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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731612/mesoderm-lineage-3d-tissue-constructs-are-produced-at-large-scale-in-a-3d-stem-cell-bioprocess
#1
Jae Min Cha, Athanasios Mantalaris, Sunyoung Jung, Yurim Ji, Oh Young Bang, Hojae Bae
Various studies have presented different approaches to direct pluripotent stem cell differentiation such as applying defined sets of exogenous biochemical signals and genetic/epigenetic modifications. Although differentiation to target lineages was successfully regulated, such conventional methods are often complicated, laborious, and not cost-effective to be employed to the large-scale production of 3D stem cell-based tissue constructs. In this study, we developed a 3D-culture platform that could realize the large-scale production of mesoderm lineage tissue constructs from embryonic stem cells (ESCs)...
July 21, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731463/peroxisomes-protect-lymphoma-cells-from-hdac-inhibitor-mediated-apoptosis
#2
Michael S Dahabieh, ZongYi Ha, Erminia Di Pietro, Jessica N Nichol, Alicia M Bolt, Christophe Goncalves, Daphné Dupéré-Richer, Filippa Pettersson, Koren K Mann, Nancy E Braverman, Sonia V Del Rincón, Wilson H Miller
Peroxisomes are a critical rheostat of reactive oxygen species (ROS), yet their role in drug sensitivity and resistance remains unexplored. Gene expression analysis of clinical lymphoma samples suggests that peroxisomes are involved in mediating drug resistance to the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) Vorinostat (Vor), which promotes ROS-mediated apoptosis. Vor augments peroxisome numbers in cultured lymphoma cells, concomitant with increased levels of peroxisomal proteins PEX3, PEX11B, and PMP70. Genetic inhibition of peroxisomes, using PEX3 knockdown, reveals that peroxisomes protect lymphoma cells against Vor-mediated cell death...
July 21, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730788/topoisomerase-i-deregulation-in-laryngeal-squamous-cell-carcinomas-based-on-tissue-microarray-analysis
#3
Theodoros A Papadas, Evangelos Tsiambas, Nicholas S Mastronikolis, Andreas Karameris, Stylianos N Mastronikolis, Athanasios T Papadas, Panagiotis P Fotiades, Vasileios Ragos
PURPOSE: Topoisomerases (types: I/IIa-b/IIIa-b) represent a super-family of nucleic enzymes involved in the DNA replication, transcription, recombination, and also chromosome topological formation. Topoisomerase's I (Topo I- gene location: 20q12) aberrant expression is a frequent genetic event in a variety of solid malignancies. Topo I inhibition promotes cell death due to DNA damage and for this reason it is a target for specific targeted chemotherapy (camptothecin, topotecan, irinotecan)...
May 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730461/low-salinity-affects-cellularity-dna-methylation-and-mrna-expression-of-igf1-in-the-liver-of-half-smooth-tongue-sole-cynoglossus-semilaevis
#4
Siping Li, Feng He, Haishen Wen, Jifang Li, Yufeng Si, Mingyuan Liu, Yajuan Huang, Lingcai Meng
Animal growth depends on feedback regulation of hormone levels and environmental conditions. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (Igf1) promotes cell growth and differentiation and represses apoptosis and is highly regulated by the environment. Moreover, animals modify physiological homeostasis under stressful conditions through epigenetics and genetic regulatory mechanisms. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of the effects of salt on fish growth is needed. In this study, half smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) were subjected to 15‰ salinity for 0, 7, and 60 days (D) to assess the effects of low salinity on liver cellularity and growth...
July 21, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730258/morphology-with-immunohistochemical-and-genetic-profiling-of-high-grade-neuroendocrine-carcinoma-of-colon-a-case-report-with-review-of-literature
#5
Andrzej Wincewicz, Artur Kowalik, Sebastian Zięba, Stanisław Sułkowski, Stanisław Góźdź
Here we present a challenging case of a hepatic flexure colon tumor of 61-year-old woman with no primary lesion of lung cancer. Immunohistochemistry was applied and 50 genes were analyzed by next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology. The tumor contained medium to large size neoplastic cells with evident nucleoli to be diagnosed poorly differentiated neuroendocrine predominantly large cell carcinoma of colon [G3: World Health Organization (WHO) 2010] (pT3 N0: 7th edition pTNM). Cytokeratin (CK) AE1÷AE3 staining was predominantly membranous with partial distribution in "dot-like" pattern in perinecrotic cancer fields to be reminiscent of small cell carcinoma...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729889/differential-methylation-at-mhc-in-cd4-t-cells-is-associated-with-multiple-sclerosis-independently-of-hla-drb1
#6
Vicki E Maltby, Rodney A Lea, Katherine A Sanders, Nicole White, Miles C Benton, Rodney J Scott, Jeannette Lechner-Scott
BACKGROUND: Although many genetic variants have been associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) risk, they do not explain all the disease risk and there remains uncertainty as to how these variants contribute to disease. DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism that can influence gene expression and has the potential to mediate the effects of environmental factors on MS. In a previous study, we found a differentially methylation region (DMR) at MHC HLA-DRB1 that was associated within relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients in CD4(+) T cells...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729869/genetic-patterns-of-myrceugenia-correifolia-a-rare-species-of-fog-dependent-forests-of-mediterranean-chile-is-it-a-climatic-relict
#7
Fernanda Pérez, Luis F Hinojosa, Gioconda Peralta, Paz Montenegro, Carla Irarrázabal, Michel Cossio
Rare species frequently occur in areas with microclimatic conditions that are atypical for their regions, but that were more common in the past, and that probably have operated as climatic refugia for a long time. Myrceugenia correifolia is a rare arboreal species that grows in deep canyons and hilltops of the Coast Range of north-central Chile between 30° and 35°S. In the northern edge of its distribution M. correifolia grows in small patches of fog-dependent forest surrounding by xeric vegetation. These forest formations are thought to be remnants of an ancient and continuous rainforest that according to some authors became fragmented during aridization of the Neogene (Neogene relict) and to others during warm-dry cycles of the Pleistocene (glacial relicts)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729840/cardiac-subtype-specific-modeling-of-kv1-5-ion-channel-deficiency-using-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#8
Maike Marczenke, Ilaria Piccini, Isabella Mengarelli, Jakob Fell, Albrecht Röpke, Guiscard Seebohm, Arie O Verkerk, Boris Greber
The ultrarapid delayed rectifier K(+) current (IKur), mediated by Kv1.5 channels, constitutes a key component of the atrial action potential. Functional mutations in the underlying KCNA5 gene have been shown to cause hereditary forms of atrial fibrillation (AF). Here, we combine targeted genetic engineering with cardiac subtype-specific differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) to explore the role of Kv1.5 in atrial hiPSC-cardiomyocytes. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutagenesis of integration-free hiPSCs was employed to generate a functional KCNA5 knockout...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729732/evidence-of-selection-on-splicing-associated-loci-in-human-populations-and-relevance-to-disease-loci-mapping
#9
Eric R Gamazon, Anuar Konkashbaev, Eske M Derks, Nancy J Cox, Younghee Lee
We performed a whole-genome scan of genetic variants in splicing regulatory elements (SREs) and evaluated the extent to which natural selection has shaped extant patterns of variation in SREs. We investigated the degree of differentiation of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in SREs among human populations and applied long-range haplotype- and multilocus allelic differentiation-based methods to detect selection signatures. We describe an approach, sampling a large number of loci across the genome from functional classes and using the consensus from multiple tests, for identifying candidates for selection signals...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729608/programmed-death-one-homolog-maintains-the-pool-size-of-regulatory-t-cells-by-promoting-their-differentiation-and-stability
#10
Qi Wang, Jianwei He, Dallas B Flies, Liqun Luo, Lieping Chen
Programmed death one homolog (PD-1H) is an immunoglobulin superfamily molecule and primarily acts as a coinhibitor in the initiation of T cell response to antigens. Here, we report that genetic ablation of PD-1H in mice blocks the differentiation of naive T cells to Foxp3(+) inducible Treg cells (iTreg) with a significant decrease of iTreg in lymphoid organs. This effect of PD-1H is highly specific for iTreg because both naturally generated iTreg in gut-related tissues and in vitro induced iTreg by TGF-β were decreased whereas the genesis of natural Treg (nTreg) remains normal...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729554/comparison-of-traditional-and-new-generation-dna-markers-declares-high-genetic-diversity-and-differentiated-population-structure-of-wild-almond-species
#11
Karim Sorkheh, Mehrana Koohi Dehkordi, Sezai Ercisli, Attila Hegedus, Júlia Halász
Wild almond species as sources of genetic variation may have crucial importance in breeding. A total of 389 accessions of 18 species have been analysed using inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism (IRAP), retrotransposon-microsatellite amplified polymorphism (REMAP), sequence-specific amplification polymorphism (S-SAP), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and simple sequence repeats (SSR). Retrotransposon markers indicated the presence and movement of some Ty3-gypsy and Ty1-copia-elements in almond genome...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729545/genetic-differentiation-of-the-schizothorax-species-complex-cyprinidae-in-the-nujiang-river-upper-salween
#12
Weitao Chen, Xingjian Yue, Shunping He
Phenotypically diverse species from recently evolved groups always share allele/haplotype due to insufficient differentiation in the early process. In this study, we performed population genetics analyses using sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene, and two nuclear genes to investigate the genetic differentiation of the closely related Schizothorax species complex, comprising a group of alpine fish living in the Nujiang River. The results from both mtDNA and nDNA markers revealed relatively low but pronounced genetic differentiation among the three Schizothorax species, i...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729527/comparative-transcriptome-analysis-of-the-floral-transition-in-rosa-chinensis-old-blush-and-r-odorata-var-gigantea
#13
Xuelian Guo, Chao Yu, Le Luo, Huihua Wan, Yushu Li, Jia Wang, Tangren Cheng, Huitang Pan, Qixiang Zhang
The floral transition is a crucial developmental event, but little is known about the underlying regulatory networks in seasonally and continuously flowering roses. In this study, we compared the genetic basis of flowering in two rose species, Rosa chinensis 'Old Blush', which flowers continuously, and R. odorata var. gigantea, which blooms in early spring. Gene ontology (GO) terms related to methylation, light reaction, and starch metabolism were enriched in R. odorata var. gigantea and terms associated with sugar metabolism were enriched in R...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729483/epigenetic-plasticity-and-the-hallmarks-of-cancer
#14
REVIEW
William A Flavahan, Elizabeth Gaskell, Bradley E Bernstein
Chromatin and associated epigenetic mechanisms stabilize gene expression and cellular states while also facilitating appropriate responses to developmental or environmental cues. Genetic, environmental, or metabolic insults can induce overly restrictive or overly permissive epigenetic landscapes that contribute to pathogenesis of cancer and other diseases. Restrictive chromatin states may prevent appropriate induction of tumor suppressor programs or block differentiation. By contrast, permissive or "plastic" states may allow stochastic oncogene activation or nonphysiologic cell fate transitions...
July 21, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729362/sema3f-semaphorin-3f-selectively-drives-an-extraembryonic-proangiogenic-program
#15
Donatella Regano, Alessia Visintin, Fabiana Clapero, Federico Bussolino, Donatella Valdembri, Federica Maione, Guido Serini, Enrico Giraudo
OBJECTIVE: Molecular pathways governing blood vessel patterning are vital to vertebrate development. Because of their ability to counteract proangiogenic factors, antiangiogenic secreted Sema3 (class 3 semaphorins) control embryonic vascular morphogenesis. However, if and how Sema3 may play a role in the control of extraembryonic vascular development is presently unknown. APPROACH AND RESULTS: By characterizing genetically modified mice, here, we show that surprisingly Sema3F acts instead as a selective extraembryonic but not intraembryonic proangiogenic cue...
July 20, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729090/the-overlap-between-essential-tremor-and-parkinson-disease
#16
Musleh Algarni, Alfonso Fasano
INTRODUCTION: Essential tremor (ET) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are common disorders especially in the aging population and can have overlapping features that can make it difficult to differentiate between the two. In addition, a possible overlap from a pathophysiological standpoint has been often advocated in the past. METHODS: In this review article, we gather the recent evidence in favor or against a possible relationship between ET and PD. This exercise follows the new advances in the field of tremor from both a pathophysiological and nosological perspective...
July 12, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728987/genetic-analysis-of-virulence-in-the-pyrenophora-teres-f-teres-population-bb25-%C3%A3-fgoh04ptt-21
#17
Vaidehi M Koladia, Jonathan K Richards, Nathan A Wyatt, Justin D Faris, Robert S Brueggeman, Timothy L Friesen
Pyrenophora teres f. teres is the causal agent of net form net blotch (NFNB) of barley. In order to map the genetics of avirulence/virulence in P. teres f. teres, a fungal population was developed using P. teres f. teres isolates BB25 (Denmark) and FGOH04Ptt-21 (North Dakota, USA) due to these two isolates differing in virulence on several common barley lines. 109 progeny isolates were obtained from the BB25 by FGOH04Ptt-21 cross that were then used for NFNB disease evaluation across eight barley lines, four of which have been used commonly as NFNB differential lines as well as four cultivars commonly used in barley production in the Northern Great Plains...
July 17, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728588/genetic-structure-and-gene-flow-of-the-flea-xenopsylla-cheopis-in-madagascar-and-mayotte
#18
Mireille Harimalala, Sandra Telfer, Hélène Delatte, Phillip C Watts, Adélaïde Miarinjara, Tojo Rindra Ramihangihajason, Soanandrasana Rahelinirina, Minoarisoa Rajerison, Sébastien Boyer
BACKGROUND: The flea Xenopsylla cheopis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) is a vector of plague. Despite this insect's medical importance, especially in Madagascar where plague is endemic, little is known about the organization of its natural populations. We undertook population genetic analyses (i) to determine the spatial genetic structure of X. cheopis in Madagascar and (ii) to determine the potential risk of plague introduction in the neighboring island of Mayotte. RESULTS: We genotyped 205 fleas from 12 sites using nine microsatellite markers...
July 20, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728504/the-diverse-expression-of-the-wt1-gene-in-patients-with-acquired-bone-marrow-failure-syndromes
#19
Yahong You, Jiali Huo, Shihong Lu, Yingqi Shao, Meili Ge, Jun Shi, Xingxin Li, Jinbo Huang, Zhendong Huang, Jing Zhang, Min Wang, Neng Nie, Yizhou Zheng
Acquired bone marrow failure syndromes (aBMFS) encompass a wide range of diseases. A study to investigate WT1 expression in BM was conducted in 387 patients with aBMFS in China. The WT1 level in patients with aplastic anemia (AA) was significantly lower than that in patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH, p = .023) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS, p < .001). In addition, the WT1 level in patients with MDS significantly increased as the disease progressed to an advanced stage. Patients with hypoplastic MDS had a differentiated expression level of WT1 compared with that of NSAA (p < ...
July 21, 2017: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728355/identification-of-genes-related-to-intramuscular-fat-content-of-pig-using-genome-wide-association-study
#20
Sohyoung Won, Jaehoon Jung, Eungwoo Park, H B Kim
Objective: The aim of this study is to identify SNPs and genes related to pig IMF and estimate the heritability of IMF. Methods: Genome-wide association study (GWAS) on 704 inbred Berkshires was performed for intramuscular fat content (IMF). To consider the inbreeding among samples, associations of the SNPs with IMF were tested as random effects in a mixed linear model using the genetic relationship matrix by GEMMA. Significant genes were compared with reported pig IMF QTL regions and functional classification of the identified genes were also performed...
June 27, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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