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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348292/morbid-jealousy-reactivated-by-mood-episodes
#1
Ruziana Masiran, Nik Shaliza Hussin
A middle-aged man who has been enduring financial constraint experienced a period of irritability, increased goal-directed activities and insomnia occurring along with extreme jealousy with his current wife. The episode was followed by depressed mood and non-prominent auditory hallucination. His previous history revealed a forensic psychiatry case of a murder he committed 20 years ago.
January 17, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335604/dentate-network-activity-is-necessary-for-spatial-working-memory-by-supporting-ca3-sharp-wave-ripple-generation-and-prospective-firing-of-ca3-neurons
#2
Takuya Sasaki, Verónica C Piatti, Ernie Hwaun, Siavash Ahmadi, John E Lisman, Stefan Leutgeb, Jill K Leutgeb
Complex spatial working memory tasks have been shown to require both hippocampal sharp-wave ripple (SWR) activity and dentate gyrus (DG) neuronal activity. We therefore asked whether DG inputs to CA3 contribute to spatial working memory by promoting SWR generation. Recordings from DG and CA3 while rats performed a dentate-dependent working memory task on an eight-arm radial maze revealed that the activity of dentate neurons and the incidence rate of SWRs both increased during reward consumption. We then found reduced reward-related CA3 SWR generation without direct input from dentate granule neurons...
January 15, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335427/chronic-alcohol-exposure-disrupts-top-down-control-over-basal-ganglia-action-selection-to-produce-habits
#3
Rafael Renteria, Emily T Baltz, Christina M Gremel
Addiction involves a predominance of habitual control mediated through action selection processes in dorsal striatum. Research has largely focused on neural mechanisms mediating a proposed progression from ventral to dorsal lateral striatal control in addiction. However, over reliance on habit striatal processes may also arise from reduced cortical input to striatum, thereby disrupting executive control over action selection. Here, we identify novel mechanisms through which chronic intermittent ethanol exposure and withdrawal (CIE) disrupts top-down control over goal-directed action selection processes to produce habits...
January 15, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334568/goal-directed-hemostatic-resuscitation-for-trauma-induced-coagulopathy-maintaining-homeostasis
#4
Ernest E Moore, Hunter B Moore, Michael P Chapman, Eduardo Gonzalez, Angela Sauaia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 12, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334155/response-selection-codes-in-neurophysiological-data-predict-conjoint-effects-of-controlled-and-automatic-processes-during-response-inhibition
#5
Witold X Chmielewski, Moritz Mückschel, Christian Beste
The inhibition of prepotent responses is a requirement for goal-directed behavior and several factors determine corresponding successful response inhibition processes. One factor relates to the degree of automaticity of pre-potent response tendencies and another factor relates to the degree of cognitive control that is exerted during response inhibition. However, both factors can conjointly modulate inhibitory control. Cognitive theoretical concepts suggest that codings of stimulus-response translations may underlie such conjoint effects...
January 15, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329039/an-investigation-into-the-drivers-of-avolition-in-schizophrenia
#6
Gaurav Suri, Lindsey M Lavaysse, Gerald Young, Craig Moodie, Alen Tersakyan, James J Gross, David E Gard
Over a century of research has documented that avolition is a core symptom in schizophrenia. However, the drivers of avolition remain unclear. Conceptually, there are at least two potential mutually compatible drivers that could cause avolition in schizophrenia. First, people with schizophrenia might have differences in preferences that result in less goal-directed behavior than non-clinical populations (preference-differences). Second, people with schizophrenia might have difficulty translating their preferences into manifest behavior at rates similar to non-clinical populations (psychological-inertia)...
January 6, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315194/relations-between-self-reported-executive-functioning-and-speech-perception-skills-in-adult-cochlear-implant-users
#7
Aaron C Moberly, Tirth R Patel, Irina Castellanos
HYPOTHESIS: As a result of their hearing loss, adults with cochlear implants (CIs) would self-report poorer executive functioning (EF) skills than normal-hearing (NH) peers, and these EF skills would be associated with performance on speech recognition tasks. BACKGROUND: EF refers to a group of high order neurocognitive skills responsible for behavioral and emotional regulation during goal-directed activity, and EF has been found to be poorer in children with CIs than their NH age-matched peers...
February 2018: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313710/long-term-outcomes-after-protocolized-sedation-vs-usual-care-in-ventilated-pediatric-patients
#8
R Scott Watson, Lisa A Asaro, James H Hertzog, Lauren R Sorce, Alicia G Kachmar, Leslie A Dervan, Derek C Angus, David Wypij, Martha A Q Curley
RATIONALE: Whether a nurse-implemented goal-directed sedation protocol resulting in more awake yet calm intubated children affects post-discharge functional status, health-related quality of life, or risk for post-traumatic stress disorder is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To compare post-discharge outcomes in children with acute respiratory failure cluster randomized to a sedation protocol or usual care. METHODS: A stratified random sample of 1360 patients from 31 centers in the Randomized Evaluation of Sedation Titration for Respiratory Failure trial was assessed by mail, electronically, and/or telephone six months after intensive care unit discharge...
January 9, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310686/comparison-of-two-different-coagulation-algorithms-on-the-use-of-allogenic-blood-products-and-coagulation-factors-in-severely-injured-trauma-patients-a-retrospective-multicentre-observational-study
#9
Alexander Kaserer, Mattias Casutt, Kai Sprengel, Burkhardt Seifert, Donat R Spahn, Philipp Stein
BACKGROUND: At the University Hospital Zurich (USZ) and the Cantonal Hospital of Lucerne (LUKS) an individualized goal-directed coagulation and transfusion algorithm was introduced and implemented before 2012 (Coagulation algorithm of the USZ: USZ-Alg; of the LUKS: LUKS-Alg). Main differences between both algorithms are: 1) A target haematocrit-range of 0.21-0.24 (USZ-Alg) vs. a lower haematocrit limit only (LUKS-Alg). 2) Blind coagulation-package in selected cases (LUKS-Alg only). 3) Factor XIII substitution is considered earlier according to the USZ-Alg...
January 8, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302616/habitual-behavior-is-mediated-by-a-shift-in-response-outcome-encoding-by-infralimbic-cortex
#10
Jacqueline M Barker, W Bailey Glen, David N Linsenbardt, Christopher C Lapish, L Judson Chandler
The ability to flexibly switch between goal-directed actions and habits is critical for adaptive behavior. The infralimbic prefrontal cortex (IfL-C) has been consistently identified as a crucial structure for the regulation of response strategies. To investigate the role of the IfL-C, the present study employed two validated reinforcement schedules that either promote habits or goal-directed actions in mice. The results reveal that information about action-outcome relationships is differentially encoded in the IfL-C during actions and habits as evidenced by encoding of behavioral outcomes during goal-directed actions that is lost during habits...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301872/prefrontal-cortico-striatal-disconnection-blocks-the-acquisition-of-goal-directed-action
#11
Genevra Hart, Laura A Bradfield, Bernard W Balleine
The acquisition of goal-directed action requires encoding the association between an action and its specific consequences or outcome. At a neural level, this encoding has been hypothesized to involve a prefrontal corticostriatal circuit involving the projection from the prelimbic cortex (PL) to the posterior dorsomedial striatum (pDMS); however, no direct evidence for this claim has been reported. In a series of experiments, we performed functional disconnection of this pathway using targeted lesions of the anterior corpus callosum to disrupt contralateral corticostriatal projections with asymmetrical lesions of the PL and/or pDMS to block plasticity in this circuit in rats...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294519/-evaluation-of-the-effect-of-early-goal-directed-therapy-in-patients-with-paraquat-poisoning
#12
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290549/cholinergic-sensorimotor-integration-regulates-olfactory-steering
#13
He Liu, Wenxing Yang, Taihong Wu, Fengyun Duan, Edward Soucy, Xin Jin, Yun Zhang
Sensorimotor integration regulates goal-directed movements. We study the signaling mechanisms underlying sensorimotor integration in C. elegans during olfactory steering, when the sinusoidal movements of the worm generate an in-phase oscillation in the concentration of the sampled odorant. We show that cholinergic neurotransmission encodes the oscillatory sensory response and the motor state of head undulations by acting through an acetylcholine-gated channel and a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, respectively...
December 21, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289851/emotion-dysregulation-and-smoking-among-treatment-seeking-smokers
#14
Andrew H Rogers, Jafar Bakhshaie, Andres G Viana, Kara Manning, Nubia A Mayorga, Lorra Garey, Amanda M Raines, Norman B Schmidt, Michael J Zvolensky
INTRODUCTION: There has been increased scholarly interest in advancing the study of emotion dysregulation and substance use. However, there is limited study of emotion dysregulation in the context of smoking. The current study examined the emotion dysregulation global construct and sub facets in relation to negative affect reduction expectancies, coping motives, perceived barriers for quitting, and the severity of problems experienced during quit attempts. METHOD: Treatment seeking smokers (n=469; 48...
December 21, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285653/continuous-subcutaneous-apomorphine-infusion-does-not-impair-the-dynamics-of-cognitive-action-control-in-mild-to-moderate-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Joan Duprez, Jean-François Houvenaghel, Sophie Drapier, Manon Auffret, Dominique Drapier, Gabriel Robert, Marc Vérin, Paul Sauleau
INTRODUCTION: Continuous subcutaneous apomorphine infusion (CSAI) is increasingly used in Parkinson's disease (PD), notably in patients contraindicated for subthalamic deep brain stimulation. Although it has been suggested that CSAI is safe regarding cognition, few studies have actually investigated its effect, especially on cognitive control which is a crucial process for goal-directed behavior. More specifically, its impact on the dynamics of cognitive action control, as reflected by the activation and suppression of impulsive responses, has yet to be investigated, which is the objective of the present study...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282510/changes-in-clinical-practice-reduce-the-rate-of-anastomotic-leakage-after-colorectal-resections
#16
Henrik Iversen, Madelene Ahlberg, Marja Lindqvist, Christian Buchli
BACKGROUND: Anastomotic leakage is a serious clinical problem after colorectal resections and is associated with a significantly increased length of stay, morbidity and mortality. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of changes in clinical practice on anastomotic leakage rate after colorectal resections. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study based on prospectively collected data. All 894 patients with primary anastomosis after colorectal resection at a tertiary referral center between 2006 and 2013 were analyzed...
December 28, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280734/interactions-between-stimulus-and-response-types-are-more-strongly-represented-in-the-entorhinal-cortex-than-in-its-upstream-regions-in-rats
#17
Eun-Hye Park, Jae-Rong Ahn, Inah Lee
Previously we reported results which suggested that response types are critical in dissociating the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) from the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) in a scene memory task (Yoo and Lee, 2017). Here, we investigated whether the perirhinal cortex (PER) and postrhinal cortex (POR), the upstream regions of the LEC and MEC, respectively, could be dissociated similarly. We conducted four tasks by combining different stimulus and response types. Our results suggest that the PER is important whenever object recognition is required and, together with prior findings, imply that PER-LEC networks are essential in goal-directed interactions with objects...
December 27, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277400/the-cortical-cholinergic-system-contributes-to-the-top-down-control-of-distraction-evidence-from-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#18
REVIEW
Kamin Kim, Martijn L T M Müller, Nicolaas I Bohnen, Martin Sarter, Cindy Lustig
Past animal and human studies robustly report that the cholinergic system plays an essential role in both top-down and bottom-up attentional control, as well as other aspects of cognition (see Ballinger et al., 2016 for a recent review). However, current understanding of how two major cholinergic pathways in the human brain (the basal forebrain-cortical pathway, and the brainstem pedunculopontine-thalamic pathway) contribute to specific cognitive functions remains somewhat limited. To address this issue, we examine how individual variation in the integrity of striatal-dopaminergic, thalamic-cholinergic, and cortical-cholinergic pathways (measured using Positron Emission Tomography in patients with Parkinson's disease) was associated with individual variation in the initial goal-directed focus of attention, the ability to sustain attentional performance over time, and the ability to avoid distraction from a highly-salient, but irrelevant, environmental stimulus...
December 19, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276480/traumatic-life-events-in-relation-to-cognitive-flexibility-moderating-role-of-the-bdnf-val66met-gene-polymorphism
#19
Robert L Gabrys, Kaylyn Dixon, Hymie Anisman
Cognitive flexibility plays an important role in an individual's ability to adapt to a continuously changing environment and is considered central to goal-oriented behavior. Accordingly, increasing attention has been devoted to understanding the factors, including genetic and early life experiences, which might contribute to individual differences in this ability. In the present investigation, we examined the contribution of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism to cognitive flexibility, as assessed by set-shifting ability on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST), and whether this polymorphism moderated the relation between trauma experiences (including type and timing of trauma occurrence) and cognitive flexibility...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260349/neural-mechanisms-of-attentional-switching-between-pain-and-a-visual-illusion-task-a-laser-evoked-potential-study
#20
Andrej Stancak, Nicholas Fallon, Alessandra Fenu, Katerina Kokmotou, Vicente Soto, Stephanie Cook
Previous studies demonstrated that pain induced by a noxious stimulus during a distraction task is affected by both stimulus-driven and goal-directed processes which interact and change over time. The purpose of this exploratory study was to analyse associations of aspects of subjective pain experience and engagement with the distracting task with attention-sensitive components of noxious laser-evoked potentials (LEPs) on a single-trial basis. A laser heat stimulus was applied to the dorsum of the left hand while subjects either viewed the Rubin vase-face illusion (RVI), or focused on their pain and associated somatosensory sensations occurring on their stimulated hand...
December 19, 2017: Brain Topography
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