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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340371/walking-adaptability-assessments-with-the-interactive-walkway-between-systems-agreement-and-sensitivity-to-task-and-subject-variations
#1
Daphne J Geerse, Bert H Coolen, Melvyn Roerdink
The ability to adapt walking to environmental circumstances is an important aspect of walking, yet difficult to assess. The Interactive Walkway was developed to assess walking adaptability by augmenting a multi-Kinect-v2 10-m walkway with gait-dependent visual context (stepping targets, obstacles) using real-time processed markerless full-body kinematics. In this study we determined Interactive Walkway's usability for walking-adaptability assessments in terms of between-systems agreement and sensitivity to task and subject variations...
March 2, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339410/unimanual-versus-bimanual-therapy-in-children-with-unilateral-cerebral-palsy-same-same-but-different
#2
Brian Hoare, Susan Greaves
BACKGROUND: There is high-level evidence supporting constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) and bimanual therapy for children with unilateral cerebral palsy. Evidence-based intervention includes time-limited, goal-directed, skills-based, intensive blocks of practice based on motor learning theory. AIM AND METHODS: Using supporting literature and clinical insight, we provide a theoretical rationale to highlight previously unreported differences between CIMT and bimanual therapy...
2017: Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338943/dysfunction-of-large-scale-brain-networks-in-schizophrenia-a-meta-analysis-of-resting-state-functional-connectivity
#3
Debo Dong, Yulin Wang, Xuebin Chang, Cheng Luo, Dezhong Yao
Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder with disorganized communication among large-scale brain networks, as demonstrated by impaired resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC). Individual rsFC studies, however, vary greatly in their methods and findings. We searched for consistent patterns of network dysfunction in schizophrenia by using a coordinate-based meta-analysis. Fifty-six seed-based voxel-wise rsFC datasets from 52 publications (2115 patients and 2297 healthy controls) were included in this meta-analysis...
March 11, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338785/elevated-nucleus-accumbens-structural-connectivity-associated-with-proneness-to-hypomania-a-reward-hypersensitivity-perspective
#4
Katherine S Damme, Christina B Young, Robin Nusslock
The Reward Hypersensitivity Model of bipolar disorder argues that hypersensitivity to reward-relevant cues characterizes risk for hypo/mania. This hypersensitivity leads to increased goal-directed motivation during reward-relevant life events that, in the extreme, is reflected in hypo/manic symptoms. In line with this perspective, individuals with bipolar disorder display elevated activation in a cortico-striatal reward circuit including the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC). To date, however, research on reward-related neural circuitry underlying bipolar symptoms focuses on syndromal bipolar disorder (bipolar I, bipolar II), and typically examines neural regions in isolation of each other...
February 17, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333495/variables-associated-with-achievement-in-higher-education-a-systematic-review-of-meta-analyses
#5
Michael Schneider, Franzis Preckel
The last 2 decades witnessed a surge in empirical studies on the variables associated with achievement in higher education. A number of meta-analyses synthesized these findings. In our systematic literature review, we included 38 meta-analyses investigating 105 correlates of achievement, based on 3,330 effect sizes from almost 2 million students. We provide a list of the 105 variables, ordered by the effect size, and summary statistics for central research topics. The results highlight the close relation between social interaction in courses and achievement...
March 23, 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332146/physiological-substrates-of-executive-functioning-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#6
REVIEW
Bailey A Munro, Lisa L Weyandt, Lily E Hall, Danielle R Oster, Bergljot Gyda Gudmundsdottir, Benjamin G Kuhar
Executive function (EF) is a multifaceted construct that has been defined as a set of higher-order cognitive processes that allow for flexibility, self-regulation, strategic planning, and goal-directed behaviors. EFs have been studied in numerous clinical disorders using a variety of neuropsychological tasks and, more recently, neuroimaging techniques. The underlying physiological substrates of EF were historically attributed to the frontal lobes; however, recent studies suggest more widespread involvement of additional brain regions...
March 22, 2017: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330460/sepsis-recognition-in-the-emergency-department-impact-on-quality-of-care-and-outcome
#7
Marius Morr, Alexander Lukasz, Eva Rübig, Hermann Pavenstädt, Philipp Kümpers
BACKGROUND: Appropriate and timely recognition of sepsis is a prerequisite for starting goal-directed therapy bundles. We analyzed the appropriateness of sepsis recognition and documentation with regard to adequacy of therapy and outcome in an internal medicine emergency department (ED). METHODS: This study included 487 consecutive patients ≥18 years of age who presented to a university hospital ED during a 4-week period. Clinical, laboratory, and follow-up data were acquired independently from documentation by ED physicians...
March 23, 2017: BMC Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328586/percutaneous-isolated-hepatic-perfusion-hemodynamic-monitoring-and-goal-directed-anesthetic-management-a-case-report
#8
Oscar Martin-Delgado, Miguel Rodriguez, Andres Lopez, Miguel A Reina, Emilio De Vicente, Yolanda Quijano, Antonio Echenagusia, Juan A Martinez
The percutaneous isolated hepatic perfusion utilizes a venovenous bypass to administer high-dose chemotherapy exclusively in the liver, getting depurated through a hemofilter before returning to the systemic circulation. The hepatic perfusion is managed under general anesthesia and invasive monitoring as a result of very abrupt changes in venous return and vascular resistances because of the isolation of the hepatic territory and absorption of circulating catecholamines by the hemofilter. We report a case in which we describe the technique, physiologic implications, anesthetic, and goal-directed hemodynamic management for this procedure...
March 15, 2017: A & A Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327058/extending-energy-optimization-in-goal-directed-aiming-from-movement-kinematics-to-joint-angles
#9
James J Burkitt, Raoul M Bongers, Digby Elliott, Steve Hansen, James L Lyons
Energy optimization in goal-directed aiming has been demonstrated as an undershoot bias in primary movement endpoint locations, especially in conditions where corrections to target overshoots must be made against gravity. Two-component models of upper limb movement have not yet considered how joint angles are organized to deal with the energy constraints associated with moving the upper limb in goal-directed aiming tasks. To address this limitation, participants performed aiming movements to targets in the up and down directions with the index finger and two types of rod extensions attached to the index finger...
March 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326993/imitation-of-non-speech-oral-gestures-by-8-month-old-infants
#10
Heidi Diepstra, Sandra E Trehub, Alice Eriks-Brophy, Pascal Hhm van Lieshout
This study investigates the oral gestures of 8-month-old infants in response to audiovisual presentation of lip and tongue smacks. Infants exhibited more lip gestures than tongue gestures following adult lip smacks and more tongue gestures than lip gestures following adult tongue smacks. The findings, which are consistent with predictions from Articulatory Phonology, imply that 8-month-old infants are capable of producing goal-directed oral gestures by matching the articulatory organ of an adult model.
March 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324705/more-pain-more-gain-blocking-the-opioid-system-boosts-adaptive-cognitive-control
#11
Henk van Steenbergen, Daniel H Weissman, Dan J Stein, Susan Malcolm-Smith, Jack van Honk
The ability to adaptively increase cognitive control in response to cognitive challenges is crucial for goal-directed behavior. Recent findings suggest that aversive arousal triggers adaptive increases of control, but the neurochemical mechanisms underlying these effects remain unclear. Given the known contributions of the opioid system to hedonic states, we investigated whether blocking this system increases adaptive control modulations. To do so, we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled psychopharmacological study (n=52 females) involving a Stroop-like task...
March 7, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322986/differentiating-motivational-from-affective-influence-of-performance-contingent-reward-on-cognitive-control-the-wanting-component-enhances-both-proactive-and-reactive-control
#12
Anne-Clémence Chaillou, Anne Giersch, Marc Hoonakker, Rémi L Capa, Anne Bonnefond
Positive affect strongly modulates goal-directed behaviors and cognitive control mechanisms. It often results from the presence of a pleasant stimulus in the environment, whether that stimulus appears unpredictably or as a consequence of a particular behavior. The influence of positive affect linked to a random pleasant stimulus differs from the influence of positive affect resulting from performance-contingent pleasant stimuli. However, the mechanisms by which the performance contingency of pleasant stimuli modulates the influence of positive affect on cognitive control mechanisms have not been elucidated...
March 18, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322631/priming-patient-safety-through-nursing-handoff-communication
#13
Patricia S Groves, Jacinda L Bunch, Ellen Cram, Amany Farag, Kirstin Manges, Yelena Perkhounkova, Jill Scott-Cawiezell
Understanding how safety culture mechanisms affect nursing safety-oriented behavior and thus patient outcomes is critical to developing hospital safety programs. Safety priming refers to communicating safety values intended to activate patient safety goals. Safety priming through nursing handoff communication was tested as a means by which cultural safety values may affect nursing practice. The mixed-methods pilot study setting was an academic medical center's high-fidelity simulation lab. Twenty nurses were randomized into intervention and control groups...
October 1, 2016: Western Journal of Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322239/spinal-cord-ability-ruler-an-interval-scale-to-measure-volitional-performance-after-spinal-cord-injury
#14
R Reed, M Mehra, S Kirshblum, D Maier, D Lammertse, A Blight, R Rupp, L Jones, R Abel, N Weidner, A Curt, J Steeves
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective statistical analysis of database. OBJECTIVE: Spinal cord injury (SCI) clinical trials are challenged to enroll participants, and early trial outcomes have often been equivocal. We hypothesized that a specifically designed novel true linear interval-scaled outcome measure targeted to simultaneously track a broad range of SCI will enable more inclusive enrollment of participants and valid comparisons of functional changes after SCI. METHODS: To define a single SCI measurement framework, we used items from existing measures...
March 21, 2017: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321705/positive-emotion-impedes-emotional-but-not-cognitive-conflict-processing
#15
Artyom Zinchenko, Christian Obermeier, Philipp Kanske, Erich Schröger, Sonja A Kotz
Cognitive control enables successful goal-directed behavior by resolving a conflict between opposing action tendencies, while emotional control arises as a consequence of emotional conflict processing such as in irony. While negative emotion facilitates both cognitive and emotional conflict processing, it is unclear how emotional conflict processing is affected by positive emotion (e.g., humor). In 2 EEG experiments, we investigated the role of positive audiovisual target stimuli in cognitive and emotional conflict processing...
March 20, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320242/early-goal-directed-therapy-for-septic-shock-a-patient-level-meta-analysis
#16
(no author information available yet)
Background After a single-center trial and observational studies suggesting that early, goal-directed therapy (EGDT) reduced mortality from septic shock, three multicenter trials (ProCESS, ARISE, and ProMISe) showed no benefit. This meta-analysis of individual patient data from the three recent trials was designed prospectively to improve statistical power and explore heterogeneity of treatment effect of EGDT. Methods We harmonized entry criteria, intervention protocols, outcomes, resource-use measures, and data collection across the trials and specified all analyses before unblinding...
March 21, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319787/motor-impulsivity-differentiates-between-psychiatric-inpatients-with-multiple-versus-single-lifetime-suicide-attempts
#17
Victoria A Colborn, Jessica M LaCroix, Laura L Neely, Jennifer Tucker, Kanchana Perera, Samantha E Daruwala, Geoffrey Grammer, Jennifer Weaver, Marjan Ghahramanlou-Holloway
A history of multiple suicide attempts conveys greater risk for suicide than a single attempt. Impulsivity may partially explain the association between multiple attempts and increased risk. We examined trait impulsivity, ability to engage in goal-directed behaviors, and impulse control among psychiatrically hospitalized United States military personnel and their dependents. Individuals with a history of multiple versus single attempts had significantly higher motor impulsivity, indicating spur of the moment action...
March 15, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314439/reversing-the-atypical-valuation-of-drug-and-nondrug-rewards-in-smokers-using-multimodal-neuroimaging
#18
Travis E Baker, Paul Lesperance, Alan Tucholka, Stephane Potvin, Kevin Larcher, Yu Zhang, Didier Jutras-Aswad, Patricia Conrod
BACKGROUND: Chronic substance use can disrupt the reward function of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), biasing the ACC to favor goal-directed behaviors that converge on drug use. Here we used multimodal neuroimaging methods to ask whether modulating reward-related signaling in the ACC can reverse the atypical valuation of nondrug and drug rewards in abstinent smokers. METHODS: We first recorded functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 20 moderately dependent cigarette smokers (mean age = 25 years; no history of neuropsychiatric disorders), following an overnight period of abstinence, to identify regions of the left dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex associated with the anticipation of drug-related rewards (cigarette puff)...
January 27, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303262/parallel-specification-of-visuomotor-feedback-gains-during-bimanual-reaching-to-independent-goals
#19
Anouk J de Brouwer, Tayler Jarvis, Jason P Gallivan, J Randall Flanagan
During goal-directed reaching, rapid visuomotor feedback processes enable the human motor system to quickly correct for errors in the trajectory of the hand that arise from motor noise and, in some cases, external perturbations. To date, these visuomotor responses, the gain of which is sensitive to features of the task and environment, have primarily been examined in the context of unimanual reaching movements toward a single target. However, many natural tasks involve moving both hands together, often to separate targets, such that errors can occur in parallel and at different spatial locations...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302586/mantisbot-is-a-robotic-model-of-visually-guided-motion-in-the-praying-mantis
#20
Nicholas S Szczecinski, Andrew P Getsy, Joshua P Martin, Roy E Ritzmann, Roger D Quinn
Insects use highly distributed nervous systems to process exteroception from head sensors, compare that information with state-based goals, and direct posture or locomotion toward those goals. To study how descending commands from brain centers produce coordinated, goal-directed motion in distributed nervous systems, we have constructed a conductance-based neural system for our robot MantisBot, a 29 degree-of-freedom, 13.3:1 scale praying mantis robot. Using the literature on mantis prey tracking and insect locomotion, we designed a hierarchical, distributed neural controller that establishes the goal, coordinates different joints, and executes prey-tracking motion...
March 13, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
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