extremely short timescales of ∼10-8 s...
April 13, 2018: Ultramicroscopy
Yi Kuang, Yangbo Ning, Jin Zhu, Yuanhua Wang
Several (3 + 2) cycloaddition reactions catalyzed by dirhodium(II) complexes between N-arylaminocyclopropane and alkenes derivative have been developed. Preliminary mechanism studies suggest that dirhodium(II) complexes may decrease the bond-dissociation energy (BDE) of the N-H bond of N-arylaminocyclopropanes for N-H bond activation, thus facilitating the formation of N-centered radicals by loss of a hydrogen radical.
April 23, 2018: Organic Letters
Adams Rackes, Tom Ben-David, Michael S Waring
This article presents an outcome-based ventilation (OBV) framework, which combines competing ventilation impacts into a monetized loss function ($/occ/h) used to inform ventilation rate decisions. The OBV framework, developed for U.S. offices, considers six outcomes of increasing ventilation: profitable outcomes realized from improvements in occupant work performance and sick-leave absenteeism; health outcomes from occupant exposure to outdoor fine particles and ozone; and energy outcomes from electricity and natural gas usage...
April 23, 2018: Indoor Air
Yinan Zhang, Yi Xu, Shiren Chen, Hua Lu, Kai Chen, Yaoyu Cao, Andrey E Miroshnichenko, Min Gu, Xiangping Li
Emerging high-index all-dielectric nanostructures, capable of manipulating light at the subwavelength scale, empower designing and implementing novel antireflection and light trapping layers in many photonic and optoelectronic devices. However, their performance and practicality are compromised by relatively narrow bandwidths and highly sophisticated fabrications. In this paper, we demonstrate an ultra-broadband (300-1200 nm) directional light scattering strategy using high-index surface silicon oligomer resonators fabricated by a facile, scalable and low-cost colloidal lithography technique...
April 23, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Gaël Alvarez, Tanvir Shahzad, Laurence Andanson, Michael Bahn, Matthew D Wallenstein, Sébastien Fontaine
Most current models of soil C dynamics predict that climate warming will accelerate soil C mineralization, resulting in a long-term CO2 release and positive feedback to global warming. However, ecosystem warming experiments show that CO2 loss from warmed soils declines to control levels within a few years. Here, we explore the temperature-dependence of enzymatic conversion of polymerised soil organic C (SOC) into assimilable compounds, which is presumed the rate-limiting step of SOC mineralization. Combining literature review, modelling and enzyme assays, we studied the effect of temperature on activity of enzymes considering their thermal inactivation and catalytic activity...
April 23, 2018: Global Change Biology
Byeong-Seok Moon, Hyoun-Ee Kim, Dong-Hwan Kim
Achieving single-band upconversion is a challenging but rewarding approach to attain optimal performance in diverse applications, such as multiplexed molecular imaging, security coding, and nonlinear photonic devices. Here, highly efficient single-band upconversion luminescence in the green spectral regime (16.4 times increase in emission at 525 nm) accomplished by realizing minimal energy loss from two-photon upconversion in a newly synthesized liquid-quenched amorphous matrix is reported. In contrast to previously reported single-band upconversion, this phenomenon originates from the elevated transition probability of the host sensitive transition via changes in the host matrix's microstructure...
April 23, 2018: Advanced Materials
M Allan, M Lacko, P Papp, Š Matejčík, M Zlatar, I I Fabrikant, J Kočišek, J Fedor
In a combined experimental and theoretical study we characterize dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to, and electronically excited states of, Fe(CO)5. Both are relevant for electron-induced degradation of Fe(CO)5. The strongest DEA channel is cleavage of one metal-ligand bond that leads to production of Fe(CO)4-. High-resolution spectra of Fe(CO)4- reveal fine structures at the onset of vibrational excitation channels. Effective range R-matrix theory successfully reproduces these structures as well as the dramatic rise of the cross section at very low energies and reveals that virtual state scattering dominates low-energy DEA in Fe(CO)5 and that intramolecular vibrational redistribution (IVR) plays an essential role...
April 23, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
B A Saylor, D H Min, B J Bradford
Groundwater depletion is one of the most pressing issues facing the dairy industry in arid regions. One strategy to improve the industry's drought resilience involves feeding drought-tolerant forage crops in place of traditional forage crops such as alfalfa and corn silage. The objective of this study was to assess the productivity of lactating dairy cows fed diets with teff hay (Eragrostis tef) as the sole forage. Teff is a warm-season annual grass native to Ethiopia that is well adapted to drought conditions...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
R Scott, J Minnion, T Tan, S R Bloom
The gut hormone oxyntomodulin (OXM) causes weight loss by reducing appetite and increasing energy expenditure. Several analogues are being developed to treat obesity. Exactly how oxyntomodulin works, however, remains controversial. OXM can activate both glucagon and GLP-1 receptors but no specific receptor has been identified. It is thought that the anorectic effect occurs predominantly through GLP-1 receptor activation but, to date, it has not been formally confirmed which receptor is responsible for the increased energy expenditure...
April 19, 2018: Peptides
Ronggui Tang, Changfeng Ding, Fei Dang, Yibing Ma, Junsong Wang, Taolin Zhang, Xingxiang Wang
Mercury is a globally distributed toxicant to aquatic animals and mammals. However, the potential risks of environmental relevant mercury in terrestrial systems remain largely unclear. The metabolic profiles of the earthworm Eisenia fetida after exposure to soil contaminated with mercury at 0.77 ± 0.09 mg/kg for 2 weeks were investigated using a two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance-based (1 H-13 C NMR) metabolomics approach. The results revealed that traditional endpoints (e.g., mortality and weight loss) did not differ significantly after exposure...
April 18, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Chad R Straight, Alison C Berg, Rachelle A Reed, Mary Ann Johnson, Ellen M Evans
The purpose of this study was to examine the relative contributions of changes in muscle quality and body composition to changes in lower-extremity physical function (LEPF) following a 6-month exercise and weight loss intervention in overweight and obese older women. Thirty-eight overweight and obese (BMI = 30.0 ± 4.4 kg/m2 ) older (age = 69.3 ± 4.1 y) women completed 6 months of multicomponent exercise (cardiorespiratory, resistance, balance and flexibility training) and weight loss (hypocaloric diet that reduced energy intake by ~500 kcal/d)...
April 18, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Ashley Best, Christopher Price, Mateja Ozanic, Marina Santic, Snake Jones, Yousef Abu Kwaik
Legionella pneumophila invades protozoa with an "accidental" ability to cause pneumonia upon transmission to humans. To support its nutrition during intracellular residence, L. pneumophila relies on host amino acids as the main source of carbon and energy to feed the TCA cycle. Despite the apparent lack of a requirement for glucose for L. pneumophila growth in vitro and intracellularly, the organism contains multiple amylases, which hydrolyze polysaccharides into glucose monomers. Here we describe one predicted putative amylase, LamB, which is uniquely present only in L...
April 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Fredrik Ghosh, Bo Åkerström, Jesper Bergwik, Hodan Abdshill, Lina Gefors, Linnéa Taylor
The purpose of this study was to explore acute tissue reactions, ultrastructural photoreceptor morphology with emphasis on inner segments, and the effect of antioxidant treatment in an in vitro model of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). A previously described method of RRD simulation was used with adult retinal porcine explants kept free-floating in culture medium with or without treatment with the radical scavenger α1 -microglobulin (A1M). Explants were examined at 5 time points from 1 to 24 h using transmission electron microscopy as well as quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) to quantify gene expression of the cell stress marker heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and oxidative stress marker heme oxygenase (HO-1)...
April 17, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Kaitlyn Dahlgren, Kelly J Gibas
Alzheimer's disease (AD) deaths have increased by 89% since 2000. This alarming trajectory of neurological disease highlights the failure of current best practice. Deteriorating brain fuel supply is the nemesis of intact neurological health. Cerebral hypo-metabolism associated with AD occurs years before onset. Both the ketogenic diet and calorie restriction (fasting) lead to a compensatory rise in ketones to improve energy deficits in the brain derived from cerebral insulin resistance. Two forms of ketone bodies, β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate, fuel the brain during starvation, fasting and strenuous exercise...
April 11, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
Naomi J McKay, Ilona V Belous, Jennifer L Temple
Increasing water intake is often purported to reduce energy intake, and is recommended as a weight loss strategy. The few experimental studies that have been conducted to verify these claims have examined the impact of a single pre-load of water before a meal. Although correlational data indicate a relationship between hydration, energy intake, and weight status, there is very little experimental research in this area. The current studies examined the hypothesis that elevated hydration, through increased water intake, would suppress energy intake...
April 17, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Jae-Hoon Ji, GaeHun Jo, Jae-Geun Ha, Sang-Mo Koo, Masao Kamiko, JunHee Hong, Jung-Hyuk Koh
In this research, the recycled electrical energy from wasted thermal energy in high power Light Emitting Diode (LED) system will be investigated. The luminous efficiency of lights has been improved in recent years by employing the high power LED system, therefore energy efficiency was improved compared with that of typical lighting sources. To increase energy efficiency of high power LED system further, wasted thermal energy should be re-considered. Therefore, wasted thermal energy was collected and re-used them as electrical energy...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Abbas Khan, Shoaib Saleem, Muhammad Idrees, Syed Shujait Ali, Muhammad Junaid, Aman Chandra Kaushik, Dong-Qing Wei
Dengue virus belongs to a group of human pathogens, which causes different diseases, dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome in humans. It possesses RNA as a genetic material and is replicated with the aid of NS5 protein. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is an important domain of NS5 in the replication of that virus. The catalytic process activity of RdRp is making it an important target for antiviral chemical therapy. To date, No FDA drug has been approved and marketed for the treatment of diseases caused by Dengue virus...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Kevin D Hall, Stephanie T Chung
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Summarize the physiological effects of low-carbohydrate diets as they relate to weight loss, glycemic control, and metabolic health. RECENT FINDINGS: Low-carbohydrate diets are at least as effective for weight loss as other diets, but claims about increased energy expenditure and preferential loss of body fat are unsubstantiated. Glycemic control and hyperinsulinemia are improved by low-carbohydrate diets, but insulin sensitivity and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion may be impaired, especially in the absence of weight loss...
April 18, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Yun-Mei Li, Jiang Xiao, Kai Chang
Manipulation of magnons opens an attractive direction in the future energy-efficient information processing devices. Such quasi-particles can transfer and process information free from the troublesome Ohmic loss in conventional electronic devices. Here, we propose to realize topologically protected magnon modes using the interface between the patterned ferrimagnetic insulator thin films of different configurations without the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. The interface thus behaves like a perfect waveguide to conduct the magnon modes lying in the band gap...
April 20, 2018: Nano Letters
Qing-Xiu Hao, Li-Ping Kang, Shou-Dong Zhu, Yi Yu, Ming-Hua Hu, Fang-Li Ma, Jie Zhou, Lan-Ping Guo
In this paper, an approach was applied for separation and identification of oligosaccharides in Morinda officinalis How by Ultra performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) with collision energy. The separation was carried out on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH Amide C₁₈(2.1mm×100 mm,1.7 μm) with gradient elution using acetonitrile(A) and water(B) containing 0.1% ammonia as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.2 mL·min⁻¹. The column temperature was maintained at 40 °C...
March 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
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