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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934593/big-lessons-from-little-yeast-budding-and-fission-yeast-centrosome-structure-duplication-and-function
#1
Ann M Cavanaugh, Sue L Jaspersen
Centrosomes are a functionally conserved feature of eukaryotic cells that play an important role in cell division. The conserved γ-tubulin complex organizes spindle and astral microtubules, which, in turn, separate replicated chromosomes accurately into daughter cells. Like DNA, centrosomes are duplicated once each cell cycle. Although in some cell types it is possible for cell division to occur in the absence of centrosomes, these divisions typically result in defects in chromosome number and stability. In singlecelled organisms such as fungi, centrosomes [known as spindle pole bodies (SPBs)] are essential for cell division...
September 15, 2017: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934587/aging-in-the-cardiovascular-system-lessons-from-hutchinson-gilford-progeria-syndrome
#2
Magda R Hamczyk, Lara Del Campo, Vicente Andrés
Aging, the main risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), is becoming progressively more prevalent in our societies. A better understanding of how aging promotes CVD is therefore urgently needed to develop new strategies to reduce disease burden. Atherosclerosis and heart failure contribute significantly to age-associated CVD-related morbimortality. CVD and aging are both accelerated in patients suffering from Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), a rare genetic disorder caused by the prelamin A mutant progerin...
September 20, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934499/co-produced-natural-ketolides-methymycin-and-pikromycin-inhibit-bacterial-growth-by-preventing-synthesis-of-a-limited-number-of-proteins
#3
Mashal M Almutairi, Maxim S Svetlov, Douglas A Hansen, Nelli F Khabibullina, Dorota Klepacki, Han-Young Kang, David H Sherman, Nora Vázquez-Laslop, Yury S Polikanov, Alexander S Mankin
Antibiotics methymycin (MTM) and pikromycin (PKM), co-produced by Streptomyces venezuelae, represent minimalist macrolide protein synthesis inhibitors. Unlike other macrolides, which carry several side chains, a single desosamine sugar is attached to the macrolactone ring of MTM and PKM. In addition, the macrolactone scaffold of MTM is smaller than in other macrolides. The unusual structure of MTM and PKM and their simultaneous secretion by S. venezuelae bring about the possibility that two compounds would bind to distinct ribosomal sites...
September 19, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934454/assessment-of-molecular-antigenic-and-pathological-features-of-canine-influenza-a-h3n2-viruses-that-emerged-in-the-united-states
#4
Joanna A Pulit-Penaloza, Natosha Simpson, Hua Yang, Hannah M Creager, Joyce Jones, Paul Carney, Jessica A Belser, Genyan Yang, Jessie Chang, Hui Zeng, Sharmi Thor, Yunho Jang, Mary Lea Killian, Melinda Jenkins-Moore, Alicia Janas-Martindale, Edward Dubovi, David E Wentworth, James Stevens, Terrence M Tumpey, C Todd Davis, Taronna R Maines
Background: A single subtype of canine influenza virus (CIV), A(H3N8), was circulating in the United States until a new subtype, A(H3N2), was detected in Illinois in spring 2015. Since then, this CIV has caused thousands of infections in dogs in multiple states. Methods: In this study, genetic and antigenic properties of the new CIV were evaluated. In addition, structural and glycan array binding features of the recombinant hemagglutinin were determined. Replication kinetics in human airway cells and pathogenesis and transmissibility in animal models were also assessed...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934256/transcriptome-analysis-of-sex-related-genes-in-the-blood-clam-tegillarca-granosa
#5
Heng Chen, Guoqiang Xiao, Xueliang Chai, Xingguan Lin, Jun Fang, Shuangshuang Teng
BACKGROUND: Blood clams (Tegillarca granosa) are one of the most commercial shellfish in China and South Asia with wide distribution in Indo-Pacific tropical to temperate estuaries. However, recent data indicate a decline in the germplasm of this species. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms underpinning reproductive regulation remain unclear and information regarding genetic diversity is limited. Understanding the reproductive biology of shellfish is important in interpreting their embryology development, reproduction and population structure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934221/stage-specific-requirement-of-platelet-derived-growth-factor-receptor-%C3%AE-in-embryonic-development
#6
Chen Qian, Carol Wing Yan Wong, Zhongluan Wu, Qiuming He, Huimin Xia, Paul Kwong Hang Tam, Kenneth Kak Yuen Wong, Vincent Chi Hang Lui
BACKGROUND: Platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα) is a cell-surface receptor tyrosine kinase for platelet-derived growth factors. Correct timing and level of Pdgfra expression is crucial for embryo development, and deletion of Pdgfra caused developmental defects of multiple endoderm and mesoderm derived structures, resulting in a complex phenotypes including orofacial cleft, spina bifida, rib deformities, and omphalocele in mice. However, it is not clear if deletion of Pdgfra at different embryonic stages differentially affects these structures...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934148/tomato-leaf-curl-new-delhi-virus-an-emerging-virus-complex-threatening-vegetable-and-fiber-crops
#7
REVIEW
Enrique Moriones, Shelly Praveen, Supriya Chakraborty
The tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) represents an important constraint to tomato production, as it causes the most predominant and economically important disease affecting tomato in the Indian sub-continent. However, in recent years, ToLCNDV has been fast extending its host range and spreading to new geographical regions, including the Middle East and the western Mediterranean Basin. Extensive research on the genome structure, protein functions, molecular biology, and plant-virus interactions of ToLCNDV has been conducted in the last decade...
September 21, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934115/development-of-genome-wide-ssr-markers-from-angelica-gigas-nakai-using-next-generation-sequencing
#8
Jinsu Gil, Yurry Um, Serim Kim, Ok Tae Kim, Sung Cheol Koo, Chinreddy Subramanyam Reddy, Seong-Cheol Kim, Chang Pyo Hong, Sin-Gi Park, Ho Bang Kim, Dong Hoon Lee, Byung-Hoon Jeong, Jong-Wook Chung, Yi Lee
Angelica gigas Nakai is an important medicinal herb, widely utilized in Asian countries especially in Korea, Japan, and China. Although it is a vital medicinal herb, the lack of sequencing data and efficient molecular markers has limited the application of a genetic approach for horticultural improvements. Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are universally accepted molecular markers for population structure study. In this study, we found over 130,000 SSRs, ranging from di- to deca-nucleotide motifs, using the genome sequence of Manchu variety (MV) of A...
September 21, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933822/rod-like-virus-based-multiarm-colloidal-molecules
#9
Alexis de la Cotte, Cheng Wu, Marie Trévisan, Andrii Repula, Eric Grelet
We report on the construction of multiarm colloidal molecules by tip-linking filamentous bacteriophages, functionalized either by biological engineering or chemical conjugation. The affinity for streptavidin of a genetically modified vector phage displaying Strep-tags fused to one end of the viral particle, is measured by determining the dissociation constant, Kd. In order to both improve the colloidal stability and the efficiency of the self-assembly process, a biotinylation protocol having a chemical yield higher than 90% is presented to regio-selectively functionalize the cystein residues located at one end of the bacteriophages...
September 21, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933420/whole-genome-characterization-of-sequence-diversity-of-15-220-icelanders
#10
Hákon Jónsson, Patrick Sulem, Birte Kehr, Snaedis Kristmundsdottir, Florian Zink, Eirikur Hjartarson, Marteinn T Hardarson, Kristjan E Hjorleifsson, Hannes P Eggertsson, Sigurjon Axel Gudjonsson, Lucas D Ward, Gudny A Arnadottir, Einar A Helgason, Hannes Helgason, Arnaldur Gylfason, Adalbjorg Jonasdottir, Aslaug Jonasdottir, Thorunn Rafnar, Soren Besenbacher, Michael L Frigge, Simon N Stacey, Olafur Th Magnusson, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Gisli Masson, Augustine Kong, Bjarni V Halldorsson, Agnar Helgason, Daniel F Gudbjartsson, Kari Stefansson
Understanding of sequence diversity is the cornerstone of analysis of genetic disorders, population genetics, and evolutionary biology. Here, we present an update of our sequencing set to 15,220 Icelanders who we sequenced to an average genome-wide coverage of 34X. We identified 39,020,168 autosomal variants passing GATK filters: 31,079,378 SNPs and 7,940,790 indels. Calling de novo mutations (DNMs) is a formidable challenge given the high false positive rate in sequencing datasets relative to the mutation rate...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932961/enrolling-genomics-research-participants-through-a-clinical-setting-the-impact-of-existing-clinical-relationships-on-informed-consent-and-expectations-for-return-of-research-results
#11
Courtney Berrios, Cynthia A James, Karen Raraigh, Juli Bollinger, Brittney Murray, Crystal Tichnell, Carolyn D Applegate, Amanda L Bergner
Genetic counselors working in a clinical setting may find themselves recruiting, enrolling, and returning results for genomic research, and existing clinical relationships with study participants may impact these research interactions. We present a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews of participants enrolled in a genome sequencing/exome sequencing (GS/ES) study at the same institution where they receive clinical care. Interviews were coded for motivations to participate and expectations of this research...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Genetic Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932936/is-induction-ability-of-seed-germination-of-phelipanche-ramosa-phylogenetically-structured-among-hosts-a-case-study-on-fabaceae-species
#12
Rémi Perronne, Stéphanie Gibot-Leclerc, Fabrice Dessaint, Carole Reibel, Valérie Le Corre
Phelipanche ramosa is a major root-holoparasitic damaging weed characterized by a broad host range, including numerous Fabaceae species. In France, the agricultural threat posed by P. ramosa has increased over two decades due to the appearance of a genetically differentiated pathovar presenting a clear host specificity for oilseed rape. The new pathovar has led to a massive expansion of P. ramosa in oilseed rape fields. The germination rate of P. ramosa seeds is currently known to vary among P. ramosa pathovars and host species...
September 20, 2017: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932924/when-gis-zooms-in-spatio-genetic-maps-of-multipaternity-in-armadillidium-vulgare
#13
Nicolas Bech, Charlotte Depeux, Sylvine Durand, Catherine Debenest, Alexandra Lafitte, Sophie Beltran-Bech
Geographic information system (GIS) tools are designed to illustrate, analyse and integrate geographic or spatial data, usually on a macroscopic scale. By contrast, genetic tools focus on a microscopic scale. Because in reality, landscapes have no predefined scale, our original study aims to develop a new approach, combining both cartographic and genetic approaches to explore microscopic landscapes. For this, we focused on Armadillidium vulgare, a terrestrial isopod model in which evolutionary pressures imposed by terrestrial life have led to the development of internal fertilisation and, consequently, to associated physiological changes...
September 20, 2017: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932808/two-sisters-with-mayer-rokitansky-k%C3%A3-ster-hauser-syndrome-and-serous-adenocarcinoma-of-the-ovary
#14
Sarah P Huepenbecker, Laura Divine, Christina S Chu, David G Mutch
BACKGROUND: Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome is a rare entity with proposed genetic underpinnings. Ovarian carcinoma has well-described genetic associations and syndromes, although much of the etiology of the disease remains unknown. CASES: Two sisters present in the 1970s with primary amenorrhea, 46, XX karyotypes, and absent uteri consistent with MRKH syndrome. In the 2010s, both sisters again present for care. Case 1 presents one sister with stage IIIC serous ovarian adenocarcinoma and negative BRCA panel...
November 2017: Gynecologic Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932262/atcesa8-driven-ossus3-expression-leads-to-largely-enhanced-biomass-saccharification-and-lodging-resistance-by-distinctively-altering-lignocellulose-features-in-rice
#15
Chunfen Fan, Shengqiu Feng, Jiangfeng Huang, Yanting Wang, Leiming Wu, Xukai Li, Lingqiang Wang, Yuanyuan Tu, Tao Xia, Jingyang Li, Xiwen Cai, Liangcai Peng
BACKGROUND: Biomass recalcitrance and plant lodging are two complex traits that tightly associate with plant cell wall structure and features. Although genetic modification of plant cell walls can potentially reduce recalcitrance for enhancing biomass saccharification, it remains a challenge to maintain a normal growth with enhanced biomass yield and lodging resistance in transgenic plants. Sucrose synthase (SUS) is a key enzyme to regulate carbon partitioning by providing UDP-glucose as substrate for cellulose and other polysaccharide biosynthesis...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932107/bioinformatics-study-of-m-9053g-a-mutation-at-the-atp6-gene-in-relation-to-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-cataract-diseases
#16
Iman Permana Maksum, Sandy Risfi Saputra, Nenden Indrayati, Muhammad Yusuf, Toto Subroto
The mitochondrial disease often associated with various illnesses in relation to the activity of cells metabolites and the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), including alteration in the mitochondrial DNA. The mutation of m.9053G>A at the ATP6 gene was found in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM type 2) and cataract. Therefore, this mutation is predicted to be clinical features of the 2 diseases. ATP6 gene encodes protein subunit of ATPase6, a part of ATP synthase, which is important in the electron transfer and proton translocation in intracellular respiration system...
2017: Bioinformatics and Biology Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931965/polymorphisms-in-lncrna-ptenp1-and-the-risk-of-gastric-cancer-in-a-chinese-population
#17
Yugang Ge, Yu He, Mingkun Jiang, Dakui Luo, Xiangkun Huan, Weizhi Wang, Diancai Zhang, Li Yang, Jundong Zhou
Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) phosphatase and tensin homolog pseudogene 1 (PTENP1) is significantly downregulated in gastric cancer (GC), playing critical roles in GC progression. However, the association between PTENP1 genetic variants and GC risk has not yet been reported. Using TaqMan technology, three lncRNA PTENP1 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs) (rs7853346 C>G, rs865005 C>T, and rs10971638 G>A) were genotyped in 768 GC patients and 768 cancer-free controls in a Chinese population. We found that subjects with rs7853346 G allele had a remarkably decreased risk of GC, compared with those carrying C allele (P = 0...
2017: Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931893/netrin-1-derived-from-the-ventricular-zone-but-not-the-floor-plate-directs-hindbrain-commissural-axons-to-the-ventral-midline
#18
Kenta Yamauchi, Maya Yamazaki, Manabu Abe, Kenji Sakimura, Heiko Lickert, Takahiko Kawasaki, Fujio Murakami, Tatsumi Hirata
Netrin-1 (Ntn1) emanating from the ventral midline has been thought to act as a long-range diffusible chemoattractant for commissural axons (CAs). However, CAs still grow towards the midline in the absence of the floor plate (FP), a glial structure occupying the midline. Here, using genetically loss-of-function approaches in mice, we show that Ntn1 derived from the ventricular zone (VZ), but not the FP, is crucial for CA guidance in the mouse hindbrain. During the period of CA growth, Ntn1 is expressed in the ventral two-thirds of the VZ, in addition to the FP...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931680/molecular-evolution-of-herpes-simplex-virus-2-complete-genomes-comparison-between-primary-and-recurrent-infections
#19
Miguel A Minaya, Travis Jensen, Johannes Goll, Maria Korom, Sree H Datla, Robert B Belshe, Lynda A Morrison
Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 and -2 are large, double-stranded DNA viruses that cause lifelong persistent infections characterized by periods of quiescence and recurrent disease. How HSV evolves within an infected individual experiencing multiple episodes of reactivation over time is not known. We determined genome sequences of viruses isolated from two subjects in the Herpevac Trial for Women who experienced primary HSV-2 genital disease and compared them with sequences of viruses isolated from the subsequent fifth or sixth episode of recurrent disease in the same individuals...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931564/towards-precision-medicine-for-hypertension-a-review-of-genomic-epigenomic-and-microbiomic-effects-on-blood-pressure-in-experimental-rat-models-and-humans
#20
REVIEW
Sandosh Padmanabhan, Bina Joe
Compelling evidence for the inherited nature of essential hypertension has led to extensive research in rats and humans. Rats have served as the primary model for research on the genetics of hypertension resulting in identification of genomic regions that are causally associated with hypertension. In more recent times, genome-wide studies in humans have also begun to improve our understanding of the inheritance of polygenic forms of hypertension. Based on the chronological progression of research into the genetics of hypertension as the "structural backbone," this review catalogs and discusses the rat and human genetic elements mapped and implicated in blood pressure regulation...
October 1, 2017: Physiological Reviews
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