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genetic differentiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813680/antibiotics-disrupt-coordination-between-transcriptional-and-phenotypic-stress-responses-in-pathogenic-bacteria
#1
Paul A Jensen, Zeyu Zhu, Tim van Opijnen
Bacterial genes that change in expression upon environmental disturbance have commonly been seen as those that must also phenotypically matter. However, several studies suggest that differentially expressed genes are rarely phenotypically important. We demonstrate, for Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, that these seemingly uncoordinated gene sets are involved in responses that can be linked through topological network analysis. However, the level of coordination is stress dependent. While a well-coordinated response is triggered in response to nutrient stress, antibiotics trigger an uncoordinated response in which transcriptionally and phenotypically important genes are neither linked spatially nor in their magnitude...
August 15, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813430/reprogramming-human-gallbladder-cells-into-insulin-producing-%C3%AE-like-cells
#2
Feorillo Galivo, Eric Benedetti, Yuhan Wang, Carl Pelz, Jonathan Schug, Klaus H Kaestner, Markus Grompe
The gallbladder and cystic duct (GBCs) are parts of the extrahepatic biliary tree and share a common developmental origin with the ventral pancreas. Here, we report on the very first genetic reprogramming of patient-derived human GBCs to β-like cells for potential autologous cell replacement therapy for type 1 diabetes. We developed a robust method for large-scale expansion of human GBCs ex vivo. GBCs were reprogrammed into insulin-producing pancreatic β-like cells by a combined adenoviral-mediated expression of hallmark pancreatic endocrine transcription factors PDX1, MAFA, NEUROG3, and PAX6 and differentiation culture in vitro...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813251/genetic-differential-susceptibility-to-the-effects-of-parenting
#3
REVIEW
Jay Belsky, Marinus H van IJzendoorn
Intervention efforts aimed at remediating or preventing problems in children typically prove only moderately effective due to substantial heterogeneity in their efficacy. It thus becomes important to account for such variation in intervention efficacy. Here we summarize illustrative evidence that, due to their genetic make-up, some children benefit more from interventions targeting parenting than do others. Whereas some work documents the role of single, 'candidate' genes, other work reveals the utility of compositing multiple genes and genetic pathways...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813021/enhanced-cell-growth-of-adipocyte-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-using-chemically-defined-serum-free-media
#4
Myung-Suk Lee, Christine Youn, Jeong Hyun Kim, Byoung Jun Park, Jongchan Ahn, Sungyoul Hong, Young-Deug Kim, Young Kee Shin, Sang Gyu Park
The multipotency and anti-inflammatory effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) make them attractive for cell therapy in regenerative medicine. A large number of MSCs is required for efficient therapy owing to the low homing efficiency of MSCs to target sites. Furthermore, owing to limitations in obtaining sufficient amounts of MSCs, in vitro expansion of MSCs that preserves their differentiation and proliferative potential is essential. The animal factor included in culture media also limits clinical application...
August 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812654/transitions-between-phases-of-genomic-differentiation-during-stick-insect-speciation
#5
Rüdiger Riesch, Moritz Muschick, Dorothea Lindtke, Romain Villoutreix, Aaron A Comeault, Timothy E Farkas, Kay Lucek, Elizabeth Hellen, Víctor Soria-Carrasco, Stuart R Dennis, Clarissa F de Carvalho, Rebecca J Safran, Cristina P Sandoval, Jeff Feder, Regine Gries, Bernard J Crespi, Gerhard Gries, Zach Gompert, Patrik Nosil
Speciation can involve a transition from a few genetic loci that are resistant to gene flow to genome-wide differentiation. However, only limited data exist concerning this transition and the factors promoting it. Here, we study phases of speciation using data from >100 populations of 11 species of Timema stick insects. Consistent with early phases of genic speciation, adaptive colour-pattern loci reside in localized genetic regions of accentuated differentiation between populations experiencing gene flow...
February 17, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812620/tipping-points-in-the-dynamics-of-speciation
#6
Patrik Nosil, Jeffrey L Feder, Samuel M Flaxman, Zachariah Gompert
Speciation can be gradual or sudden and involve few or many genetic changes. Inferring the processes generating such patterns is difficult, and may require consideration of emergent and non-linear properties of speciation, such as when small changes at tipping points have large effects on differentiation. Tipping points involve positive feedback and indirect selection stemming from associations between genomic regions, bi-stability due to effects of initial conditions and evolutionary history, and dependence on modularity of system components...
January 24, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812582/control-of-intestinal-stem-cell-function-and-proliferation-by-mitochondrial-pyruvate-metabolism
#7
John C Schell, Dona R Wisidagama, Claire Bensard, Helong Zhao, Peng Wei, Jason Tanner, Aimee Flores, Jeffrey Mohlman, Lise K Sorensen, Christian S Earl, Kristofor A Olson, Ren Miao, T Cameron Waller, Don Delker, Priyanka Kanth, Lei Jiang, Ralph J DeBerardinis, Mary P Bronner, Dean Y Li, James E Cox, Heather R Christofk, William E Lowry, Carl S Thummel, Jared Rutter
Most differentiated cells convert glucose to pyruvate in the cytosol through glycolysis, followed by pyruvate oxidation in the mitochondria. These processes are linked by the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC), which is required for efficient mitochondrial pyruvate uptake. In contrast, proliferative cells, including many cancer and stem cells, perform glycolysis robustly but limit fractional mitochondrial pyruvate oxidation. We sought to understand the role this transition from glycolysis to pyruvate oxidation plays in stem cell maintenance and differentiation...
August 14, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811978/development-and-characterization-of-naive-single-type-tumor-antigen-specific-cd8-t-lymphocytes-from-murine-pluripotent-stem-cells
#8
Fengyang Lei, Mohammad Haque, Praneet Sandhu, Swetha Ravi, Jianyong Song, Bing Ni, Songguo Zheng, Deyu Fang, Hongyan Jia, Jin-Ming Yang, Jianxun Song
Optimal approaches to differentiate tumor antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) remain elusive. In the current study, we showed that combination of in vitro priming through Notch ligands and in vivo development facilitated the generation of tumor Ag-specific CTLs that effectively inhibited tumor growth. We co-cultured the murine induced PSCs (iPSCs) genetically modified with tyrosinase-related protein 2 (TRP2)-specific T cell receptors with OP9 cell line expressing both Notch ligands Delta-like 1 and 4 (OP9-DL1/DL4) for a week before adoptively transferred into recipient C67BL/6 mice...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811861/importance-of-distinguishing-between-mitochondrial-encephalomyopathy-with-elderly-onset-of-stroke-like-episodes-and-cerebral-infarction
#9
Syuichi Tetsuka, Asako Tagawa, Tomoko Ogawa, Mieko Otsuka, Ritsuo Hashimoto, Hiroyuki Kato
The most common disease-causing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutation in mitochondrial encephalomyopathy (ME) with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) is m.3243A>G. In the future, the incidence of patients with cerebral infarction and diabetes mellitus is expected to increase tremendously. Additionally, the A3243G mutation typical of diabetes is estimated to be present in approximately 2% of all diabetes patients, which suggests that the potential disease population with a mitochondrial disorder is greater than previously thought, and there may have been many cases among the elderly that were misdiagnosed...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811671/microsatellite-evidence-of-dispersal-mechanism-of-red-swamp-crayfish-procambarus-clarkii-in-the-pearl-river-basin-and-implications-for-its-management
#10
Jinlong Huang, Shaoqing Tang, Fengjin Cai, Yanfang Lin, Zhengjun Wu
Discerning the dispersal patterns of invasive species is critically important for the design of effective management strategies and the development of appropriate theoretical models predicting the spatial expansion of introduced populations. Post-introduction dispersal may occur naturally or via human transport, but for many organisms, assessing the relative contribution of each of these factors is difficult using traditional methods. Here, we explored the genetic patterns associated with the spread of red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) among 21 populations in the Pearl River basin and 2 peripheral populations in the Yangtze River basin...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811534/distinct-projection-patterns-of-different-classes-of-layer-2-principal-neurons-in-the-olfactory-cortex
#11
Camille Mazo, Julien Grimaud, Yasuyuki Shima, Venkatesh N Murthy, C Geoffrey Lau
The broadly-distributed, non-topographic projections to and from the olfactory cortex may suggest a flat, non-hierarchical organization in odor information processing. Layer 2 principal neurons in the anterior piriform cortex (APC) can be divided into 2 subtypes: semilunar (SL) and superficial pyramidal (SP) cells. Although it is known that SL and SP cells receive differential inputs from the olfactory bulb (OB), little is known about their projections to other olfactory regions. Here, we examined axonal projections of SL and SP cells using a combination of mouse genetics and retrograde labeling...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811514/differential-epitope-recognition-in-the-immunodominant-staphylococcal-antigen-a-of-staphylococcus-aureus-by-mouse-versus-human-igg-antibodies
#12
Dennis G A M Koedijk, Francisco Romero Pastrana, Hedzer Hoekstra, Sanne van den Berg, Jaap Willem Back, Carolien Kerstholt, Rianne C Prins, Irma A J M Bakker-Woudenberg, Jan Maarten van Dijl, Girbe Buist
The immunodominant staphylococcal antigen A (IsaA) is a potential target for active or passive immunization against the important human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. Consistent with this view, monoclonal antibodies against IsaA were previously shown to be protective against S. aureus infections in mouse models. Further, patients with the genetic blistering disease epidermolysis bullosa (EB) displayed high IsaA-specific IgG levels that could potentially be protective. Yet, mice actively immunized with IsaA were not protected against S...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811464/the-origin-of-a-primordial-genome-through-spontaneous-symmetry-breaking
#13
Nobuto Takeuchi, Paulien Hogeweg, Kunihiko Kaneko
The heredity of a cell is provided by a small number of non-catalytic templates-the genome. How did genomes originate? Here, we demonstrate the possibility that genome-like molecules arise from symmetry breaking between complementary strands of self-replicating molecules. Our model assumes a population of protocells, each containing a population of self-replicating catalytic molecules. The protocells evolve towards maximising the catalytic activities of the molecules to increase their growth rates. Conversely, the molecules evolve towards minimising their catalytic activities to increase their intracellular relative fitness...
August 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810861/the-implementation-of-long-lasting-insecticidal-bed-nets-has-differential-effects-on-the-genetic-structure-of-the-african-malaria-vectors-in-the-anopheles-gambiae-complex-in-dielmo-senegal
#14
Seynabou Sougoufara, Cheikh Sokhna, Nafissatou Diagne, Souleymane Doucouré, Pape MBacké Sembène, Myriam Harry
BACKGROUND: Mosquitoes belonging to the Anopheles gambiae complex are the main vectors of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. Among these, An. gambiae, Anopheles coluzzii and Anopheles arabiensis are the most efficient vectors and are largely distributed in sympatric locations. However, these species present ecological and behavioural differences that impact their vectorial capacity and complicate vector-control efforts, mainly based on long-lasting insecticidal bed nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS)...
August 15, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810830/annotating-long-intergenic-non-coding-rnas-under-artificial-selection-during-chicken-domestication
#15
Yun-Mei Wang, Hai-Bo Xu, Ming-Shan Wang, Newton Otieno Otecko, Ling-Qun Ye, Dong-Dong Wu, Ya-Ping Zhang
BACKGROUND: Numerous biological functions of long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) have been identified. However, the contribution of lincRNAs to the domestication process has remained elusive. Following domestication from their wild ancestors, animals display substantial changes in many phenotypic traits. Therefore, it is possible that diverse molecular drivers play important roles in this process. RESULTS: We analyzed 821 transcriptomes in this study and annotated 4754 lincRNA genes in the chicken genome...
August 15, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810612/effect-of-opg-gene-mutation-on-protein-expression-and-biological-activity-in-osteoporosis
#16
Shuhui Qin, Qiuping Zhang, Li Zhang
The effect of an osteoprotegerin (OPG) gene mutation was investigated on its protein expression and biological activity in osteoporosis. The pcDNA3.0-OPG plasmid or wild-type plasmid were transfected into HEK293 cells. Osteoclast tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and counting were then performed, and the expression of genes related to osteoclast differentiation and activation were measured by RT-PCR. The wild-type or mutant-type OPG at concentrations of 0, 10, 20, 50 and 100 ng/ml were added respectively to RAW264...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810241/molecular-epidemiology-of-charcot-marie-tooth-disease-in-northern-ostrobothnia-finland-a-population-based-study
#17
Maria Marttila, Laura Kytövuori, Seppo Helisalmi, Mika Kallio, Marjo Laitinen, Mikko Hiltunen, Mikko Kärppä, Kari Majamaa
BACKGROUND: Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is the most common hereditary neuromuscular disorder with a population prevalence of 9.7-82.3/100,000. In this study, we have estimated the prevalence of CMT and its subtypes in Finland and examined the frequency of molecular etiologies. METHODS: A population-based survey included adult patients with peripheral neuropathy from the province of Northern Ostrobothnia, Finland. Secondary causes of peripheral polyneuropathy were excluded and patients with clinical and neurophysiological features pertinent with CMT were included...
August 16, 2017: Neuroepidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810029/celiac-disease-and-nonceliac-gluten-sensitivity-a-review
#18
Maureen M Leonard, Anna Sapone, Carlo Catassi, Alessio Fasano
Importance: The prevalence of gluten-related disorders is rising, and increasing numbers of individuals are empirically trying a gluten-free diet for a variety of signs and symptoms. This review aims to present current evidence regarding screening, diagnosis, and treatment for celiac disease and nonceliac gluten sensitivity. Observations: Celiac disease is a gluten-induced immune-mediated enteropathy characterized by a specific genetic genotype (HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 genes) and autoantibodies (antitissue transglutaminase and antiendomysial)...
August 15, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809943/genetic-evidence-for-subspecies-differentiation-of-the-himalayan-marmot-marmota-himalayana-in-the-qinghai-tibet-plateau
#19
Jingyan Yan, Hongjian Chen, Gonghua Lin, Qian Li, Jiarui Chen, Wen Qin, Jianping Su, Tongzuo Zhang
The primary host of plague in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP), China, is Marmota himalayana, which plays an essential role in the maintenance, transmission, and prevalence of plague. To achieve a more clear insight into the differentiation of M. himalayana, complete cytochrome b (cyt b) gene and 11 microsatellite loci were analyzed for a total of 423 individuals from 43 localities in the northeast of the QTP. Phylogenetic analyses with maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods showed that all derived haplotypes diverged into two primary well-supported monophyletic lineages, I and II, which corresponded to the referential sequences of two recognized subspecies, M...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809924/species-delimitation-in-frogs-from-south-american-temperate-forests-the-case-of-eupsophus-a-taxonomically-complex-genus-with-high-phenotypic-variation
#20
Claudio Correa, Dayana Vásquez, Camila Castro-Carrasco, Álvaro Zúñiga-Reinoso, Juan Carlos Ortiz, R Eduardo Palma
One of the most characteristic and abundant amphibian taxa of South American temperate forests is Eupsophus. The ten currently recognized species of the genus have been divided in two species groups, roseus and vertebralis, but most of them, eight, belong to the roseus group. Recent phylogeographic and phylogenetic studies have suggested that species diversity of the roseus group could be underestimated. An examination of the literature shows that species of the roseus group exhibit high levels of variation in their external characteristics, particularly those used as diagnostic characters, which compromises their taxonomy and hinders their field recognition...
2017: PloS One
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