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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144590/metabolic-profiling-of-normal-hepatocyte-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells-via-1-h-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#1
Yang Chen, Zhong Chen, Jiang-Hua Feng, Yun-Bin Chen, Nai-Shun Liao, Ying Su, Chang-Yan Zou
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) causes death mainly by disseminated metastasis progression from the organ being confined. Different metastatic stages are closely related to cellular metabolic profiles. Normal hepatocyte and HepG2 cell line from low metastatic HCC were studied by NMR-based metabolomic techniques. Multivariate and univariate statistical analyses were utilized to identify characteristic metabolites from cells and cultured media. Elevated levels of acetate, creatine, isoleucine, leucine, and phenylalanine were observed in HepG2 cells, suggesting more active in gathering nutrient components along with altered amino acid metabolisms and enhanced lipid metabolism...
November 16, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109794/ginsenoside-rg1-inhibits-glucagon-induced-hepatic-gluconeogenesis-through-akt-foxo1-interaction
#2
Qun Liu, Fei-Ge Zhang, Wen-Song Zhang, An Pan, Yi-Lin Yang, Jin-Feng Liu, Ping Li, Bao-Lin Liu, Lian-Wen Qi
Rationale: Glucagon is involved in hepatic gluconeogenesis, playing a key role in type 2 diabetes. Ginsenosides are reported to have antidiabetic activities. Ginsenoside Rg1 is a major propanaxatriol-type saponin in ginseng. This study aims to investigate the regulatory effects of Rg1 on glucagon-induced hepatic glucose production. Methods: The effects of Rg1 were investigated in high-fat-diet (HFD)-fed mice and glucagon-challenged C57BL/6J mice. Glucose metabolism was evaluated by oral glucose tolerance test and pyruvate tolerance test...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064442/enhanced-glucose-uptake-in-human-liver-cells-and-inhibition-of-carbohydrate-hydrolyzing-enzymes-by-nordic-berry-extracts
#3
Giang Thanh Thi Ho, Thi Kim Yen Nguyen, Eili Tranheim Kase, Margey Tadesse, Hilde Barsett, Helle Wangensteen
A Western lifestyle with low physical activity and a diet rich in sugar, fat and processed food contribute to higher incidences of diabetes and obesity. Enhanced glucose uptake in human liver cells was observed after treatment with phenolic extracts from different Nordic berries. All berry extracts showed higher inhibition against α-amylase and α-glucosidase than the anti-diabetic agent acarbose. Total phenolic content and phenolic profiles in addition to antioxidant activities, were also investigated. The berries were extracted with 80% methanol on an accelerated solvent extraction system (ASE) and then purified by C-18 solid phase extraction (SPE)...
October 24, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052178/hmga1-is-a-novel-transcriptional-regulator-of-the-foxo1-gene
#4
Biagio Arcidiacono, Eusebio Chiefari, Sebastiano Messineo, Francesco L Bilotta, Ida Pastore, Domenica M Corigliano, Daniela P Foti, Antonio Brunetti
PURPOSE: The forkhead transcription factor (FoxO1) is a master transcriptional regulator of fundamental cellular processes ranging from cell proliferation and differentiation to inflammation and metabolism. However, despite its relevance, the mechanism(s) underlying FoxO1 gene regulation are largely unknown. We have previously shown that the chromatin factor high-mobility group A1 (HMGA1) plays a key role in the transcriptional regulation of glucose-responsive genes, including some that are involved in FoxO1-mediated glucose metabolism...
October 19, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042441/transcription-factor-19-interacts-with-histone-3-lysine-4-trimethylation-and-controls-gluconeogenesis-via-the-nucleosome-remodeling-deacetylase-complex
#5
Sabyasachi Sen, Sulagna Sanyal, Dushyant Kumar Srivastava, Dipak Dasgupta, Siddhartha Roy, Chandrima Das
Transcription Factor 19 (TCF19) has been reported as type 1 diabetes associated locus involved in maintenance of pancreatic β cells through a fine-tuned regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis. TCF19 also exhibits genomic association with type 2 diabetes, although the precise molecular mechanism remains unknown. It harbours both a plant homeodomain (PHD) and a forkhead-associated domain (FHA) implicated in epigenetic recognition and gene regulation, a phenomenon that has remained unexplored. Here, we show that TCF19 selectively interacts with histone 3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4Me3) through its PHD finger...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021286/pomegranate-juice-but-not-an-extract-confers-a-lower-glycemic-response-on-a-high-glycemic-index-food-randomized-crossover-controlled-trials-in-healthy-subjects
#6
Asimina Kerimi, Hilda Nyambe-Silavwe, Julia S Gauer, Francisco A Tomás-Barberán, Gary Williamson
Background: Low-glycemic index diets have demonstrated health benefits associated with a reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes.Objectives: We tested whether pomegranate polyphenols could lower the glycemic response of a high-glycemic index food when consumed together and the mechanism by which this might occur.Design: We compared the acute effect of a pomegranate juice and a polyphenol-rich extract from pomegranate (supplement) on the bread-derived postprandial blood glucose concentration in 2 randomized, crossover, controlled studies (double-blinded for the supplements), each on 16 healthy volunteers...
October 11, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988629/design-and-synthesis-of-a-novel-series-of-orally-active-selective-somatostatin-receptor-2-agonists-for-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes
#7
Yoshihiro Banno, Shigekazu Sasaki, Makoto Kamata, Jun Kunitomo, Yasufumi Miyamoto, Hidenori Abe, Naohiro Taya, Satoru Oi, Masanori Watanabe, Tomoko Urushibara, Masatoshi Hazama, Shin-Ichi Niwa, Saku Miyamoto, Akira Horinouchi, Ken-Ichi Kuroshima, Nobuyuki Amano, Shin-Ichi Matsumoto, Shinichiro Matsunaga
The discovery of a novel series of β-methyltryptophan (β MeTrp) derivatives as selective and orally active non-peptide somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR2) agonists for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes is described. In our previous research, Compound A, β-MeTrp derivative with highly potent and selective SSTR2 agonistic activity IC50 (SSTR2/SSTR5)=0.3/>100 (nM), was identified asa drug candidate for treatment of Type 2 diabetes which lowers significantly plasma glucose level in Wistar fatty rats in its oral administrations...
November 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969111/citral-a-monoterpene-protect-against-high-glucose-induced-oxidative-injury-in-hepg2-cell-in-vitro-an-experimental-study
#8
Sri Devi Subramaniyan, Ashok Kumar Natarajan
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes mellitus, a major metabolic disorder associated with hyperglycaemia is one of the leading cause of death in many developed countries. However, use of natural phytochemicals have been proved to have a protective effect against oxidative damage. AIM: To investigate the effect of citral, a monoterpene on high glucose induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in human hepatocellular liver carcinoma (Hep G2) cell line. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cells were treated with 50 mM concentration of glucose for 24 hours incubation following citral (30 μM) was added to confluent HepG2 cells...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951243/root-bark-extracts-of-myrianthus-arboreus-p-beauv-cecropiaceae-exhibit-anti-diabetic-potential-by-modulating-hepatocyte-glucose-homeostasis
#9
Pierre B Kasangana, Abir Nachar, Hoda M Eid, Tatjana Stevanovic, Pierre S Haddad
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Myrianthus arboreus P. Beauv. is a tropical tree used in African folk medicine, including for diabetes. However, little research has yet been conducted to support this ethnopharmacological use of this plant. The present study sought to determine the antidiabetic potential of root bark extracts through cell-based bioassays of liver and muscle glucose homeostasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four extracts were obtained from crude root bark powder: 1 aqueous (AQ), 2 ethanol (EtOH), 3 alkaloid enriched (Alk) (obtained from methanol extract) and 4 dichloromethane (Dic) extracts...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943765/lactobacillus-acidophilus-ns1-reduces-phosphoenolpyruvate-carboxylase-expression-by-regulating-hnf4%C3%AE-transcriptional-activity
#10
Sung-Soo Park, Garam Yang, Eungseok Kim
Probiotics have been known to reduce high-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic diseases, such as obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. We recently observed that Lactobacillus acidophilus NS1 (LNS1), distinctly suppresses increase of blood glucose levels and insulin resistance in HFD-fed mice. In the present study, we demonstrated that oral administration of LNS1 with HFD feeding to mice significantly reduces hepatic expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), a key enzyme in gluconeogenesis which is highly increased by HFD feeding...
2017: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934101/cytotoxic-and-hypoglycemic-activity-of-triterpenoid-saponins-from-camellia-oleifera-abel-seed-pomace
#11
Tai-Mei Di, Shao-Lan Yang, Feng-Yu Du, Lei Zhao, Tao Xia, Xin-Fu Zhang
One new and three known triterpenoid saponins were isolated and identified from Camellia oleifera seeds through IR, NMR, HR-ESI-MS and GC-MS spectroscopic methods, namely oleiferasaponin A₃, oleiferasaponin A₁, camelliasaponin B₁, and camelliasaponin B₂. The structure of oleiferasaponin A₃ was elucidated as 16α-hydroxy-21β-O-angeloyl-22α-O-cinnamoyl-23α-aldehyde-28-dihydroxymethylene-olean-12-ene-3β-O-[β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→2)]-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→3)]-β-d-gluco-pyranosiduronic acid...
September 21, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924380/intracellular-insulin-and-impaired-autophagy-in-a-zebrafish-model-and-a-cell-model-of-type-2-diabetes
#12
Xiang-Hui Meng, Bo Chen, Jing-Pu Zhang
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by insulin resistance. However, the complete molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, zebrafish were fed a long-term high-fat diet to induce type 2 diabetes, which resulted in a higher body weight, body mass index, more lipid vacuoles in liver, increased insulin transcription level in liver, brain and muscle, and high fasting blood glucose in the high-fat diet zebrafish. Oppositely, the transcription levels of insulin substrate-2 and glucose transporter 2 were significantly decreased, indicating insulin signaling pathway and glucose transport impaired in the insulin-targeting tissues...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911860/glucose-elicits-serine-threonine-kinase-vrk1-to-phosphorylate-nuclear-pregnane-x-receptor-as-a-novel-hepatic-gluconeogenic-signal
#13
Saki Gotoh, Yuu Miyauchi, Rick Moore, Masahiko Negishi
Low glucose stimulated phosphorylation of pregnane X receptor (PXR) at Ser(350) in correlation with an increased gluconeogenesis in human hepatoma-derived HepG2 cells. Only glucose, but neither insulin nor glucagon, stimulated this phosphorylation. Here, serine/threonine kinase, vaccinia related kinase 1 (VRK1)-mediated phosphorylation of PXR is now defined as this glucose-elicited novel signal. In low glucose conditions, VRK1 directly phosphorylates PXR at Ser(350), enabling PO3-PXR to scaffold protein phosphatase PP2Cα...
December 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892307/purification-of-polysaccharide-from-artificially-cultivated-anoectochilus-roxburghii-wall-lindl-by-high-speed-counter-current-chromatography-and-its-antitumor-activity
#14
Xiaoling Yu, Shouer Lin, Jinque Zhang, Liying Huang, Hong Yao, Shaoguang Li
To establish a systematic method for the extraction, purification, characterization and antitumor activity study of polysaccharide from artificially cultivated Anoectochilus roxburghii (wall.) Lindl. (AC-ARPS). High-speed counter current chromatography with two-phase aqueous systems was successfully applied to purify AC-ARPS after one-step separation. The purity of the AC-ARPS obtained by phenol/sulfuric acid method was 95.01%. The chemical structures of AC-ARPS were identified by a series of analytical methods including high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883756/sodium-butyrate-has-context-dependent-actions-on-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-and-other-metabolic-parameters
#15
Eun-Sol Lee, Dong-Sung Lee, Prakash Raj Pandeya, Youn-Chul Kim, Dae-Gil Kang, Ho-Sub Lee, Byung-Chul Oh, Dae Ho Lee
Sodium butyrate (SB) has various metabolic actions. However, its effect on dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) needs to be studied further. We aimed to evaluate the metabolic actions of SB, considering its physiologically relevant concentration. We evaluated the effect of SB on regulation of DPP-4 and its other metabolic actions, both in vitro (HepG2 cells and mouse mesangial cells) and in vivo (high fat diet [HFD]-induced obese mice). Ten-week HFD-induced obese C57BL/6J mice were subjected to SB treatment by adding SB to HFD which was maintained for an additional 16 weeks...
September 2017: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867816/dairy-product-consumption-interacts-with-glucokinase-gck-gene-polymorphisms-associated-with-insulin-resistance
#16
Marine S Da Silva, Dominic Chartrand, Marie-Claude Vohl, Olivier Barbier, Iwona Rudkowska
Dairy product intake and a person's genetic background have been reported to be associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The objective of this study was to examine the interaction between dairy products and genes related to T2D on glucose-insulin homeostasis parameters. A validated food frequency questionnaire, fasting blood samples, and glucokinase (GCK) genotypes were analyzed in 210 healthy participants. An interaction between rs1799884 in GCK and dairy intake on the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was identified...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867797/flavonoid-rich-extract-of-paulownia-fortunei-flowers-attenuates-diet-induced-hyperlipidemia-hepatic-steatosis-and-insulin-resistance-in-obesity-mice-by-ampk-pathway
#17
Chanmin Liu, Jieqiong Ma, Jianmei Sun, Chao Cheng, Zhaojun Feng, Hong Jiang, Wei Yang
The flavonoid-rich extract from Paulownia fortunei flowers (EPF) has been reported to prevent obesity and other lipid metabolism disease. However, the mechanism of its protective effects is not yet clear. The objective of this study was to investigate molecular factors involved in the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of EPF in obese mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Male h ICR (Institute of Cancer Research) mice were fed a HFD containing or not containing the EPF (50 or 100 mg/kg) for eight weeks. EPF reduced body weight gain, lipid accumulation in livers and levels of lipid, glucose and insulin in plasma as well as reduced insulin resistance as compared with the HFD group...
August 30, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766170/aegle-marmelos-differentially-affects-hepatic-markers-of-glycolysis-insulin-signalling-pathway-hypoxia-and-inflammation-in-hepg2-cells-grown-in-fructose-versus-glucose-rich-environment
#18
H Aggarwal, J Nair, P Sharma, R Sehgal, U Naeem, P Rajora, R Mathur
Fructose consumption is responsible for the onset of insulin resistance (IR), and metabolic syndrome. It possesses no functional utility in body and its detrimental effects on hepatic metabolic milieu are beyond those produced by glucose. The need of the hour is to identify fructose-induced IR as an unique pathological state to be managed differentially. The effect of aqueous leaf extract of Aegle marmelos (AM) on hepatic markers of insulin resistance using HepG2 cells cultured in either fructose or glucose-rich environment is investigated...
August 1, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758742/effects-of-c-glycosides-from-apios-americana-leaves-against-oxidative-stress-during-hyperglycemia-through-regulating-mitogen-activated-protein-kinases-and-nuclear-factor-erythroid-2-related-factor-2
#19
Fujie Yan, Yunyun Yang, Lushuang Yu, Xiaodong Zheng
Main components of Apios americana leaves extract (ALE) were flavonoid C-glycosides, including vitexin (46.7%), schaftoside (18.9%), and orientin (4.32%). In vitro, ALE restored glucose consumption, glucose uptake, and glycogen content in glucose-induced hepatic cells. Exposure of HepG2 cells to high glucose resulted in reactive oxygen species and O2(-) accumulation, while ALE alleviated these increases by 47 ± 0.68 and 68 ± 0.74%, respectively. Glucose increased c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and decreased extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and p38 phosphorylation, while ALE reduced p-JNK and p-p38 but not p-ERK1/2, accompanied by nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1, and NAD(P)H quinine oxidoreductase 1 downregulation...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732920/a-rhamnan-type-sulfated-polysaccharide-with-novel-structure-from-monostroma-angicava-kjellm-chlorophyta-and-its-bioactivity
#20
Xue Liu, Jiejie Hao, Xiaoxi He, Shuyao Wang, Sujian Cao, Ling Qin, Wenjun Mao
A homogeneous polysaccharide was obtained from Monostroma angicava Kjellm by water extraction, preparative anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. Results of chemical and spectroscopic analyses showed that the polysaccharide was a glucuronic acid-containing rhamnan-type sulfated polysaccharide. The backbone mainly consisted of →3)-α-l-Rhap-(1→ and →2)-α-l-Rhap-(1→ residues, partially sulfated at C-2 of →3)-α-l-Rhap-(1→ and C-3/C-4 of →2)-α-l-Rhap-(1→. The branching contained unsulfated or monosulfated 3-linked, 2-linked, 4-linked α-l-rhamnose and terminal β-d-glucuronic acid residues...
October 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
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