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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924013/reward-related-ventral-striatum-activity-buffers-against-the-experience-of-depressive-symptoms-associated-with-sleep-disturbances
#1
Reut Avinun, Adam Nevo, Annchen R Knodt, Maxwell L Elliott, Spenser R Radtke, Bartholomew D Brigidi, Ahmad R Hariri
Sleep disturbances represent one risk factor for depression. Reward-related brain function, particularly the activity of the ventral striatum (VS), has been identified as a potential buffer against stress-related depression. We were therefore interested in testing whether reward-related VS activity would moderate the effect of sleep disturbances on depression in a large cohort of young adults. Data were available from 1129 university students (mean age 19.71 ± 1.25 years; 637 women) who completed a reward-related functional MRI task to assay VS activity and provided self-reports of sleep using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and symptoms of depression using a summation of the General Distress/Depression (GDD) and Anhedonic Depression (AD) subscales of the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire-short form...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924006/the-neural-basis-of-aversive-pavlovian-guidance-during-planning
#2
Níall Lally, Quentin J M Huys, Neir Eshel, Paul Faulkner, Peter Dayan, Jonathan P Roiser
Important real-world decisions are often arduous as they frequently involve sequences of choices, with initial selections affecting future options. Evaluating every possible combination of choices is computationally intractable, particularly for longer multi-step decisions. Therefore, humans frequently employ heuristics to reduce the complexity of decisions. We recently used a goal-directed planning task to demonstrate the profound behavioral influence and ubiquity of one such shortcut, namely aversive pruning, a reflexive Pavlovian process that involves neglecting parts of the decision space residing beyond salient negative outcomes...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923479/neuralrepresentation-of-cost-benefit-selectionsin-medial-prefrontal-cortex-of-rats
#3
Hua Tang, Xuan Sun, Bao-Ming Li, Fei Luo
Decision making refers to the process that subjects use to choose between competing courses of action based on the expected costs and benefits of their consequences. However, few studies have addressed the neuronal mechanisms behind the processes of howcosts and benefits influence decision making. Here we investigated the neuronal representation of costs and benefitstowards a goal-directed action under a differential reward schedule by training rats to perform a "Do more, get more" (DM-GM) task utilizinga nosepoke operandum, where longer nosepoke durations resulted in correspondingly larger rewards...
September 15, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919717/the-influence-of-goal-directed-fluid-therapy-on-the-prognosis-of-elderly-patients-with-hypertension-and-gastric-cancer-surgery-retraction
#4
(no author information available yet)
[This retracts the article on p. 2113 in vol. 8.].
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918712/anger-promotes-economic-conservatism
#5
Keri L Kettle, Anthony Salerno
Research suggests that certain facets of people's political ideals can be motivated by different goals. Although it is widely accepted that emotions motivate goal-directed behavior, less is known about how emotion-specific goals may influence different facets of ideology. In this research, we examine how anger affects political ideology and through what mechanisms such effects occur. Drawing on the dual-process motivational model of ideology and the functionalist perspective of emotion, we propose that anger leads people to support conservative economic ideals, which promote economic independence and discourage societal resource sharing...
October 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911286/the-effect-of-a-surgery-specific-cardiac-output-guided-haemodynamic-algorithm-on-outcomes-in-patients-undergoing-pancreaticoduodenectomy-in-a-high-volume-centre-a-retrospective-comparative-study
#6
L Weinberg, J Banting, L Churilov, R L McLeod, K Fernandes, I Chao, T Ho, D Ianno, V Liang, V Muralidharan, C Christophi, M Nikfarjam
In this retrospective observational study performed in a high-volume hepatobiliary-pancreatic unit, we evaluated the effect of a surgery-specific goal-directed therapy (GDT) physiologic algorithm on complications and length of hospital stay. We compared patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy with either a standardised Enhanced Recovery After Surgery program (usual care group), or a standardised Enhanced Recovery After Surgery program in combination with a surgery-specific cardiac output-guided algorithm (GDT group)...
September 2017: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910125/threat-of-shock-and-aversive-inhibition-induced-anxiety-modulates-pavlovian-instrumental-interactions
#7
Anahit Mkrtchian, Jonathan P Roiser, Oliver J Robinson
Anxiety can be an adaptive response to potentially threatening situations. However, if experienced in inappropriate contexts, it can also lead to pathological and maladaptive anxiety disorders. Experimentally, anxiety can be induced in healthy individuals using the threat of shock (ToS) paradigm. Accumulating work with this paradigm suggests that anxiety promotes harm-avoidant mechanisms through enhanced inhibitory control. However, the specific cognitive mechanisms underlying anxiety-linked inhibitory control are unclear...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905678/negative-emotional-appraisal-selectively-disrupts-retrieval-of-expected-outcome-values-required-for-goal-directed-instrumental-choice
#8
Tanya L Pritchard, Gabrielle Weidemann, Lee Hogarth
Stress induction reduces people's ability to modify their instrumental choices following changes in the value of outcomes, but the mechanisms underpinning this effect have not been specified because previous studies have lacked crucial control conditions. To address this, the current study had participants learn two instrumental responses for food and water, respectively, before water was devalued by specific satiety. Choice between these two responses was then measured in extinction, reacquisition and Pavlovian to instrumental transfer (PIT) tests...
September 14, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903694/attachment-and-self-regulation
#9
Edward Orehek, Anna Vazeou-Nieuwenhuis, Ellen Quick, G Casey Weaverling
Close relationships and self-regulation are inextricably intertwined, yet many of the details regarding how interpersonal processes influence self-regulation are not well understood. To gain a better understanding of this link, we investigated the association between attachment styles and self-regulatory mode orientations. According to regulatory mode theory, locomotors are concerned with initiating goal-directed movement, whereas assessors are concerned with appraising potential means and goals. We predicted that the presence of an attachment figure with whom one has an anxious attachment would be associated with higher assessment tendencies...
March 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903652/salient-multiculturalism-enhances-minority-group-members-feelings-of-power
#10
Jacquie D Vorauer, Matthew S Quesnel
The present research examined how messages advocating different intergroup ideologies affect outcomes relevant to minority group members' ability to exert power in exchanges with dominant group members. We expected that salient multiculturalism would have positive implications for minority group members' feelings of power by virtue of highlighting essential contributions they make to society, and that no such empowering effect would be evident for them in connection with alternative ideologies such as color-blindness or for dominant group members...
February 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901979/analysis-of-goal-directed-fluid-therapy-and-patient-monitoring-in-enhanced-recovery-after-surgery
#11
Timothy D Quinn, Ethan Y Brovman, Richard D Urman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: International Anesthesiology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893670/acute-psychophysiological-stress-impairs-human-associative-learning
#12
M R Ehlers, R M Todd
Addiction is increasingly discussed asa disorder of associative learning processes, with both operant and classical conditioning contributing to the development of maladaptive habits. Stress has long been known to promote drug taking and relapse and has further been shown to shift behavior from goal-directed actions towards more habitual ones. However, it remains to be investigated how acute stress may influence simple associative learning processes that occur before a habit can be established. In the present study, healthy young adults were exposed to either acute stress or a control condition half an hour before performing simple classical and operant conditioning tasks...
September 8, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891465/unusual-prism-adaptation-reveals-how-grasping-is-controlled
#13
Willemijn D Schot, Eli Brenner, Jeroen Bj Smeets
There are three main theories on how human grasping movements are controlled. Two of them state that grip aperture and the movement of the hand are controlled. They differ in whether the wrist or the thumb of the hand is controlled. We have proposed a third theory, which states that grasping is a combination of two goal-directed single-digit movements, each directed at a specific position on the object. In this study, we test predictions based on each of the theories by examining the transfer of prism adaptation during single-digit pointing movements to grasping movements...
September 11, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890555/perioperative-fluid-management-from-physiology-to-improving-clinical-outcomes
#14
REVIEW
Victoria A Bennett, Maurizio Cecconi
Perioperative fluid management is a key component in the care of the surgical patient. It is an area that has seen significant changes and developments, however there remains a wide disparity in practice between clinicians. Historically, patients received large volumes of intravenous fluids perioperatively. The concept of goal directed therapy was then introduced, with the early studies showing significant improvements in morbidity and mortality. The current focus is on fluid therapy guided by an individual patient's physiology...
August 2017: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890341/cueing-for-people-with-parkinson-s-disease-with-freezing-of-gait-a-narrative-review-of-the-state-of-the-art-and-novel-perspectives
#15
REVIEW
Ginis Pieter, Nackaerts Evelien, Nieuwboer Alice, Heremans Elke
Freezing, which manifests during gait and other movements, is an incapacitating motor symptom experienced by many patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). In rehabilitation, auditory and visual cueing methods are commonly applied to evoke a more goal-directed type of motor control and, as such, reduce freezing severity in patients with PD. In this narrative review, we summarize the current evidence regarding the effects of external cueing in patients with PD with freezing of gait (FOG) and provide suggestions on how to further improve cueing effectiveness with emerging technological developments...
September 7, 2017: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889139/bohring-opitz-syndrome-a-case-of-a-rare-genetic-disorder
#16
N Visayaragawan, N Selvarajah, H Apparau, V Kamaru Ambu
The diagnostic challenge of Bohring-Opitz Syndrome, a rare genetic disorder has haunted clinicians for ages. Our patient was born at term via caesarean-section with a birth weight of 1.95 kilograms. She had mild laryngomalacia, gastroesophageal reflux disease and seizures. Physical signs included microcephaly, hemangioma, low set ears, cleft palate, micrognatia and the typical BOS posture. Chromosomal analysis showed 46 xx -Bohring-Opitz Syndrome overlapped with C- syndrome. Goal-directed holistic care with integration of parent/carer training was started very early...
August 2017: Medical Journal of Malaysia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888275/mean-arterial-pressure-of-65-mm-hg-versus-85-100-mm-hg-in-comatose-survivors-after-cardiac-arrest-rationale-and-study-design-of-the-neuroprotect-post-cardiac-arrest-trial
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Koen Ameloot, Cathy De Deyne, Bert Ferdinande, Matthias Dupont, Pieter-Jan Palmers, Thibault Petit, Ward Eertmans, Clara Moonen, Ann Belmans, Robin Lemmens, Joseph Dens, Stefan Janssens
BACKGROUND: Post-cardiac arrest (CA) patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) have a poor prognosis, with estimated survival rates of around 30%-50%. On admission, these patients have a large cerebral penumbra at risk for additional damage in case of suboptimal brain oxygenation during their stay in the ICU. The aim of the Neuroprotect post-CA trial is to investigate whether forcing mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and mixed venous oxygen saturation (SVO2) in a specific range (MAP 85-100 mm Hg, SVO2 65%-75%) with additional pharmacological support (goal-directed hemodynamic optimization) may better salvage the penumbra, reduce cerebral ischemia, and improve functional outcome when compared with current standard of care (MAP 65 mm Hg)...
September 2017: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887183/electrical-stimulation-of-the-hippocampal-fimbria-facilitates-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-activity-in-the-medial-shell-of-the-rat-nucleus-accumbens-modulation-by-dopamine-d1-and-d2-receptor-activation
#18
Kristina E Hoque, Shannon R Blume, Stephen Sammut, Anthony R West
The medial shell region of the nucleus accumbens (msNAc) is a key center for the regulation of goal-directed behavior and is likely to be dysfunctional in neuropsychiatric disorders such as addiction, depression and schizophrenia. Nitric oxide (NO)-producing interneurons in the msNAc are potently modulated by dopamine (DA) and may play an important role in synaptic integration in msNAc networks. In this study, neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) activity was measured in anesthetized rats using amperometric microsensors implanted into the msNAc or via histochemical techniques...
September 5, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887182/behavioral-and-neural-mechanisms-underlying-habitual-and-compulsive-drug-seeking
#19
REVIEW
Rachel J Smith, Lillian S Laiks
Addiction is characterized by compulsive drug use despite negative consequences. Here we review studies that indicate that compulsive drug use, and in particular punishment resistance in animal models of addiction, is related to impaired cortical control over habitual behavior. In humans and animals, instrumental behavior is supported by goal-directed and habitual systems that rely on distinct corticostriatal networks. Chronic exposure to addictive drugs or stress has been shown to bias instrumental response strategies toward habit learning, and impair prefrontal cortical (PFC) control over responding...
September 5, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882917/effects-of-cerebral-near-infrared-spectroscopy-on-the-outcome-of-patients-undergoing-cardiac-surgery-a-systematic-review-of-randomised-trials
#20
Giuseppe Filiberto Serraino, Gavin J Murphy
OBJECTIVES: Goal-directed optimisation of cerebral oxygenation using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) during cardiopulmonary bypass is widely used. We tested the hypotheses that the use of NIRS cerebral oximetry results in reductions in cerebral injury (neurocognitive function, serum biomarkers), injury to other organs including the heart and brain, transfusion rates, mortality and resource use. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. SETTING: Tertiary cardiac surgery centres in North America, Europe and Asia...
September 7, 2017: BMJ Open
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