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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812446/higher-dietary-intake-of-vitamin-d-may-influence-total-cholesterol-and-carbohydrate-profile-independent-of-body-composition-in-men-with-chronic-spinal-cord-injury
#1
Christopher Beal, Ashraf Gorgey, Pamela Moore, Nathan Wong, Robert A Adler, David Gater
STUDY DESIGN: A case-control design. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of dietary vitamin D intake on insulin sensitivity (Si), glucose effectiveness (Sg), and lipid profile in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: 20 male, paraplegic (T3-L1) with chronic (> one year) motor complete SCI (AIS A or B) were recruited. Three-day dietary records were analyzed for dietary vitamin D (calciferol), and participants were assigned to one of two groups, a high vitamin D intake group and a low vitamin D intake group based on the mid-point of vitamin D frequency distribution...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812403/text-messaging-sms-as-a-tool-to-facilitate-weight-loss-and-prevent-metabolic-deterioration-in-clinically-healthy-overweight-and-obese-subjects-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#2
Vija Silina, Mesfin K Tessma, Silva Senkane, Gita Krievina, Guntis Bahs
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether SMS text messaging facilitates a reduction of weight and waist circumference (WC) and favourable changes in lipid profile and insulin levels in clinically healthy overweight and obese subjects. DESIGN: A randomised controlled trial. SETTING AND INTERVENTION: Primary care health centre in Riga, Latvia. Text messaging once in two weeks. SUBJECTS: A total of 123 overweight and obese men and women aged 30-45 years with no cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) or diabetes...
August 16, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812027/l-theanine-administration-modulates-the-absorption-of-dietary-nutrients-and-expression-of-transporters-and-receptors-in-the-intestinal-mucosa-of-rats
#3
Qiongxian Yan, Haiou Tong, Shaoxun Tang, Zhiliang Tan, Xuefeng Han, Chuanshe Zhou
L-theanine has various advantageous functions for human health; whether or not it could mediate the nutrients absorption is unknown yet. The effects of L-theanine on intestinal nutrients absorption were investigated using rats ingesting L-theanine solution (0, 50, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight) per day for two weeks. The decline of insulin secretion and glucose concentration in the serum was observed by L-theanine. Urea and high-density lipoprotein were also reduced by 50 mg/kg L-theanine. Jejunal and ileac basic amino acids transporters SLC7a1 and SLC7a9, neutral SLC1a5 and SLC16a10, and acidic SLC1a1 expression were upregulated...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811882/seasonal-changes-in-leaf-chemistry-and-leaf-selection-of-the-japanese-giant-flying-squirrel-upon-two-tree-species
#4
Mutsumi Ito, Noriko Tamura, Fumio Hayashi
Tree leaves are important food sources for arboreal herbivores, such as primates, rodents, and marsupials. These animals do not eat leaves randomly in habitats with many tree species but rather choose based on the chemical components of leaves, such as sugars, fibers, proteins, and toxins. However, the effects of the microscale distribution of these chemicals within each leaf have not been examined for these animals. The giant flying squirrels Petaurista leucogenys are entirely arboreal, nocturnal herbivores, usually feeding on leaves and dropping leaf debris on the ground after partially consuming them...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811856/serum-betatrophin-levels-and-clinical-features-in-patients-with-poorly-controlled-type-2-diabetes
#5
Kohzo Takebayashi, Kenji Hara, Tomoko Terasawa, Rika Naruse, Mariko Suetsugu, Takafumi Tsuchiya, Toshihiko Inukai
BACKGROUND: Betatrophin is a hormone mainly secreted by the liver that influences lipid metabolisms. The main purposes of this study were to investigate the effect of canagliflozin (a sodium glucose transporter 2 inhibitor) on circulating betatrophin levels, and to investigate the correlation of various markers associated with glucose and lipid metabolisms with betatrophin in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Patients were randomly divided into a control group (n = 15) and a canagliflozin-treated group (n = 15)...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811734/differential-response-to-exercise-in-african-americans-with-high-levels-of-inflammation
#6
Jan Kretzschmar, Dianne M Babbitt, Keith M Diaz, Deborah L Feairheller, Kathleen M Sturgeon, Amanda M Perkins-Ball, Sheara T Williamson, Chenyi Ling, Heather Grimm, Michael D Brown
PURPOSE: Systemic inflammation, measured by C-reactive protein (CRP), is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. We investigated whether aerobic exercise training (AEXT) affects African Americans with high inflammation (HI) the same way it does African Americans with low inflammation (LI) in terms of CVD risk factors. METHODS: 23 African Americans with CRP levels <3 mg/L (LI) and 14 African Americans with CRP ≥3 mg/L (HI) underwent six months of AEXT...
2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811713/clinical-significance-of-glycemic-parameters-on-venous-thromboembolism-risk-prediction-in-gastrointestinal-cancer
#7
Fiorella Guadagni, Silvia Riondino, Vincenzo Formica, Girolamo Del Monte, Anna Maria Morelli, Jessica Lucchetti, Antonella Spila, Roberta D'Alessandro, David Della-Morte, Patrizia Ferroni, Mario Roselli
AIM: To investigate the possible predictive role of routinely used glycemic parameters for a first venous thromboembolism (VTE) episode in gastrointestinal (GI) cancer ambulatory patients - with or without clinically diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2D) or obesity - treated with chemotherapy. METHODS: Pre-treatment fasting blood glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and homeostasis model of risk assessment (HOMA) were retrospectively evaluated in a cohort study of 342 GI cancer patients...
July 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811651/inkt-cells-prevent-obesity-induced-hepatic-steatosis-in-mice-in-a-c-c-chemokine-receptor-7-dependent-manner
#8
H M Kim, R Lee, E S Lee, M H Kwon, J H Huh, B-E Kwon, E-K Park, S-Y Chang, M-N Kweon, P-H Kim, H-J Ko, C H Chung
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis are characterized by an increase in hepatic triglyceride content with infiltration of immune cells, which can cause steatohepatitis and hepatic insulin resistance. C-C chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) is primarily expressed in immune cells, and CCR7 deficiency leads to the development of multi-organ autoimmunity, chronic renal disease, and autoimmune diabetes. Here, we investigated the effect of CCR7 on hepatic steatosis in a mouse model and its underlying mechanism...
August 16, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811650/diet-induced-obesity-leads-to-metabolic-dysregulation-in-offspring-via-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-a-sex-specific-manner
#9
J H Park, Y Yoo, M Cho, J Lim, A M Lindroth, Y J Park
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Exposure to metabolic stress has been suggested to influence the susceptibility to metabolic disorders in offspring according to epidemiological and animal studies. Nevertheless, molecular mechanisms remain unclear. We investigated impacts of diet-induced paternal obesity on metabolic phenotypes in offspring and its underlying molecular mechanism. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Male founder mice (F0), fed with control diet (CD) or high fat diet (HFD), were mated with CD-fed females...
August 16, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811499/the-role-of-dermcidin-isoform-2-in-the-occurrence-and-severity-of-diabetes
#10
Suman Bhattacharya, Md Mobidullah Khan, Chandradipa Ghosh, Sarbashri Bank, Smarajit Maiti
Diabetes is now epidemic worldwide. Several hundred-million peoples are presently suffering from this disease with other secondary-disorders. Stress, hypertension, sedentary life-style, carbohydrate/lipid metabolic-disorders due to genetic or environmental factors attributes to type-1 and/or type-2 diabetes. Present investigation demonstrates that stress-induced protein dermcidin isoform-2 (DCN-2) which appears in the serum of diabetic-patients play a key-role in this disease pathogenesis/severity. DCN-2 suppresses insulin production-release from liver/pancreas...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811359/exercise-training-prevents-skeletal-muscle-plasma-membrane-cholesterol-accumulation-cortical-actin-filament-loss-and-insulin-resistance-in-c57bl-6j-mice-fed-a-western-style-high-fat-diet
#11
Ashley G Ambery, Lixuan Tackett, Brent A Penque, Joseph T Brozinick, Jeffrey S Elmendorf
Insulin action and glucose disposal are enhanced by exercise, yet the mechanisms involved remain imperfectly understood. While the causes of skeletal muscle insulin resistance also remain poorly understood, new evidence suggest excess plasma membrane (PM) cholesterol may contribute by damaging the cortical filamentous actin (F-actin) structure essential for GLUT4 glucose transporter redistribution to the PM upon insulin stimulation. Here, we investigated whether PM cholesterol toxicity was mitigated by exercise...
August 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811293/the-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-in-the-ventromedial-hypothalamus-reduces-short-term-food-intake-in-male-mice-by-regulating-nutrient-sensor-activity
#12
Melissa A Burmeister, Jacob D Brown, Jennifer E Ayala, Doris A Stoffers, Darleen A Sandoval, Randy J Seeley, Julio E Ayala
Pharmacological activation of the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) reduces food intake. Here, we assessed whether suppression of food intake by GLP-1R agonists (GLP-1RA) in this region is dependent upon AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR). We found that pharmacological inhibition of glycolysis and, thus, activation of AMPK, in the VMH attenuates the anorectic effect of the GLP-1R agonist exendin-4 (Ex4), indicating that glucose metabolism and inhibition of AMPK are both required for this effect...
August 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810972/when-military-fitness-standards-no-longer-apply-the-high-prevalence-of-metabolic-syndrome-in-recent-air-force-retirees
#13
Marcus M Cranston, Mark W True, Jana L Wardian, Rishawn M Carriere, Tom J Sauerwein
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is strongly associated with cardiovascular disease. With MetS prevalence rates increasing in the U.S. population, prevention efforts have largely focused on diet and exercise interventions. Before retirement, military service members have met fitness requirements for at least 20 years, and have lower MetS rates compared to age-matched U.S. population controls (23.4% vs. 39.0%), which suggests a protective effect of the lifestyle associated with military service...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810867/new-inducible-promoter-for-gene-expression-and-synthetic-biology-in-yarrowia-lipolytica
#14
Marion Trassaert, Marie Vandermies, Fréderic Carly, Olivia Denies, Stéphane Thomas, Patrick Fickers, Jean-Marc Nicaud
BACKGROUND: The oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica is increasingly used as alternative cell factory for the production of recombinant proteins. At present, several promoters with different strengths have been developed based either on the constitutive pTEF promoter or on oleic acid inducible promoters such as pPOX2 and pLIP2. Although these promoters are highly efficient, there is still a lack of versatile inducible promoters for gene expression in Y. lipolytica. RESULTS: We have isolated and characterized the promoter of the EYK1 gene coding for an erythrulose kinase...
August 15, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810853/acute-effects-of-reducing-sitting-time-in-adolescents-a-randomized-cross-over-study
#15
Anisse Penning, Anthony D Okely, Stewart G Trost, Jo Salmon, Dylan P Cliff, Marijka Batterham, Steven Howard, Anne-Maree Parrish
BACKGROUND: Levels of sitting among adolescents are high, especially during the school day. The acute cognitive and health consequences associated with prolonged sitting are poorly understood in adolescents. This randomized crossover design study examined the acute effects of a simulated school day with reduced sitting or usual sitting on adolescents' cognitive function and cardiometabolic biomarkers. METHODS: Eighteen healthy school aged adolescents were recruited from the community to the study (11 males; 7 females; mean age [SD] = 13...
August 15, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810840/the-association-between-tuberculosis-and-the-development-of-insulin-resistance-in-adults-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-the-western-sub-district-of-the-cape-metropole-region-south-africa-a-combined-cross-sectional-cohort-study
#16
Lauren Philips, Janicke Visser, Daan Nel, Renée Blaauw
BACKGROUND: The existence of a bi-directional relationship between tuberculosis (TB) and insulin resistance (IR)/diabetes has been alluded to in literature. Although diabetes has been linked to increased tuberculosis risk, the relationship between tuberculosis as a causative factor for IR remains unclear. The study aimed to determine if an association existed between tuberculosis and IR development in adults with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis at baseline. It was additionally aimed to document changes in IR status during TB follow-up periods...
August 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810828/suitable-reference-gene-for-quantitative-real-time-pcr-analysis-of-gene-expression-in-gonadal-tissues-of-minnow-puntius-sophore-under-high-temperature-stress
#17
Arabinda Mahanty, Gopal Krishna Purohit, Sasmita Mohanty, Nihar Ranjan Nayak, Bimal Prasanna Mohanty
BACKGROUND: High ambient temperature is known to affect fish gonadal development and physiology in a variety of ways depending on the severity and duration of exposure; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Gonadal gene expression influence the gonadal development, physiology and the quality of egg/sperm produced in teleosts and the mechanistic understanding of spatio-temporal changes in the gonadal gene expression could be instrumental in controlling the fate of egg/sperm and the quality of seed produced...
August 15, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810765/high-pressure-studies-on-structural-and-secondary-relaxation-dynamics-in-silyl-derivative-of-d-glucose
#18
Aldona Minecka, Ewa Kamińska, Magdalena Tarnacka, Andrzej Dzienia, Olga Madejczyk, Patrycja Waliłko, Anna Kasprzycka, Kamil Kamiński, Marian Paluch
In this paper, broadband dielectric spectroscopy was applied to investigate molecular dynamics of 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-(trimethylsilyl)-D-glucopyranose (S-GLU) at ambient and elevated pressures. Our studies showed that apart from the structural relaxation, one well resolved asymmetric secondary process (initially labeled as β) is observed in the spectra measured at p = 0.1 MPa. Analysis with the use of the coupling model and criterion proposed by Ngai and Capaccioli indicated that the β-process in S-GLU is probably a Johari-Goldstein relaxation of intermolecular origin...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810643/occludin-downregulation-in-high-glucose-is-regulated-by-sstr2-via-the-vegf-nrp1-akt-signaling-pathway-in-rf-6a-cells
#19
Mengling Li, Shuaiwei Wang, Songjiang Wang, Lei Zhang, Dongdong Wu, Ruisheng Yang, Ailing Ji, Yanzhang Li, Jun Wang
Occludin is a tight junction protein that forms the permeability barrier, which is typically disturbed in ischemic associated diseases. The aim of the present study was to determine whether somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR2) in RF/6A cells is involved in the modulation of the downregulation of occludin induced by high glucose, and to evaluate the implicated molecules. RF/6A cells were maintained in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium and treated with 0 or 30 mM D-glucose. SSTR2 agonist octreotide (OCT), OCT with SSTR2 antagonist cycle-somatostatin (c-SOM) and neuropilin 1 (NRP1) inhibitor ATWLPPR, respectively, were administered to RF/6A cells under high glucose conditions...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810524/pioglitazone-induced-bone-loss-in-diabetic-rats-and-its-amelioration-by-berberine-a-portrait-of-molecular-crosstalk
#20
Mohammad Adil, Mohd Nizam Mansoori, Divya Singh, Amit Dattatraya Kandhare, Manju Sharma
Diabetes mellitus and osteoporosis both are high prevalence disorders, especially in the elderly population. Pioglitazone, a PPAR-γ agonist associated with bone loss and risk of fracture in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. In this study, ameliorative effect of berberine against pioglitazone-induced bone loss in diabetic rats and possible mechanisms has been explored. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar albino rats by streptozotocin (65 mg/kg, i.v.) after 15min of nicotinamide (230mg/kg, i.p.) administration...
August 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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