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Component resolved diagnostics

Rajia Bahri, Adnan Custovic, Peter Korosec, Marina Tsoumani, Martin Barron, Jiakai Wu, Rebekah Sayers, Alf Weimann, Monica Ruiz-Garcia, Nandinee Patel, Abigail Robb, Mohamed H Shamji, Sara Fontanella, Mira Silar, E N Clare Mills, Angela Simpson, Paul J Turner, Silvia Bulfone-Paus
BACKGROUND: Food allergy is an increasing public health issue and the commonest cause of life-threatening anaphylactic reactions. Conventional allergy tests assess for the presence of allergen-specific IgE, significantly overestimating the rate of true clinical allergy resulting in over-diagnosis and adverse impact on health-related quality of life. OBJECTIVE: To undertake initial validation and assessment of a novel diagnostic tool, the mast cell activation test (MAT)...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Stephen D Hammack, Campbell D Carter, Aaron W Skiba, Christopher A Fugger, Josef J Felver, Joseph D Miller, James R Gord, Tonghun Lee
Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of hydroxyl (OH) and formaldehyde (CH2 O) radicals was performed alongside stereo particle image velocimetry (PIV) at a 20 kHz repetition rate in a highly turbulent Bunsen flame. A dual-pulse burst-mode laser generated envelopes of 532 nm pulse pairs for PIV as well as a pair of 355 nm pulses, the first of which was used for CH2 O PLIF. A diode-pumped solid-state Nd:YAG/dye laser system produced the excitation beam for the OH PLIF. The combined diagnostics produced simultaneous, temporally resolved two-dimensional fields of OH and CH2 O and two-dimensional, three-component velocity fields, facilitating the observation of the interaction of fluid dynamics with flame fronts and preheat layers...
March 1, 2018: Optics Letters
Monika Raulf, Santiago Quirce, Olivier Vandenplas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Numerous clinically relevant allergenic molecules enhance the performance of specific (s) IgE tests and improve the specificity of allergy diagnosis. This review aimed to summarize our current knowledge of the high-molecular-weight allergens involved in the development of occupational asthma and rhinitis and to critically analyze the contribution of component-resolved diagnosis in the management of these conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: There is a lack of standardization and validation for most available extracts of occupational agents, and assessment of sIgE reactivity to occupational allergen components has been poorly investigated, with the notable exception of natural rubber latex (NRL) and wheat flour...
February 14, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Giovanni Passalacqua, Diego Bagnasco, Matteo Ferrando, Enrico Heffler, Francesca Puggioni, Giorgio Walter Canonica
OBJECTIVE: Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) in its subcutaneous and sublingual forms is currently a well-established and experimentally supported treatment for respiratory allergy and hymenoptera venom allergy. There have been advances in its use linked strictly to the advancement in the knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of allergy, the production of well-characterized extracts, and diagnostic techniques. The use of AIT in asthma and the application of new approaches are expanding...
February 2018: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
Sanny K Chan, Donald Y M Leung
Allergies to dogs and cats affect 10%-20% of the population worldwide and is a growing public health concern as these rates increase. Given the prevalence of detectable dog and cat allergens even in households without pets, there is a critical need to accurately diagnose and treat patients to reduce morbidity and mortality from exposure. The ability to diagnose cat sensitization is good, in contrast to dogs. Component resolved diagnostics of sensitization to individual allergenic proteins will dramatically improve diagnosis...
March 2018: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
R Uotila, A K Kukkonen, W M Blom, B Remington, J Westerhout, A S Pelkonen, M J Mäkelä
BACKGROUND: Nut allergy varies from pollen cross-allergy, to primary severe allergy with life-threatening symptoms. The screening of IgE antibodies to a wide spectrum of allergens, including species-specific and cross-reactive allergens, is made possible via microarray analysis. OBJECTIVE: We sought to study the association of variable IgE sensitization profiles to clinical response in peanut-challenged children and adolescents in a birch-endemic region. In addition, we studied the avoidance of tree nuts and species-specific sensitizations...
January 29, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Dimitrios Bitounis, Vincent Barnier, Cyril Guibert, Jérémie Pourchez, Valérie Forest, Delphine Boudard, Jean-François Hochepied, Pierre Chelle, Jean-Michel Vergnon, Michèle Cottier
Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a diagnostic procedure which samples the cellular and non-cellular components of the pulmonary epithelial surface. The inherent biological noise of BAL fluids inhibits their direct mineralogical analysis while currently available particle retrieval protocols are suspected to impose quantitative and qualitative bias on the studied particle load. This study presents a simple method for the near-lossless extraction of citrate-capped gold nanoparticles from human BAL fluids at sub-ppm levels which enables their quantitation and surface characterization...
January 26, 2018: Nanoscale
Maximilian Schiener, Christiane Hilger, Bernadette Eberlein, Mariona Pascal, Annette Kuehn, Dominique Revets, Sébastien Planchon, Gunilla Pietsch, Pilar Serrano, Carmen Moreno-Aguilar, Federico de la Roca, Tilo Biedermann, Ulf Darsow, Carsten B Schmidt-Weber, Markus Ollert, Simon Blank
Hymenoptera venom allergy can cause severe anaphylaxis in untreated patients. Polistes dominula is an important elicitor of venom allergy in Southern Europe as well as in the United States. Due to its increased spreading to more moderate climate zones, Polistes venom allergy is likely to gain importance also in these areas. So far, only few allergens of Polistes dominula venom were identified as basis for component-resolved diagnostics. Therefore, this study aimed to broaden the available panel of important Polistes venom allergens...
January 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jasna Nikolić, Andrijana Nešić, Skadi Kull, Frauke Schocker, Uta Jappe, Marija Gavrović-Jankulović
Diagnostic reagents based on food allergen extracts often lack sufficient sensitivity. The introduction of well characterized food allergens in molecular allergy diagnosis has been recognized as valid approach to circumvent unstandardized allergen extracts. Banana fruit (Musa acuminata) is a well-established allergen source which besides six characterized allergens, contains unidentified IgE reactive proteins whose clinical relevance remains undefined. By employment of a combinatorial peptide ligand library (CPLL) methodology with 2-D PAGE, mass spectrometric and 2-D immunoblot analysis, a novel allergen from banana fruit was detected in banana as catalase...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Simon Blank, Maria Beatrice Bilò, Markus Ollert
Stings of Hymenoptera can induce IgE-mediated systemic and even fatal allergic reactions. Venom-specific immunotherapy (VIT) is the only disease-modifying and curative treatment of venom allergy. However, choosing the correct venom for VIT represents a necessary prerequisite for efficient protection against further anaphylactic sting reactions after VIT. In the past, therapeutic decisions based on the measurement of specific IgE (sIgE) levels to whole venom extracts were not always straightforward, especially when the patient was not able to identify the culprit insect...
January 13, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
David Perez-Guaita, Kamila Kochan, Mitchell Batty, Christian Doerig, Jose Garcia-Bustos, Shirley Josefina Espinoza Herrera, Don McNaughton, Philip Heraud, Bayden R Wood
Atomic Force Microscopy-Infrared (AFM-IR) spectroscopy is a powerful new technique that can be applied to study molecular composition of cells and tissues at the nano-scale. AFM-IR maps are acquired using single wavenumber value: they show either the absorbance plotted against a single wavenumber value, or a ratio of two absorbance values. Here we implement multivariate image analysis to generate multivariate AFM-IR maps, and use this approach to resolve subcellular structural information in red blood cells infected with Plasmodium falciparum at different stages of development...
January 12, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Javier Flores Kim, Nicola McCleary, Bright I Nwaru, Andrew Stoddart, Aziz Sheikh
BACKGROUND: Component-resolved diagnostics (CRD) are promising tools for diagnosing food allergy, offering the potential to determine specific phenotypes and to develop patient-tailored risk profiles. Nevertheless, the diagnostic accuracy of these tests varies across studies; thus, their clinical utility remains unclear. Therefore, we synthesized the evidence from studies investigating the diagnostic accuracy, risk assessment ability, and cost-effectiveness of CRD for food allergy. METHODS: We systematically searched 10 electronic databases and four clinical trial registries for studies published January 2000-February 2017...
January 10, 2018: Allergy
Thomas Houmann Petersen, Charlotte Gotthard Mortz, Carsten Bindslev-Jensen, Esben Eller
BACKGROUND: Cow's milk allergy (CMA) affects 2% of all children. This study investigatescomponent-resolved diagnostics(CRD) to cow's milk proteins in children suspected of CMA, by correlating the level of CRD with outcome of the oral challenge. Furthermore, we evaluate the ability of serial CRD measurements to distinguish children with persistent CMA from children developing tolerance. METHODS: We included data from 78 children referred to the Allergy Centre during a 13-year period...
January 4, 2018: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Ying Bian, Changshan Liu, Tiantian She, Mengjuan Wang, Juanjuan Yan, Dianjun Wei, Huiqiang Li
The determination of specific IgE (sIgE) level is of great importance in IgE-mediated food allergies. Our aim was to develop a homogeneous immunoassay-light-initiated chemiluminescent assay (LICA)-for measuring allergen sIgE of a single component in egg white, thus evaluating the LICA-sIgE assay as a useful tool in the diagnosis of food allergy. The LICA-sIgE assay was performed by incubating serum sample with anti-human IgE antibody coated with chemiluminescer beads, streptavidin-coated sensitizer beads, and biotinylated antigens, which consist of four components in egg white...
December 15, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Margitta Worm, Gunter Sturm, Jörg Kleine-Tebbe, Ewa Cichocka-Jarosz, Victoria Cardona, Ioana Maris, Sabine Dölle
This review presents the current trends in anaphylaxis management discussed at the fourth International Network for Online-Registration of Anaphylaxis (NORA) conference held in Berlin in April 2017. Current data from the anaphylaxis registry show that Hymenoptera venom, foods, and pharmaceutical drugs are still among the most frequent triggers of anaphylaxis. Rare triggers include chicory, cardamom, asparagus, and goji berries. A meta-analysis on recent trends in insect venom anaphylaxis demonstrated for the first time that, although data on the efficacy of insect venom immunotherapy is limited, the occurrence of severe reactions upon repeated sting events can be prevented and patients' quality of life improved...
2017: Allergo Journal International
Liping Wei, Wenrong Yan, Derek Ho
Fluorescence spectroscopy has become a prominent research tool with wide applications in medical diagnostics and bio-imaging. However, the realization of combined high-performance, portable, and low-cost spectroscopic sensors still remains a challenge, which has limited the technique to the laboratories. A fluorescence lifetime measurement seeks to obtain the characteristic lifetime from the fluorescence decay profile. Time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) and time-gated techniques are two key variations of time-resolved measurements...
December 4, 2017: Sensors
S Geiselhart, C Nagl, P Dubiela, A C Pedersen, M Bublin, C Radauer, C Bindslev-Jensen, K Hoffmann-Sommergruber, C G Mortz
BACKGROUND: Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) has become increasingly popular as a healthy food in Europe. However, for sensitized individuals, consumption can cause anaphylactic reactions. The aim of this study was to identify individual well-characterized buckwheat allergens for component-resolved diagnosis. METHODS: Patients were selected by positive skin prick test to buckwheat and divided into two groups: (1) sensitized to buckwheat without clinical symptoms and (2) buckwheat allergy...
February 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Natalia Ukleja-Sokołowska, Ewa Gawrońska-Ukleja, Magdalena Żbikowska-Gotz, Łukasz Sokołowski, Zbigniew Bartuzi
Eggplant allergy is rare and most of the previously described reactions were mild. In this case report, we present an interesting case of a 27-year-old male who experienced symptoms of anaphylaxis (shortness of breath, and swelling of the face, lips and tongue, which was followed by hypotension, tachycardia of 140/min and a sudden loss of consciousness) several minutes after eating a dish containing backed eggplant. Previously, the patient had experienced symptoms of allergy after eating different types of food, such as salad and chicken in spices...
November 22, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
Ajay D Halai, Anna M Woollams, Matthew A Lambon Ralph
In order to gain a better understanding of aphasia one must consider the complex combinations of language impairments along with the pattern of paraphasias. Despite the fact that both deficits and paraphasias feature in diagnostic criteria, most research has focused only on the lesion correlates of language deficits, with minimal attention on the pattern of patients' paraphasias. In this study, we used a data-driven approach (principal component analysis - PCA) to fuse patient impairments and their pattern of errors into one unified model of chronic post-stroke aphasia...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Scott H Sicherer, Hugh A Sampson
This review provides general information to serve as a primer for those embarking on understanding food allergy and also details advances and updates in epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment that have occurred over the four years since our last comprehensive review. Although firm prevalence data are lacking, there is a strong impression that food allergy has increased, and rates as high as ∼10% have been documented. Genetic, epigenetic and environmental risk factors are being increasingly elucidated, opening the potential for improved prevention and treatment strategies targeted to those at risk...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
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