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genetic differentiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222237/extreme-genetic-structure-in-a-social-bird-species-despite-high-dispersal-capacity
#1
Francisco Morinha, José A Dávila, Estela Bastos, João A Cabral, Óscar Frías, José L González, Paulo Travassos, Diogo Carvalho, Borja Milá, Guillermo Blanco
Social barriers have been shown to reduce gene flow and contribute to genetic structure among populations in species with high cognitive capacity and complex societies, such as cetaceans, apes and humans. In birds, high dispersal capacity is thought to prevent population divergence unless major geographic or habitat barriers induce isolation patterns by dispersal, colonization or adaptation limitation. We report that Iberian populations of the red-billed chough, a social, gregarious corvid with high dispersal capacity, show a striking degree of genetic structure composed of at least 15 distinct genetic units...
February 21, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222229/leg-ulcers-caused-by-genetic-disease-prolidase-deficiency
#2
F Bertolini
I have just read the new guidelines for diagnostics and treatment of venus leg ulcers pubblished by the Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, 2016; 30: 1843-1875 (1), and I think that at this time it would be useful to also include leg ulcers caused by genetic disease "prolidase deficiency" in the differential diagnosis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
February 21, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220321/a-snapshot-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-genetic-diversity-using-multilocus-sequence-type-analysis-in-an-australian-metropolitan-setting
#3
J A Danielewski, S Phillips, F Y S Kong, K S Smith, J S Hocking, R Guy, C K Fairley, S M Garland, S N Tabrizi
High-resolution screening methodologies which enable the differentiation of Chlamydia trachomatis at the strain level, directly from clinical samples, can provide the detailed information required for epidemiological questions such as the dynamics of treatment failure. In addition, they give a detailed snapshot of circulating C. trachomatis genetic variation, data which are currently lacking for the Australian population. In the context of two Australian clinical trials, we assessed the genetic diversity of C...
February 20, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220135/differential-gene-expression-analysis-in-polygonum-minus-leaf-upon-24-h-of-methyl-jasmonate-elicitation
#4
Reyhaneh Rahnamaie-Tajadod, Kok-Keong Loke, Hoe-Han Goh, Normah M Noor
Polygonum minus is an herbal plant that grows in Southeast Asian countries and traditionally used as medicine. This plant produces diverse secondary metabolites such as phenolic compounds and their derivatives, which are known to have roles in plant abiotic and biotic stress responses. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) is a plant signaling molecule that triggers transcriptional reprogramming in secondary metabolism and activation of defense responses against many biotic and abiotic stresses. However, the effect of MeJA elicitation on the genome-wide expression profile in the leaf tissue of P...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219985/activity-induced-synaptic-structural-modifications-by-an-activator-of-integrin-signaling-at-the-drosophila-neuromuscular-junction
#5
Joo Yeun Lee, Junhua Geng, Juhyun Lee, Andrew R Wang, Karen T Chang
Activity-induced synaptic structural modification is crucial for neural development and synaptic plasticity, but the molecular players involved in this process are not well defined. Here, we report that a protein named Shriveled, Shv, regulates synaptic growth and activity-dependent synaptic remodeling at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. Depletion of Shv causes synaptic overgrowth and an accumulation of immature boutons. We find that Shv physically and genetically interacts with βPS integrin. Furthermore, Shv is secreted during intense, but not mild, neuronal activity to acutely activate integrin signaling, induce synaptic bouton enlargement, and increase postsynaptic glutamate receptor abundance...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219892/an-infectious-disease-associated-il12b-polymorphism-regulates-il-12-23-p40-transcription-involving-poly-adp-ribose-polymerase-1
#6
Quanju Zhao, Qinglin Du, Fang Wei, Jianping Xie, Xiaojing Ma
IL-12 and IL-23 are important host defense factors produced by APCs against certain intracellular and extracellular pathogens. Their dysregulation has also been implicated in several autoimmune diseases. The nucleotide polymorphism in the promoter region of Il12b (rs41292470 consisting of the long or short allele) encoding the shared subunit of IL-12 and IL-23, p40, has been reported to associate with susceptibility to infectious diseases and autoimmune disorders. How these genetic variants impact Il12b expression at the molecular level was unclear...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219716/genetic-regulation-of-differentially-methylated-genes-in-visceral-adipose-tissue-of-severely-obese-men-discordant-for-the-metabolic-syndrome
#7
Frédéric Guénard, André Tchernof, Yves Deshaies, Simon Biron, Odette Lescelleur, Laurent Biertho, Simon Marceau, Louis Pérusse, Marie-Claude Vohl
A genetic influence on methylation levels has been reported and methylation quantitative trait loci (meQTL) have been identified in various tissues. The contribution of genetic and epigenetic factors in the development of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) has also been noted. To pinpoint candidate genes for testing the association of SNPs with MetS and its components, we aimed to evaluate the contribution of genetic variations to differentially methylated CpG sites in severely obese men discordant for MetS. A genome-wide differential methylation analysis was conducted in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of 31 severely obese men discordant for MetS (16 with and 15 without MetS) and identified ∼17,800 variable CpG sites...
February 2, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219675/tcf7l2-plays-crucial-roles-in-forebrain-development-through-regulation-of-thalamic-and-habenular-neuron-identity-and-connectivity
#8
Myungsin Lee, Jiyeon Yoon, Hobeom Song, Bumwhee Lee, Lam Tri Duc, Jaeseung Yoon, Kwanghee Baek, Hans Clevers, Yongsu Jeong
The thalamus acts as a central integrator for processing and relaying sensory and motor information to and from the cerebral cortex, and the habenula plays pivotal roles in emotive decision making by modulating dopaminergic and serotonergic circuits. These neural compartments are derived from a common developmental progenitor domain, called prosomere 2, in the caudal forebrain. Thalamic and habenular neurons exhibit distinct molecular profile, neurochemical identity, and axonal circuitry. However, the mechanisms of how their progenitors in prosomere 2 give rise to these two populations of neurons and contribute to the forebrain circuitry remains unclear...
February 17, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219340/very-high-mhc-class-iib-diversity-without-spatial-differentiation-in-the-mediterranean-population-of-greater-flamingos
#9
Mark A F Gillingham, Arnaud Béchet, Alexandre Courtiol, Manuel Rendón-Martos, Juan A Amat, Boudjéma Samraoui, Ortaç Onmuş, Simone Sommer, Frank Cézilly
BACKGROUND: Selective pressure from pathogens is thought to shape the allelic diversity of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes in vertebrates. In particular, both local adaptation to pathogens and gene flow are thought to explain a large part of the intraspecific variation observed in MHC allelic diversity. To date, however, evidence that adaptation to locally prevalent pathogens maintains MHC variation is limited to species with limited dispersal and, hence, reduced gene flow...
February 20, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218435/a-low-frequency-variant-in-smad7-modulates-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling-and-confers-risk-for-colorectal-cancer-in-chinese-population
#10
Jiaoyuan Li, Li Zou, Ying Zhou, Lu Li, Ying Zhu, Yang Yang, Yajie Gong, Jiao Lou, Juntao Ke, Yi Zhang, Jianbo Tian, Danyi Zou, Xiating Peng, Jiang Chang, Jing Gong, Rong Zhong, Xiaobo Zhou, Xiaoping Miao
The TGF-β pathway plays an essential role in regulating cell proliferation and differentiation. GWASs and candidate approaches have identified a battery of genetic variants in the TGF-β pathway contributing to colorectal cancer (CRC). However, most of the significant variants are common variants and their functions remain ambiguous. To identify causal variants with low-frequency in the TGF-β pathway contributing to CRC susceptibility in Chinese population, we performed targeted sequencing of 12 key genes in TGF-β signaling in CRC patients followed by a two-stage case-control study with a total of 5109 cases and 5169 controls...
February 20, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218044/leukemia-microvesicles-affect-healthy-hematopoietic-stem-cells
#11
Farnaz Razmkhah, Masoud Soleimani, Davood Mehrabani, Mohammad Hossein Karimi, Sedigheh Amini Kafi-Abad, Mani Ramzi, Mahdiyar Iravani Saadi, Javad Kakoui
Microvesicles are released by different cell types and shuttle mRNAs and microRNAs which have the possibility to transfer genetic information to a target cell and alter its function. Acute myeloid leukemia is a malignant disorder, and leukemic cells occupy all the bone marrow microenvironment. In this study, we investigate the effect of leukemia microvesicles on healthy umbilical cord blood hematopoietic stem cells to find evidence of cell information transferring. Leukemia microvesicles were isolated from acute myeloid leukemia patients and were co-incubated with healthy hematopoietic stem cells...
February 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217965/copy-number-variations-in-testicular-maturation-arrest
#12
A Halder, P Kumar, M Jain, V K Iyer
Testicular maturation arrest is characterized by interruption of germ cell development and differentiation. Genetic factors play important role in the causation of human disease, including male infertility. The objective was to study copy number variations in testicular maturation arrest using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray technique. Conventional cytogenetics, targeted fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and sequence-tagged site (STS) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used to confirm some of the SNP microarray findings...
February 19, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217963/divergent-methylation-pattern-in-adult-stage-between-two-forms-of-tetranychus-urticae-koch-acari-tetranychidae
#13
Si-Xia Yang, Chao Guo, Xiu-Ting Zhao, Jing-Tao Sun, Xiao-Yue Hong
The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch has two forms: green form and red form. Understanding the molecular basis of how these two forms established without divergent genetic background is an intriguing area. As a well-known epigenetic process, DNA methylation has particularly important roles in gene regulation and developmental variation across diverse organisms that not alter genetic background. Here, to investigate whether DNA methylation could be associated with different phenotypic consequences in T...
February 19, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217939/pitx2-dependent-gene-regulation-in-atrial-fibrillation-and-rhythm-control
#14
Fahima Syeda, Paulus Kirchhof, Larissa Fabritz
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common arrhythmia. Better prevention and treatment of AF are needed to reduce AF-associated morbidity and mortality. There are several major mechanisms that cause AF in patients, including a genetic predisposition to develop AF. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified genetic variants associated with AF populations, with the strongest hits clustering on chromosome 4q25, close to the gene for the homeobox transcription factor PITX2. The effect of these common gene variants on cardiac PITX2 mRNA is currently under study...
February 19, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217849/how-long-bones-grow-children-mechanistic-paths-to-variation-in-human-height-growth
#15
REVIEW
Michelle Lampl, Meriah Schoen
OBJECTIVES: Eveleth and Tanner's descriptive documentation of worldwide variability in human growth provided evidence of the interaction between genetics and environment during development that has been foundational to the science of human growth. There remains a need, however, to describe the mechanistic foundations of variability in human height growth patterns. METHODS: A review of research documenting cellular activities at the endochondral growth plate aims to show how the unique microenvironment and cell functions during the sequential phases of the chondrocyte lifecycle affect long bone elongation, a fundamental source of height growth...
February 20, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216628/genome-wide-primary-transcriptome-analysis-of-h2-producing-archaeon-thermococcus-onnurineus-na1
#16
Suhyung Cho, Min-Sik Kim, Yujin Jeong, Bo-Rahm Lee, Jung-Hyun Lee, Sung Gyun Kang, Byung-Kwan Cho
In spite of their pivotal roles in transcriptional and post-transcriptional processes, the regulatory elements of archaeal genomes are not yet fully understood. Here, we determine the primary transcriptome of the H2-producing archaeon Thermococcus onnurineus NA1. We identified 1,082 purine-rich transcription initiation sites along with well-conserved TATA box, A-rich B recognition element (BRE), and promoter proximal element (PPE) motif in promoter regions, a high pyrimidine nucleotide content (T/C) at the -1 position, and Shine-Dalgarno (SD) motifs (GGDGRD) in 5' untranslated regions (5' UTRs)...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215825/stage-specific-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-map-the-progression-of-myeloid-transformation-to-transplantable-leukemia
#17
Andriana G Kotini, Chan-Jung Chang, Arthur Chow, Han Yuan, Tzu-Chieh Ho, Tiansu Wang, Shailee Vora, Alexander Solovyov, Chrystel Husser, Malgorzata Olszewska, Julie Teruya-Feldstein, Deepak Perumal, Virginia M Klimek, Alexandros Spyridonidis, Raajit K Rampal, Lewis Silverman, E Premkumar Reddy, Elli Papaemmanuil, Samir Parekh, Benjamin D Greenbaum, Christina S Leslie, Michael G Kharas, Eirini P Papapetrou
Myeloid malignancy is increasingly viewed as a disease spectrum, comprising hematopoietic disorders that extend across a phenotypic continuum ranging from clonal hematopoiesis to myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In this study, we derived a collection of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines capturing a range of disease stages encompassing preleukemia, low-risk MDS, high-risk MDS, and secondary AML. Upon their differentiation, we found hematopoietic phenotypes of graded severity and/or stage specificity that together delineate a phenotypic roadmap of disease progression culminating in serially transplantable leukemia...
February 13, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215626/dendritic-cells-that-highly-express-socs1-induce-t-cell-hypo-responsiveness-and-prolong-islet-allograft-survival
#18
Xinjun Lu, Maogen Chen, Zhicheng Xue, Xuzhi Zhang, Jiejie Xu, Linwei Wu, Ronghai Deng, Yi Ma
The capability of dendritic cells (DCs) to induce an immune response or immune tolerance is dependent on their status. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) is a pivotal regulator that participates in negative feedback of the JAK-STAT pathway, which plays a key role in the differentiation, activation, and maturation of DCs. DCs that highly express SOCS1 may modulate DCs, and induce immune anergy or immune tolerance. In this study, we transduced DCs with the recombinant adenovirus Ad5F35 to highly express SOCS1...
February 2, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215522/aflp-assessment-of-genetic-variability-and-relationships-in-an-asian-wild-germplasm-collection-of-dactylis-glomerata-l
#19
Ming Sun, Chenglin Zhang, XinQuan Zhang, Yan Fan, Kaixin Fu, Wendan Wu, Shiqie Bai, Jianbo Zhang, Yan Peng, Linkai Huang, Yanhong Yan, Xiao Ma
Orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), an excellent perennial and cool season forage species distributed in most temperate regions, has been cultivated widely in Western China. Amplified fragment length polymorphism markers were employed to determine the genetic variability and population structure among 41 indigenous orchardgrass accessions from Central Asia and Western China. On the basis of 531 polymorphic fragments resulted from eight primer combinations, polymorphic information content (PIC), marker index (MI) and resolving power (RP) averaged 0...
February 16, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214377/reciprocal-translocation-of-small-numbers-of-inbred-individuals-rescues-immunogenetic-diversity
#20
Catherine E Grueber, Jolene T Sutton, Sol Heber, James V Briskie, Ian G Jamieson, Bruce C Robertson
Genetic rescue can reduce inbreeding depression and increase fitness of small populations, even when the donor populations are highly inbred. In a recent experiment involving two inbred island populations of the South Island robin, Petroica australis, reciprocal translocations improved microsatellite diversity and individual fitness. While microsatellite loci may reflect patterns of genome-wide diversity, they generally do not indicate the specific genetic regions responsible for increased fitness. We tested the effectiveness of this reciprocal translocation for rescuing diversity of two immunogenetic regions: toll-like receptor (TLR) and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes...
February 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
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