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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532102/islet-encapsulated-implantable-composite-hollow-fiber-membrane-based-device-a-bioartificial-pancreas
#1
Rohit S Teotia, Sachin Kadam, Atul Kumar Singh, Surendra Kumar Verma, Ashutosh Bahulekar, Sujata Kanetkar, Jayesh Bellare
Islets from xeno-sources and islet like clusters derived from autologus stem cells have emerged as alternatives to cadaveric pancreas used for treatment of type 1 diabetes. However, the immuno-isolation of these islets from the host immune system suffers from the issue of biocompatibility and hypoxia. To overcome the issues of immunobarrier biocompatibility, we developed a Polysulfone (Psf)/TPGS composite hollow fiber membrane (HFM) using a hollow fiber spinning pilot plant specially developed for this purpose...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531992/boronate-functionalized-hydrogel-as-a-novel-biosensing-interface-for-the-glycated-hemoglobin-a1c-hba1c-based-on-the-competitive-binding-with-signaling-glycoprotein
#2
Yong Duk Han, Ka Ram Kim, Yoo Min Park, Seung Yeon Song, Yong Ju Yang, Kangsun Lee, Yunhee Ku, Hyun C Yoon
According to recent increases in public healthcare costs associated with diabetes mellitus, the development of new glycemic monitoring techniques based on the biosensing of glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), a promising long-term glycemic biomarker, has become a major challenge. In the development of HbA1c biosensors for point-of-care applications, the selection of an effective biorecognition layer that provides a high reaction yield and specificity toward HbA1c is regarded as the most significant issue. To address this, we developed a novel HbA1c biosensing interfacial material by the integration of boronate hydrogel with glass fiber membrane...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531858/combined-acid-alkaline-peroxide-pretreatment-of-olive-tree-biomass-for-bioethanol-production
#3
José Carlos Martínez-Patiño, Encarnación Ruiz, Inmaculada Romero, Cristóbal Cara, Juan Carlos López-Linares, Eulogio Castro
Olive tree biomass (OTB) can be used for producing second generation bioethanol. In this work, extracted OTB was subjected to fractionation using a sequential acid/alkaline oxidative pretreatment. In the first acid stage, the effects of sulfuric acid concentration and reaction times at 130°C were investigated. Up to 71% solubilization of hemicellulosic sugars was achieved under optimized conditions (2.4% H2SO4, 84min). In the second stage, the influence of hydrogen peroxide concentration and process time were evaluated at 80°C...
April 28, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531849/heterotrophy-of-filamentous-oleaginous-microalgae-tribonema-minus-for-potential-production-of-lipid-and-palmitoleic-acid
#4
Wenjun Zhou, Hui Wang, Lin Chen, Wentao Cheng, Tianzhong Liu
Heterotrophic fermentation and high valuable co-product producing are thought to be effective ways to improve the economic viability and feasibility of commercial production of microalgae biofuels. This work reported the heterotrophic cultivation of Tribonema minus for lipid and palmitoleic acid (a novel functional fatty acid) production. Firstly, the heterotrophic ability of T. minus was identified for the first time with significant promotion in biomass and lipid productivity, and glucose and urea were then selected as the optimal carbon and nitrogen sources...
May 10, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531555/microbial-detoxification-of-carvedilol-a-%C3%AE-adrenergic-antagonist-by-the-filamentous-fungus-cunninghamella-echinulata
#5
Katarzyna Zawadzka, Przemysław Bernat, Aleksandra Felczak, Katarzyna Lisowska
Beta adrenergic antagonists like carvedilol are typical environmental pollutants detected in wastewater and surface water. Human metabolism of carvedilol is well investigated, while its environmental fates are still unknown. In recent years, there have been appearing reports on high toxicity of β-blockers toward aquatic organisms. In this paper the ability of the filamentous fungus C. echinulata to eliminate the β-blocker has been described for the first time. An 83% loss of carvedilol was observed after 120 h incubation of the tested fungus with the compound, where hydroxylated carvedilol metabolites were identified as the major biotransformation products...
May 16, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531287/bacterial-rna-polymerase-caps-rna-with-various-cofactors-and-cell-wall-precursors
#6
Christina Julius, Yulia Yuzenkova
Bacterial RNA polymerase is able to initiate transcription with adenosine-containing cofactor NAD+, which was proposed to result in a portion of cellular RNAs being 'capped' at the 5΄ end with NAD+, reminiscent of eukaryotic cap. Here we show that, apart from NAD+, another adenosine-containing cofactor FAD and highly abundant uridine-containing cell wall precursors, UDP-Glucose and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine are efficiently used to initiate transcription in vitro. We show that the affinity to NAD+ and UDP-containing factors during initiation is much lower than their cellular concentrations, and that initiation with them stimulates promoter escape...
May 22, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531196/co-inheritance-of-glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-deficiency-mutations-and-hemoglobin-e-in-a-kachin-population-in-a-malaria-endemic-region-of-southeast-asia
#7
Zeshuai Deng, Fang Yang, Yao Bai, Lijun He, Qing Li, Yanrui Wu, Lan Luo, Hong Li, Limei Ma, Zhaoqing Yang, Yongshu He, Liwang Cui
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and hemoglobin E (HbE, β26 Glu-Lys) are two common red cell disorders in Southeast Asia. G6PD deficiency produces hemolytic anemia, which can be triggered by certain drugs or infections. HbE is asymptomatic or is manifested as microcytic, minimally hemolytic anemia. The association between G6PD deficiency and HbE is little understood. This study aimed to investigate G6PD deficiency and HbE in a Kachin ethnic group in the China-Myanmar border area. G6PD enzyme activity was measured using a quantitative G6PD assay, G6PD variants genotyped by the SNaPshot assay, and an HbE gene mutation identified by an amplification refractory mutation system and subsequently confirmed by using a reverse dot blot hybridization assay from 100 unrelated individuals in the study area...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531105/high-mobility-group-box-1-disrupts-metabolic-function-with-cigarette-smoke-exposure-in-a-ceramide-dependent-manner
#8
Oliver J Taylor, Mikayla O Thatcher, Sheryl T Carr, Jonathan L Gibbs, Annie M Trumbull, Mitchell E Harrison, Duane R Winden, Mackenzie J Pearson, Trevor S Tippetts, William L Holland, Paul R Reynolds, Benjamin T Bikman
We have previously found that cigarette smoke disrupts metabolic function, in part, by increasing muscle ceramide accrual. To further our understanding of this, we sought to determine the role of the cytokine high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), which is increased with smoke exposure, in smoke-induced muscle metabolic perturbations. To test this theory, we determined HMGB1 from lungs of human smokers, as well as from lung cells from mice exposed to cigarette smoke. We also treated cells and mice directly with HMGB1, in the presence or absence of myriocin, an inhibitor of serine palmitoyltransferase, the rate-limiting enzyme in ceramide biosynthesis...
May 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530609/phenolic-compounds-of-the-australian-native-herb-prostanthera-rotundifolia-and-their-biological-activities
#9
Kitty S C Tang, Izabela Konczak, Jian Zhao
The chemical identity and bioactivities of phenolic components of the Australian native herb Prostanthera rotundifolia were studied. Phenolic compounds were extracted with 80% (v/v) aqueous methanol and purified by liquid chromatography. The antioxidant capacity of the extract and its inhibiting activity against α-glucosidase, pancreatic lipase and hyaluronidase were determined. Phenolic compounds were identified by a combination of HPLC-PDA, LC-high resolution MS (LC-HRMS), LC-tandem MS (LC-MS/MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy...
October 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530590/metabolic-profiling-of-apples-from-different-production-systems-before-and-after-controlled-atmosphere-ca-storage-studied-by-1-h-high-resolution-magic-angle-spinning-hr-mas-nmr
#10
Martina Vermathen, Mattia Marzorati, Gaëlle Diserens, Daniel Baumgartner, Claudia Good, Franz Gasser, Peter Vermathen
Determination of metabolic alterations in apples induced by such processes as different crop protection strategies or storage, are of interest to assess correlations with fruit quality or fruit disorders. Preliminary results proposed the metabolic discrimination of apples from organic (BIO), integrated (IP) and low-input (LI) production. To determine contributions of temporal metabolic developments and to define the type of metabolic changes during storage, (1)H high resolution-magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy of apple pulp was performed before and after two time points of controlled atmosphere storage...
October 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529973/high-affinity-mannotetraose-as-an-alternative-to-dextran-in-cona-based-fluorescent-affinity-glucose-assay-due-to-improved-fret-efficiency
#11
Andrea K Locke, Brian M Cummins, Gerard L Coté
Diabetes mellitus affects millions of people worldwide and requires that individuals tightly self-regulate their blood glucose levels to minimize the associated secondary complications. Continuous monitoring devices potentially offer patients a long-term means to tightly monitor their glucose levels. In recent years, fluorescent affinity sensors based on lectins (e.g., Concanavalin A (ConA)) have been implemented in such devices. Traditionally, these sensors pair the lectin with a multivalent ligand, like dextran, in order to develop a competitive binding assay that changes its fluorescent properties in response to the surrounding glucose concentrations...
May 27, 2016: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529757/enzyme-activities-and-gene-expression-of-starch-metabolism-provide-insights-into-grape-berry-development
#12
Xudong Zhu, Chaobo Zhang, Weimin Wu, Xiaopeng Li, Chuan Zhang, Jinggui Fang
Grapes are categorized as a non-climacteric type of fruit which its ripening is not associated to important rises in respiration and ethylene synthesis. The starch metabolism shares a certain role in the carbohydrate metabolic pathways during grape berry development, and is regarded as an important transient pool in the pathway of sugar accumulation. However, the comprehensive role of starch and its contribution to the quality and flavor of grape berry have not been explored thoroughly. In this study, the expression levels of genes enzyme activities and carbohydrate concentrations related to starch metabolism, were analyzed to understand the molecular mechanism of starch accumulation during grape berry development...
2017: Horticulture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529605/mutual-regulation-of-mir-199a-5p-and-hif-1%C3%AE-modulates-the-warburg-effect-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#13
Binkui Li, Liru He, Dinglan Zuo, Wei He, Yongjin Wang, Yuanping Zhang, Wenwu Liu, Yunfei Yuan
The Warburg effect is one of the major metabolic changes of cancer cells, which characterized by high level of glycolysis even in the presence of oxygen. However, the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating the glycolytic switch in cancer cells has not been well explored. In this study, we demonstrated that miR-199a-5p acts as a suppressor of the Warburg effect in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). MiR-199a-5p directly targets the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), thereby suppressing glucose uptake, lactate production, cell growth, and expression of HIF-1α downstream glycolytic genes of HCC cells...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529331/butyrylcholinesterase-regulates-central-ghrelin-signaling-and-impacts-food-intake-and-glucose-homeostasis
#14
V P Chen, Y Gao, L Geng, S Brimijoin
BACKGROUND: Ghrelin is the only orexigenic hormone known to stimulate food intake and promote obesity and insulin resistance. We recently showed that plasma ghrelin is controlled by butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), which has a strong impact on feeding and weight gain. BChE knockout (KO) mice are prone to obesity on high-fat diet but hepatic BChE gene transfer rescues normal food intake and obesity resistance. However, these mice lack brain BChE and still develop hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance, suggesting essential interactions between BChE and ghrelin within the brain...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529277/levels-of-glucose-regulatory-hormones-in-patients-with-non-islet-cell-tumor-hypoglycemia-including-a-review-of-the-literature
#15
Izumi Fukuda, Akira Asai, Tomoko Nagamine, Taro Harada, Kyoko Tanimura-Inagaki, Naomi Hizuka, Hitoshi Sugihara
Non-islet cell tumor hypoglycemia (NICTH) is one of the causes of spontaneous hypoglycemia. The pathogenesis of NICTH is thought to be an excessive production by tumors of big insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II. This study investigated the levels of glucose-regulatory hormones in patients with NICTH with high serum levels of big IGF-II (big IGF-II group) and compared these with profiles of patients with spontaneous hypoglycemia with normal IGF-II (normal IGF-II group). Circulating IRI, CPR, ACTH, cortisol, GH, and IGF-I levels measured during hypoglycemic episodes were examined retrospectively in 37 patients with big IGF-II producing NICTH and 6 hypoglycemic patients with normal IGF-II...
May 19, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529177/senecio-brasiliensis-impairs-eclosion-rate-and-induces-apoptotic-cell-death-in-larvae-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#16
Giulianna Echeverria Macedo, Karen Kich Gomes, Nathane Rosa Rodrigues, Illana Kemmerich Martins, Gabriel da Luz Wallau, Nélson Rodrigues de Carvalho, Litiele Cezar da Cruz, Dennis Guilherme da Costa Silva, Aline Augusti Boligon, Jeferson Luis Franco, Thaís Posser
Senecio brasilienis (Spreng) Less., is a species native from Brazil, popularly known as "maria mole", and known to induce hepatotoxicity due to its high content of Pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Despite its toxicity, this plant is widely used in Brazilian folk medicine. Considering the antagonizing effects described for S. brasiliensis, we describe here molecular markers involved in the toxicity of hydroalcoholic extract from leaves of S. brasiliensis (HESB) in Drosophila melanogaster. Phytochemical analysis of HESB revealed the presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids...
May 18, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529085/variations-in-native-protein-glycation-and-plasma-antioxidants-in-several-birds-of-prey
#17
Tana Ingram, Jessica Zuck, Chad R Borges, Patrick Redig, Karen L Sweazea
Birds are an anomaly among vertebrates as they are remarkably long-lived despite having naturally high blood glucose and metabolic rates. For mammals, hyperglycemia leads to oxidative stress and protein glycation. In contrast, many studies have shown that domestic and wild birds are relatively resistant to these glucose-mediated pathologies. Surprisingly very little research has examined protein glycation in birds of prey, which by nature consume a diet high in protein and fat that promotes gluconeogenesis...
May 18, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529027/management-of-postneurosurgical-meningitis-narrative-review
#18
REVIEW
Khetam Hussein, Roni Bitterman, Ben Shofty, Mical Paul, Ami Neuberger
BACKGROUND: Infections complicating neurosurgery pose unacceptable mortality and morbidity. AIMS: To summarize what is known about the epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of post-neurosurgical meningitis (PNM). SOURCES: PubMed, references of identified studies and reviews, and personal experience when evidence was lacking. CONTENT: The incidence and pathogen distribution of PNM is highly variable. A shift towards Gram-negative bacteria has been observed with use of antibiotic prophylaxis and antibiotic-coated devices directed mainly against Gram-positive bacteria...
May 18, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528323/c-graph-a-validated-scoring-system-for-early-stratification-of-neurologic-outcome-after-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest-treated-with-targeted-temperature-management
#19
Erich L Kiehl, Alex M Parker, Ralph M Matar, Matthew F Gottbrecht, Michelle C Johansen, Mark P Adams, Lori A Griffiths, Steven P Dunn, Katherine L Bidwell, Venu Menon, Kyle B Enfield, Lawrence W Gimple
BACKGROUND: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) results in significant morbidity and mortality, primarily from neurologic injury. Predicting neurologic outcome early post-OHCA remains difficult in patients receiving targeted temperature management. METHODS AND RESULTS: Retrospective analysis was performed on consecutive OHCA patients receiving targeted temperature management (32-34°C) for 24 hours at a tertiary-care center from 2008 to 2012 (development cohort, n=122)...
May 20, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528297/biogenic-aldehydes-as-therapeutic-targets-for-cardiovascular-disease
#20
REVIEW
Margaret-Ann M Nelson, Shahid P Baba, Ethan J Andersonc
Aldehydes are continuously formed in biological systems through enzyme-dependent and spontaneous oxidation of lipids, glucose, and primary amines. These highly reactive, biogenic electrophiles can become toxic via covalent modification of proteins, lipids and DNA. Thus, agents that scavenge aldehydes through conjugation have therapeutic value for a number of major cardiovascular diseases. Several commonly-prescribed drugs (e.g., hydralazine) have been shown to have potent aldehyde-conjugating properties which may contribute to their beneficial effects...
May 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
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