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genetic structure

Marco Armando, Corrado Sandini, Maelle Chambaz, Marie Schaer, Maude Schneider, Stephan Eliez
Converging evidence suggests that psychosis emerges from the complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Stressful life events (SLEs) play a prominent role in combination with coping strategies and with a dysfunctional hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA). It has been proposed that the framework of schizotypy might help disentangle the interaction between genetic and environmental factors in the pathogenesis of psychosis. Similarly, 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is considered as a genetic model of psychosis vulnerability...
March 14, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Claudia Bello, Jianfei Bai, Bartosz K Zambron, Pilar Elías-Rodríguez, Consuelo Gajate, Inmaculada Robina, Irene Caffa, Michele Cea, Fabrizio Montecucco, Alessio Nencioni, Aimable Nahimana, Dominique Aubry, Caroline Breton, Michel A Duchosal, Faustino Mollinedo, Pierre Vogel
We have synthesized a wide array of structurally related amphiphilic compounds, containing a functionalized pyrrolidine polar group coupled to different ether-linked hydrocarbon chains, to generate novel structures with antitumor activity. These newly synthesized amphiphilic pyrrolidine-derived compounds were classified in three different sub-libraries regarding the number of hydroxyl groups substituting the pyrrolidine moiety at C3 and C4. Pyrrolidine compounds with one or none hydroxyl groups showed a potent cell killing activity against pancreatic cancer cells, but they lacked selectivity for tumor cells...
March 2, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Judy F C Chow, William S B Yeung, Vivian C Y Lee, Estella Y L Lau, Ernest H Y Ng
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the applicability of a commonly used next generation sequencing workflow in detecting unbalanced meiotic segregation products for reciprocal translocation and inversion carriers. STUDY DESIGN: All preimplantation genetic testing treatment cycles performed for reciprocal translocation or inversion carriers from 2012 to April 2017 were included. Three hundreds and forty-two archived whole genome amplified DNA, which had previously analyzed by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), were retrospectively analyzed by next generation sequencing (NGS)...
March 9, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Sofía I Deperi, Martín E Tagliotti, M Cecilia Bedogni, Norma C Manrique-Carpintero, Joseph Coombs, Ruofang Zhang, David Douches, Marcelo A Huarte
The reported narrow genetic base of cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) can be expanded by the introgression of many related species with large genetic diversity. The analysis of the genetic structure of a potato population is important to broaden the genetic base of breeding programs by the identification of different genetic pools. A panel composed by 231 diverse genotypes was characterized using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers of the Illumina Infinium Potato SNP Array V2 to identify population structure and assess genetic diversity using discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC) and pedigree analysis...
2018: PloS One
James R Smith, Jaboury Ghazoul, David F R P Burslem, Akira Itoh, Eyen Khoo, Soon Leong Lee, Colin R Maycock, Satoshi Nanami, Kevin Kit Siong Ng, Chris J Kettle
Documenting the scale and intensity of fine-scale spatial genetic structure (FSGS), and the processes that shape it, is relevant to the sustainable management of genetic resources in timber tree species, particularly where logging or fragmentation might disrupt gene flow. In this study we assessed patterns of FSGS in three species of Dipterocarpaceae (Parashorea tomentella, Shorea leprosula and Shorea parvifolia) across four different tropical rain forests in Malaysia using nuclear microsatellite markers. Topographic heterogeneity varied across the sites...
2018: PloS One
Renata Gruszka, Magdalena Zakrzewska
The fundamental function of ribonucleic acids is to transfer genetic information from DNA to protein during translation process, however, this is not the only way connecting active RNA sequences with essential biological processes. Up until now, many RNA subclasses of different size, structure, and biological function were identified. Among them, there are non-coding single-stranded microRNAs (miRNAs). This subclass comprises RNAs of 19-25 nucleotides in length that modulate the activity of well-defined coding RNAs and play a crucial role in many physiological and pathological processes...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
David Williams, Joanne L Fothergill, Benjamin Evans, Jessica Caples, Sam Haldenby, Martin J Walshaw, Michael A Brockhurst, Craig Winstanley, Steve Paterson
Pseudomonas aeruginosa chronic infections of cystic fibrosis (CF) airways are a paradigm for within-host evolution with abundant evidence for rapid evolutionary adaptation and diversification. Recently emerged transmissible strains have spread globally, with the Liverpool Epidemic Strain (LES) the most common strain infecting the UK CF population. Previously we have shown that highly divergent lineages of LES can be found within a single infection, consistent with super-infection among a cross-sectional cohort of patients...
March 16, 2018: Microbial Genomics
Jane Hawkey, David B Ascher, Louise M Judd, Ryan R Wick, Xenia Kostoulias, Heather Cleland, Denis W Spelman, Alex Padiglione, Anton Y Peleg, Kathryn E Holt
Acinetobacter baumannii is a common causative agent of hospital-acquired infections and a leading cause of infection in burns patients. Carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii is considered a major public-health threat and has been identified by the World Health Organization as the top priority organism requiring new antimicrobials. The most common mechanism for carbapenem resistance in A. baumannii is via horizontal acquisition of carbapenemase genes. In this study, we sampled 20 A. baumannii isolates from a patient with extensive burns, and characterized the evolution of carbapenem resistance over a 45 day period via Illumina and Oxford Nanopore sequencing...
March 16, 2018: Microbial Genomics
Michael B Ranke, Jan M Wit
Growth hormone (GH) research and its clinical application for the treatment of growth disorders span more than a century. During the first half of the 20th century, clinical observations and anatomical and biochemical studies formed the basis of the understanding of the structure of GH and its various metabolic effects in animals. The following period (1958-1985), during which pituitary-derived human GH was used, generated a wealth of information on the regulation and physiological role of GH - in conjunction with insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) - and its use in children with GH deficiency (GHD)...
March 16, 2018: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
Ruili Shi, Pengju Wang, Lingli Tang, Xiaoming Huang, Yonggang Chen, Yan Su, Jijun Zhao
Using a genetic algorithm incorporated in density functional theory, we explore the ground state structures of fluoride anion-water clusters F-(H2O)n with n = 1-10. The F-(H2O)n clusters prefer structures in which the F- anion remains at the surface of the structure and coordinates with four water molecules, as the F-(H2O)n clusters have strong F--H2O interactions as well as strong hydrogen bonds between H2O molecules. The strong interaction between the F- anion and adjacent H2O molecule leads to a longer O-H distance in the adjacent molecule than in an individual water molecule...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Joseph Ashley Kirkly, Gretchen K Bielmyer-Fraser, John F Elder, David L Bechler
This study examines the microgeographic structure of the Alapahoochee watershed, part of the Suwannee River basin, south-central GA, USA, and relates it to variations in liver metal concentrations and genetic structure of the Florida cottonmouth, Agkistrodon piscivorus conanti. One objective was to determine if liver metal concentrations in A. piscivorus differ between Grand Bay and Mud creeks, which form the watershed's upper portion. Grand Bay Creek is relatively pristine, whereas Mud Creek is polluted with various metals...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Zoë W Hawks, Natasha Marrus, Anne L Glowinski, John N Constantino
Previous research has suggested that behavioral comorbidity is the rule rather than the exception in autism. The present study aimed to trace the respective origins of autistic and general psychopathologic traits-and their association-to infancy. Measurements of autistic traits and early liability for general psychopathology were assessed in 314 twins at 18 months, ascertained from the general population using birth records. 222 twins were re-evaluated at 36 months. Standardized ratings of variation in social communication at 18 months were highly heritable and strongly predicted autistic trait scores at 36 months...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Arthur Bob Karnuah, Gregory Dunga, Arthur Wennah, Walter T Wiles, Edmond Greaves, Roland Varkpeh, Richard Osei-Amponsah, Paul Boettcher
Phenotypic characterization of animal genetic resources (AnGR) involves identification of distinct breed populations, describing their external and production characteristics in a given environment and management, and taking into account the social and economic factors that affect them. A survey involving 346 livestock farmers was conducted in the 15 counties of Liberia to collect data on production practices and phenotypic characteristics of beef cattle. A pre-tested structured questionnaire, focus group discussions, and in-depth interviews were utilized in data collection...
March 15, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Olivier Turc, François Tardieu
Abortion of reproductive organs is a major limiting factor of yield under water deficit, but is also a trait selected for by evolutionary processes. Youngest reproductive organs must be prone to abortion so older organs can finish their development in case of limited resources. Water deficit increases natural abortion via two developmentally-driven processes, namely a signal from the first fertilized ovaries and a simultaneous arrest of the expansive growth of all ovaries at a precise stage. In maize (Zea mays) subjected to water deficits typically encountered in dryland agriculture, these developmental mechanisms account for 90 % of drought-associated abortion and are irreversible three days after silk emergence...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Neshat Golikhajeh, Bahram Naseri, Jabraeil Razmjou, Reza Hosseini, Marzieh Asadi Aghbolaghi
In order to understand the population genetic diversity and structure of Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a serious pest of sugar beet in Iran and the world, we genotyped 133 individuals from seven regions in Iran using four microsatellite loci. Significant difference was seen between the observed and expected heterozygosity in all loci. A lower observed heterozygosity than expected heterozygosity indicated a low heterozygosity in these populations. The value of F showed a high genetic differentiation, so that the mean of Fst was 0...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Yun-Yan Zhang, En Shi, Zhao-Ping Yang, Qi-Fang Geng, Ying-Xiong Qiu, Zhong-Sheng Wang
Parrotia subaequalis is an endangered palaeoendemic tree from disjunct montane sites in eastern China. Due to the lack of effective genomic resources, the genetic diversity and population structure of this endangered species are not clearly understood. In this study, we conducted paired-end shotgun sequencing (2 × 125 bp) of genomic DNA for two individuals of P. subaequalis on the Illumina HiSeq platform. Based on the resulting sequences, we have successfully assembled the complete chloroplast genome of P...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jiantao Zhang, Yanmei Hu, Christopher Foley, Yuanxiang Wang, Rami Musharrafieh, Shuting Xu, Yongtao Zhang, Chunlong Ma, Christopher Hulme, Jun Wang
Influenza viruses are respiratory pathogens that are responsible for seasonal influenza and sporadic influenza pandemic. The therapeutic efficacy of current influenza vaccines and small molecule antiviral drugs is limited due to the emergence of multidrug-resistant influenza viruses. In response to the urgent need for the next generation of influenza antivirals, we utilized a fast-track drug discovery platform by exploring multi-component reaction products for antiviral drug candidates. Specifically, molecular docking was applied to screen a small molecule library derived from the Ugi-azide four-component reaction methodology for inhibitors that target the influenza polymerase PAC -PB1N interactions...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Shelby Meier, Assaf A Gilad, J Anthony Brandon, Chenghao Qian, Erhe Gao, Jose F Abisambra, Moriel Vandsburger
Research into gene therapy for heart failure has gained renewed interest as a result of improved safety and availability of adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV). While magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is standard for functional assessment of gene therapy outcomes, quantitation of gene transfer/expression relies upon tissue biopsy, fluorescence or nuclear imaging. Imaging of gene expression through the use of genetically encoded chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST)-MRI reporter genes could be combined with clinical cardiac MRI methods to comprehensively probe therapeutic gene expression and subsequent outcomes...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Marc P Forrest, Euan Parnell, Peter Penzes
The structure of neuronal circuits that subserve cognitive functions in the brain is shaped and refined throughout development and into adulthood. Evidence from human and animal studies suggests that the cellular and synaptic substrates of these circuits are atypical in neuropsychiatric disorders, indicating that altered structural plasticity may be an important part of the disease biology. Advances in genetics have redefined our understanding of neuropsychiatric disorders and have revealed a spectrum of risk factors that impact pathways known to influence structural plasticity...
March 16, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
Fawaz Awad, Eman Assrawi, Camille Louvrier, Claire Jumeau, Irina Giurgea, Serge Amselem, Sonia-Athina Karabina
Photoaging and epithelial skin tumorigenesis are complex processes triggered mainly by UV radiation from chronic sun exposure. This leads to DNA damage and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which initiate an inflammatory response that alters cell structure and function. Changes in cell homeostasis and ROS production activate intracellular multiprotein platforms called inflammasomes. Inflammasomes nucleate around cytoplasmic receptors mainly of the NLR (nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat) family and regulate caspase-1-dependant secretion of pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 cytokines, and an inflammatory form of death named pyroptosis...
March 12, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
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