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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667998/isolation-purification-characterization-and-bioactivities-of-a-glucan-from-the-root-of-pueraria-lobata
#1
Can Xu, Ningbo Qin, Chunyan Yan, Shumei Wang
The root of Pueraria lobata is considered to be a medicinal and edible herb for the treatment of diabetes, and it has a long history of application in China. To explore the constituents responsible for the anti-hyperglycemic activities of P. lobata, a water-soluble polysaccharide (PL70-1-1) was isolated and purified by using a DEAE-Cellulose 52 anion exchange column and a Sephacryl S-100 gel filtration column. Its molecular weight (2584 Da) was determined by high performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC)...
April 18, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667734/celastrol-reverses-palmitic-acid-pa-caused-tlr4-md2-activation-dependent-insulin-resistance-via-disrupting-md2-related-cellular-binding-to-pa
#2
Xue Zhang, Ying Wang, Hui-Ya Ge, Yi-Jun Gu, Fan-Fan Cao, Chun-Xin Yang, Georges Uzan, Bin Peng, Deng-Hai Zhang
Elevated plasma statured fatty acids (FFAs) cause TLR4/MD2 activation-dependent inflammation and insulin tolerance, which account for the occurrence and development of obesity. It has been confirmed that statured palmitic acid (PA) (the most abundant FFA) could bind MD2 to cause cellular inflammation. The natural compound celastrol could improve obesity, which is suggested via inhibiting inflammation, yet the detailed mechanism for celastrol is still unclear. As celastrol is reported to directly target MD2, we thought disrupting the binding between FFAs and MD2 might be one of the ways for celastrol to inhibit FFAs-caused inflammation and insulin resistance...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667605/hierarchical-layered-double-hydroxides-with-ag-nanoparticles-modification-for-ethanol-sensing
#3
Yuxiang Qin, Liping Wang, Xiaofei Wang
Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are recently revealed to be promising in gas sensor application due to compositional flexibility and unique 2D-interlayer channel for gas diffusion and adsorption. This work demonstrates a kind of highly porous hierarchical LDHs containing Mg2+ and Al3+ (MgAl-LDHs) for ethanol-sensing at room temperature. The MgAl-LDHs with unique flower-like hierarchical structure and mesoporous interlayer were synthesized hydrothermally using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as soft template as well as intercalating agent...
April 18, 2018: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667589/a-rare-cause-of-dysregulated-metabolic-syndrome-cortisol-producing-adrenocortical-carcinoma
#4
L Saes, I A Boere, J Hofland, M Mulder, R A Feelders
Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare and highly malignant disease which can cause hypercortisolism leading to dysregulation of blood pressure and glucose levels. Most patients present with advanced disease. We describe the classic presentation of a functional adrenocortical carcinoma in a patient with metabolic syndrome.
April 2018: Netherlands Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666524/comparison-of-high-pressure-and-high-temperature-short-time-processing-on-quality-of-carambola-juice-during-cold-storage
#5
Hsiao-Wen Huang, Bang-Yuan Chen, Chung-Yi Wang
This study validated high hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP) for achieving greater than 5-log reductions of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in carambola juice and determined shelf life of processed juice stored at 4 °C. Carambola juice processed at 600 MPa for 150 s was identified capable of achieving greater than 5.15-log reductions of E. coli O157:H7, and the quality was compared with that of high temperature short time (HTST)-pasteurized juice at 110 °C for 8.6 s. Aerobic, psychrotrophic, E. coli /coliform, and yeasts and moulds in the juice were reduced by HPP or HTST to levels below the minimum detection limit (< 1...
May 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666451/exploring-the-extent-and-scope-of-epigenetic-inheritance
#6
REVIEW
Elizabeth J Radford
Environmental factors, particularly during early life, are important for the later metabolic health of the individual. In our obesogenic environment, it is of major socio-economic importance to investigate the mechanisms that contribute to the risk of metabolic ill health. Increasing evidence from a variety of model organisms suggests that non-genetically determined phenotypes, including metabolic effects such as glucose intolerance and obesity, can be passed between generations, which encourages us to revisit heredity...
April 17, 2018: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666436/alterations-in-the-health-of-hibernating-bats-under-pathogen-pressure
#7
Hana Bandouchova, Tomáš Bartonička, Hana Berkova, Jiri Brichta, Tomasz Kokurewicz, Veronika Kovacova, Petr Linhart, Vladimir Piacek, Jiri Pikula, Alexandra Zahradníková, Jan Zukal
In underground hibernacula temperate northern hemisphere bats are exposed to Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the fungal agent of white-nose syndrome. While pathological and epidemiological data suggest that Palearctic bats tolerate this infection, we lack knowledge about bat health under pathogen pressure. Here we report blood profiles, along with body mass index (BMI), infection intensity and hibernation temperature, in greater mouse-eared bats (Myotis myotis). We sampled three European hibernacula that differ in geomorphology and microclimatic conditions...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666152/phenylmethimazole-abrogates-diet-induced-inflammation-glucose-intolerance-and-nafld
#8
Ashley Patton, Tyler Church, Caroline Wilson, Jean Thuma, Douglas J Goetz, Darlene E Berryman, Edward O List, Frank L Schwartz, Kelly D McCall
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of both metabolic and inflammatory diseases and has become the leading chronic liver disease worldwide. High fat (HF) diets promote an increased uptake and storage of free fatty acids (FFAs) and triglycerides (TGs) in hepatocytes, which initiates steatosis and induces lipotoxicity, inflammation, and insulin resistance. Activation and signaling of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) by FFAs induces inflammation evident in NAFLD and insulin resistance...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665969/copeptin-plasma-levels-are-associated-with-decline-of-renal-function-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#9
Maria De La Luz Villela-Torres, Ana Edith Higareda-Mendoza, Anel Gómez-García, Alfonso Rafael Alvarez-Paredes, Elvia García-López, Peter Stenvikel, Harvest F Gu, Abbul Rashid-Qureshi, Bengt Lindholm, Cleto Alvarez-Aguilar
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a leading complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and is considered as a public health problem. Copeptin is a surrogate marker of arginine vasopressin (AVP) system and is proposed as a biomarker of decline renal function. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate whether plasma copeptin levels may be used as a biomarker of decline renal function in patients with T2DM. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 480 patients with T2DM and different stages of CKD were included...
April 14, 2018: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665834/inequalities-in-the-prevalence-of-diabetes-mellitus-and-its-risk-factors-in-sri-lanka-a-lower-middle-income-country
#10
Ambepitiyawaduge Pubudu De Silva, Sudirikku Hennadige Padmal De Silva, Rashan Haniffa, Isurujith Kongala Liyanage, Saroj Jayasinghe, Prasad Katulanda, Chandrika Neelakanthi Wijeratne, Sumedha Wijeratne, Lalini Chandika Rajapaksa
BACKGROUND: Explorations into quantifying the inequalities for diabetes mellitus (DM) and its risk factors are scarce in low and lower middle income countries (LICs/LMICs). The aims of this study were to assess the inequalities of DM and its risk factors in a suburban district of Sri Lanka. METHODS: A sample of 1300 participants, (aged 35-64 years) randomly selected using a stratified multi-stage cluster sampling method, were studied employing a cross sectional descriptive design...
April 17, 2018: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665562/10-year-cvd-risk-in-han-chinese-mainland-patients-with-schizophrenia
#11
Shuai Zhao, HaiLong Xia, JingJing Mu, Long Wang, Li Zhu, AnZhen Wang, XiaoQin Zhou
People with schizophrenia have a shortened life expectancy, with cardiovascular disease (CVD) being the primary contributor to this excessive mortality. A total of 466 inpatients with schizophrenia and 507 healthy community controls in the Chinese mainland were recruited in this study. Sociodemographic information, medical history, and smoking history were recorded. In addition, total cholesterol (TC), fasting blood glucose (FBG), triglycerides (TG), and high-destiny lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were analyzed...
April 9, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665142/risk-factors-for-late-onset-hypogonadism
#12
Q T Yang, K S Wu, Z J Li, W C Li, L Lu, H Q Wu, Y Y Zhuang, X X Sui
The European Male Aging Study (EMAS) has recently defined strict diagnostic criteria for late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) including the levels of serum total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT) and three sexual symptoms. However, there is no report on risk factors for LOH using these criteria. In this study, we investigated risk factors for LOH based on these criteria. We recruited 277 men (aged 36-80 years) who completed both a health check-up and two questionnaires (a health and lifestyle questionnaire, and a sexual function questionnaire)...
April 17, 2018: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665125/cross-sectional-study-showed-that-breakfast-consumption-was-associated-with-demographic-clinical-and-biochemical-factors-in-children-and-adolescents
#13
Fabiana A Silva, Cristina Padez, Daniela S Sartorelli, Renata M S Oliveira, Michele P Netto, Larissa L Mendes, Ana Paula C Cândido
AIM: We investigated the demographic, anthropometric, clinical, biochemical and behavioural factors associated with children and adolescents who missed breakfast. METHODS: This 2012 cross-sectional study was carried out in the city of Juiz de Fora, Brazil, with a sample of 684 students: 191 children aged 7-9 and 493 adolescents aged 10-14. Data on demographic, physical activity and breakfast consumption was based on a 24-hour recall record and a three-day dietary record...
April 17, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665034/metabolic-features-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-nafl-in-obese-adolescents-findings-from-a-multi-ethnic-cohort
#14
Domenico Tricò, Sonia Caprio, Giuseppina Rosaria Umano, Bridget Pierpont, Jessica Nouws, Alfonso Galderisi, Grace Kim, Mariana M Mata, Nicola Santoro
AIMS: We conducted a prospective study in a large, multiethnic cohort of obese adolescents to characterize clinical and genetic features associated with pediatric Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver (NAFL), the most common cause of chronic liver disease in youth. METHODS: A total of 503 obese adolescents were enrolled, including 191 (38.0%) Caucasians, 134 (26.6%) African Americans, and 178 (35.4%) Hispanics. Participants underwent abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantify hepatic fat content, an oral glucose tolerance test to assess glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, and the genotyping of three SNPs associated with fatty liver (PNPLA3 rs738409, GCKR rs1260326, and TM6SF2 rs58542926)...
April 17, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664632/ph-and-amylase-responsive-carboxymethyl-starch-poly-2-isobutyl-acrylic-acid-hybrid-microgels-as-effective-enteric-carriers-for-oral-insulin-delivery
#15
Liang Liu, Ying Zhang, Shuangjiang Yu, Zhen Zhang, Chaoliang He, Xuesi Chen
Oral delivery of insulin has the potential to revolutionize diabetes care since it is regarded as a non-invasive therapeutic approach without the side effects caused by frequent subcutaneous injection. However, the insulin delivery efficiency through oral route was still limited, likely due to the chemical, enzymatic and absorption barriers. In this study, a novel type of pH- and amylase-responsive microgels as an insulin drug carrier for oral administration was developed to improve the drug delivery efficiency...
April 17, 2018: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664069/liraglutide-enhances-autophagy-and-promotes-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-proliferation-to-ameliorate-type-2-diabetes-in-high-fat-fed-and-streptozotocin-treated-mice
#16
Menglin Fan, Hongwei Jiang, Yingyu Zhang, Yujin Ma, Liping Li, Jiannan Wu
BACKGROUND Clinical and experimental studies have revealed that liraglutide has multiple anti-diabetes biological effects. However, little is known about its role in autophagy and pancreatic β cell proliferation. This study aimed to assessed the effects of liraglutide on pancreatic b cell proliferation and autophagy in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes. MATERIAL AND METHODS The effect of liraglutide on autophagy and proliferation in pancreatic β cells was investigated using a high-fat-fed and streptozotocin-induced mouse model of type 2 diabetes...
April 17, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663989/-high-mobility-group-box-1-contributes-to-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-of-liver-in-rats-with-trauma
#17
Qingjie Zhang, Jianfeng Lu, Xuehao Li, Yichang Liu, Guoqing Liu, Xinhua Han, Zhenyong Gu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) in rats with trauma. METHODS: Sixty SPF Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into groups (n = 6). The rat model of liver injury following traumatic stress was established by continuous compressing the bilateral hind-limbs of rats for 3 hours and then intermittent compressing and decompressing for 30 minutes respectively three times with standard weight of 15 kg...
April 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663801/identification-and-characterization-of-phenolic-compounds-in-black-walnut-kernels
#18
Danh Vu, Phuc Vo, Mark Coggeshall, Chung-Ho Lin
Black walnuts ( Juglans nigra L.) are highly valued for producing phenolic-enriched nuts. The objectives of this study were to identify and characterize phenolic contents of eleven different black walnut cultivars and compare the levels of these phenolics between black walnuts and English walnut ( Juglans regia L.). Totally, 16 phenolics including phenolic acids, flavonoids, and catechins were identified in the black walnut kernels, with ellagic acid predominating over the other phenolics. Significant differences were noted for the levels of quinic acid, gallic acid, 1,3,6-trigalloylglucose, catechin, and penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose between the studied black walnuts and English walnut...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663549/ostreolysin-induces-browning-of-adipocytes-and-ameliorates-hepatic-steatosis
#19
Lili Nimri, Katerina Staikin, Irena Peri, Einav Yehuda-Shnaidman, Betty Schwartz
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with all features of the metabolic syndrome. Deposition of excess triglycerides in liver cells, a hallmark of NAFLD, is associated with loss of insulin sensitivity. Ostreolysin (Oly) is a 15-kDa fungal protein known to interact with cholesterol-enriched raft-like membrane domains. We aim to test whether a recombinant version of Oly (rOly) can induce functional changes in vitro in adipocytes or in vivo in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD)...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663489/high-glucose-induced-excessive-reactive-oxygen-species-promote-apoptosis-through-mitochondrial-damage-in-rat-cartilage-endplate-cells
#20
Zengxin Jiang, Wei Lu, Qingmin Zeng, Defang Li, Lei Ding, Jingping Wu
PURPOSE: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an important factor in intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). Apoptosis of cartilage endplate (CEP) cells is one of the initiators of IDD. However, the effects of high glucose on CEP cells are still unknown. Therefore, we conducted the present study to evaluate the effects of high glucose on CEP cells and to identify the mechanisms of those effects. METHODS: Rat CEP cells were isolated and cultured in 10% foetal bovine serum (FBS, normal control) or high-glucose medium (10% FBS + 0...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
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