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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804783/functional-corticostriatal-connection-topographies-predict-goal-directed-behaviour-in-humans
#1
Andre F Marquand, Koen V Haak, Christian F Beckmann
Anatomical tracing studies in non-human primates have suggested that corticostriatal connectivity is topographically organized: nearby locations in striatum are connected with nearby locations in cortex. The topographic organization of corticostriatal connectivity is thought to underpin many goal-directed behaviours, but these topographies have not been completely characterised in humans and their relationship to uniquely human behaviours remains to be fully determined. Instead, the dominant approach employs parcellations that cannot model the continuous nature of the topography, nor accommodate overlapping cortical projections in the striatum...
August 2017: Nature Human Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803362/perceptuo-motor-planning-during-functional-reaching-after-stroke
#2
Margit Alt Murphy, Melanie C Baniña, Mindy F Levin
In healthy young adults, reaching movements are planned such that the initial grasp position on the object is modulated based on the final task goal. This perceptuo-motor coupling has been described as the end-state comfort effect. This study aimed to determine the extent to which visuo-perceptual and motor deficits, but not neglect, due to stroke impact end-state comfort measured as the grasp-height effect. Thirty-four older adults (17 controls, 17 chronic stroke) performed a functional goal-directed two-sequence task with each arm, consisting of reaching and moving a cylindrical object (drain plunger) from an initial to four target platform heights, standardized to body height, in a block randomized sequence...
August 12, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797857/level-of-care-preferences-among-nursing-home-residents-with-advanced-dementia
#3
Susan L Mitchell, Jennifer A Palmer, Angelo E Volandes, Laura C Hanson, Daniel Habtemariam, Michele L Shaffer
CONTEXT: Delivering goal-directed care is a hallmark of high quality palliative care, but requires an understanding of preferences. OBJECTIVES: To describe and identify factors associated with level of care preferences among proxies of nursing home residents with advanced dementia. METHODS: Nursing home residents with advanced dementia and their proxies (N=402 dyads) were recruited from 62 Boston-area facilities as part of an ongoing randomized clinical trial...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790899/sensory-processing-in-the-dorsolateral-striatum-the-contribution-of-thalamostriatal-pathways
#4
Kevin D Alloway, Jared B Smith, Todd M Mowery, Glenn D R Watson
The dorsal striatum has two functionally-defined subdivisions: a dorsomedial striatum (DMS) region involved in mediating goal-directed behaviors that require conscious effort, and a dorsolateral striatum (DLS) region involved in the execution of habitual behaviors in a familiar sensory context. Consistent with its presumed role in forming stimulus-response (S-R) associations, neurons in DLS receive massive inputs from sensorimotor cortex and are responsive to both active and passive sensory stimulation. While several studies have established that corticostriatal inputs contribute to the stimulus-induced responses observed in the DLS, there is growing awareness that the thalamus has a significant role in conveying sensory-related information to DLS and other parts of the striatum...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790038/participate-cp-a-protocol-of-a-randomised-waitlist-controlled-trial-of-a-motivational-and-behaviour-change-therapy-intervention-to-increase-physical-activity-through-meaningful-participation-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#5
Sarah Elizabeth Reedman, Roslyn N Boyd, Catherine Elliott, Leanne Sakzewski
INTRODUCTION: Children with cerebral palsy (CP) participate in leisure-time physical activities (PA) less often, with less intensity and reduced diversity than their typically developing peers. Participation in leisure-time physical activities may be an important source of habitual physical activity (HPA) for children with CP, who as a group have lower levels of HPA and increased sedentary time compared with their typically developing peers. The proposed study aims to compare the efficacy of a participation focused therapy (ParticiPAte CP) to usual care in a pragmatic, randomised waitlist controlled trial...
August 7, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790011/management-of-septic-shock-in-an-intermediate-care-unit
#6
Eric Meaudre, Cédric Nguyen, Claire Contargyris, Ambroise Montcriol, Erwan d'Aranda, Pierre Esnault, Mourad Bensalah, Bertrand Prunet, Julien Bordes, Philippe Goutorbe
BACKGROUND: While guidelines advocate goal-directed resuscitation based on timed bundles, the management of SS outside an ICU setting has been poorly studied in intermediate care units (IMCU). PATIENTS AND METHOD: We reviewed all cases of septic shock patients admitted to our IMCU between January 2013 and June 2014. The characteristics of sepsis, compliance of bundles, and outcomes were collected. The IMCU population was compared with the SS patients admitted to the ICU during the same period...
August 5, 2017: Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782378/-it-s-bit-of-an-eye-opener-a-qualitative-study-of-women-s-attitudes-towards-tanning-sun-protection-and-a-facial-morphing-intervention
#7
Sofia Persson, Sarah Grogan, Katie Dhingra, Yael Benn
OBJECTIVE: Skin cancer is to a large degree behaviourally preventable, meaning that evidence-based interventions have scope to make a difference. Previous research indicates that appearance-based interventions such as facial morphing may be more effective than health-based interventions, and that it can personalise the issue of skin cancer. METHOD: This study examined attitudes to UV exposure, as well as reactions to a facial morphing intervention, through interviews with 25 women aged 35 years and older...
August 7, 2017: Psychology & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772096/prospective-identification-of-patients-at-risk-for-unwarranted-variation-in-treatment
#8
Amy S Kelley, Evan Bollens-Lund, Kenneth E Covinsky, Jonathan S Skinner, R Sean Morrison
BACKGROUND: Understanding factors associated with treatment intensity may help ensure higher value healthcare. OBJECTIVE: To investigate factors associated with Medicare costs among prospectively identified, seriously ill older adults and examine if baseline prognosis influences the impact of these factors. DESIGN/SUBJECTS: Prospective observation of Health and Retirement Study cohort with linked Medicare claims. MEASUREMENTS: We identified people with incident serious illness (a serious medical condition, for example, metastatic cancer or functional impairment); calculated subjects' one-year mortality risk; and then followed them for one year...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771656/transfusion-practice-in-trauma-resuscitation
#9
Ashley M Eckel, John R Hess
Recognition of the acute coagulopathy of trauma and the limits of reconstituting whole blood with conventional blood components has led to a radical change in the way trauma patients with severe injuries are resuscitated. Massive transfusion protocols (MTP) have evolved toward the administration of conventional blood components in fixed ratios. Administration of a 1:1:1 unit ratio of fresh frozen plasma to whole-blood-derived platelets to packed red blood cells is now the most common strategy and the stated goal of directors of >80% of the level I trauma centers in the United States...
August 2017: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769858/dedifferentiation-does-not-account-for-hyperconnectivity-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
Rachel Anne Bernier, Arnab Roy, Umesh Meyyappan Venkatesan, Emily C Grossner, Einat K Brenner, Frank Gerard Hillary
OBJECTIVE: Changes in functional network connectivity following traumatic brain injury (TBI) have received increasing attention in recent neuroimaging literature. This study sought to understand how disrupted systems adapt to injury during resting and goal-directed brain states. Hyperconnectivity has been a common finding, and dedifferentiation (or loss of segregation of networks) is one possible explanation for this finding. We hypothesized that individuals with TBI would show dedifferentiation of networks (as noted in other clinical populations) and these effects would be associated with cognitive dysfunction...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765353/hemostatic-management-of-trauma-induced-coagulopathy
#11
Janise B Phillips, Phillip L Mohorn, Rebecca E Bookstaver, Tanya O Ezekiel, Christopher M Watson
Trauma-induced coagulopathy is a primary factor in many trauma-related fatalities. Management hinges upon rapid diagnosis of coagulation abnormalities and immediate administration of appropriate hemostatic agents. Use of crystalloids and packed red blood cells has traditionally been the core of trauma resuscitation, but current massive transfusion protocols include combination therapy with fresh frozen plasma and predefined ratios of platelets to packed red blood cells, limiting crystalloid administration. Hemostatic agents such as tranexamic acid, prothrombin complex concentrate, fibrinogen concentrate, and, in cases of refractory bleeding, recombinant activated factor VIIa may also be warranted...
August 2017: Critical Care Nurse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762879/successful-goal-directed-memory-suppression-is-associated-with-increased-inter-hemispheric-coordination-between-right-and-left-frontoparietal-control-networks
#12
Ryan Smith, Anna Alkozei, Jennifer Bao, William D S Killgore
The neural basis of suppressing conscious access to one's own memories has recently received considerable attention, with several studies suggesting this process engages frontal-parietal cognitive control regions. However, researchers to date have not examined the way right and left hemisphere cognitive control networks coordinate with one another to accomplish this. We had 48 participants (25 female) complete a Think/No Think (T/NT) task for memories of emotionally unpleasant visual scenes while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging...
January 1, 2017: Psychological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762023/efficacy-of-goal-directed-fluid-therapy-via-pleth-variability-index-during-laparoscopic-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-surgery-in-morbidly-obese-patients
#13
İsmail Demirel, Esef Bolat, Aysun Yıldız Altun, Mustafa Özdemir, Azize Beştaş
BACKGROUND: There is no well-recognized guideline for intraoperative fluid management in bariatric surgery. Goal-directed fluid therapy (GDFT) is a new concept of perioperative fluid management which was shown to improve patients' prognoses. Dynamic indicators may better predict fluid response compared to static indicators. In this study, we aimed to assess effects of administering GDFT protocol via Pleth Variability Index (PVI) in morbidly obese patients undergoing laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery...
July 31, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759562/learning-and-executing-goal-directed-choices-by-internally-generated-sequences-in-spiking-neural-circuits
#14
John Palmer, Adam Keane, Pulin Gong
Recent neural ensemble recordings have established a link between goal-directed spatial decision making and internally generated neural sequences in the hippocampus of rats. To elucidate the synaptic mechanisms of these sequences underlying spatial decision making processes, we develop and investigate a spiking neural circuit model endowed with a combination of two synaptic plasticity mechanisms including spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) and synaptic scaling. In this model, the interplay of the combined synaptic plasticity mechanisms and network dynamics gives rise to neural sequences which propagate ahead of the animals' decision point to reach goal locations...
July 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758557/thromboelastometry-versus-rotational-thromboelastography-in-cardiac-surgery
#15
Ahmed Zaky
Evidence exists on the morbiduty and mortality associated with both massive blood loss and transfusion in cardiac surgical patients. Monitoring of the vesicoelastic properties of blood using rotational thromboelastometry and thromboelsatography (TEG) has been a major step towards ameliorating the risks associated with these 2 evils by providing trageted goal-directed blood product resuscitation. Point of care ROTEM and TEG overcome many of the current limitatons of conventional laboratory coagulation testing...
September 2017: Seminars in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756405/the-recognition-and-management-of-sepsis-and-septic-shock-a-guide-for-non-intensivists
#16
REVIEW
Alexander Keeley, Paul Hine, Emmanuel Nsutebu
Sepsis is common, often fatal and requires rapid interventions to improve outcomes. While the optimal management of sepsis in the intensive care setting is the focus of extensive research interest, the mainstay of the recognition and initial management of sepsis will occur outside the intensive care setting. Therefore, it is key that institutions and clinicians remain well informed of the current updates in sepsis management and continue to use them to deliver appropriate and timely interventions to enhance patient survival...
July 29, 2017: Postgraduate Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752017/attention-bias-modification-abm-review-of-effects-of-multisession-abm-training-on-anxiety-and-threat-related-attention-in-high-anxious-individuals
#17
REVIEW
Karin Mogg, Allison M Waters, Brendan P Bradley
Attention bias modification (ABM) aims to reduce anxiety by reducing attention bias (AB) to threat; however, effects on anxiety and AB are variable. This review examines 34 studies assessing effects of multisession-ABM on both anxiety and AB in high-anxious individuals. Methods include ABM-threat-avoidance (promoting attention-orienting away from threat), ABM-positive-search (promoting explicit, goal-directed attention-search for positive/nonthreat targets among negative/threat distractors), and comparison conditions (e...
July 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751874/candid-a-framework-for-linking-executive-function-and-education
#18
Niki H Kamkar, J B Morton
The close association between executive functions (EFs) and educational achievement has led to the idea that targeted EF training might facilitate learning and goal-directed behavior in the classroom. The evidence that training interventions have long-lasting and transferable effects is however decidedly mixed (Melby-Lervåg and Hulme, 2013; Simons et al., 2016). The goal of the current paper is to propose a new CanDiD framework for re-thinking EF and its links to education. Based on findings from basic EF research, the proposed CanDiD framework highlights dynamic and contextual influences on EF and emphasizes the importance of development and individual differences for understanding these effects...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749428/cannabinoid-receptor-1-and-fatty-acid-amide-hydrolase-contribute-to-operant-sensation-seeking-in-mice
#19
Alexander I Helfand, Christopher M Olsen, Cecilia J Hillard
A large body of evidence in humans and preclinical models supports a role for the endocannabinoid system in the proper execution of motivated or goal-directed behaviors. Operant sensation seeking (OSS) is a task that uses varied sensory stimuli as a reinforcer to maintain operant responding in mice. The purpose of the studies in this report was to begin to explore the role of endocannabinoid signaling in OSS utilizing cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) knock out mice. Compared to wild type littermate controls, CB1R knock out mice exhibited significantly fewer active responses and earned significantly fewer reinforcers in fixed ratio and progressive ratio schedules...
July 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749096/early-goal-directed-therapy-by-continuous-non-invasive-hemodynamic-monitoring-still-elusive
#20
Ole Broch, Matthias Gruenewald, Arne Carstens, Jochen Renner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 26, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
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