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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139337/do-people-with-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-benefit-from-making-errors-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-error-based-and-errorless-learning
#1
Tamara Ownsworth, Jennifer Fleming, Robyn Tate, Elizabeth Beadle, Janelle Griffin, Melissa Kendall, Julia Schmidt, Amanda Lane-Brown, Mathilde Chevignard, David H K Shum
BACKGROUND: Errorless learning (ELL) and error-based learning (EBL) are commonly used approaches to rehabilitation for people with traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, it is unknown whether making errors is beneficial in the learning process to promote skills generalization after severe TBI. OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of ELL and EBL for improving skills generalization, self-awareness, behavioral competency, and psychosocial functioning after severe TBI...
November 1, 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136716/-the-impact-of-goal-directed-analgesia-on-mechanical-ventilated-patients-s-outcomes-in-intensive-care-unit-a-clinical-observational-study
#2
Q D Li, X Y Wan, Y L Zhang, S W Li, L L Han, W W Li, H Y Shi
To investigate the impact of goal directed analgesia on the outcome of patients with mechanical ventilation in intensive care unit.A total of 126 patients who needed mechanical ventilation were recruited.With a method of before and after paired comparison, they were divided into two group: (1) analgesia with empirical administration or control group; (2) goal directed analgesia based on critical-care pain observation tool (CPOT). Compared with the control group, after goal directed analgesia was applied, the consumption of midazolam significantly dropped from (368...
November 1, 2017: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136106/cell-type-specific-burst-firing-interacts-with-theta-and-beta-activity-in-prefrontal-cortex-during-attention-states
#3
B Voloh, T Womelsdorf
Population-level theta and beta band activity in anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortices (ACC/PFC) are prominent signatures of self-controlled, adaptive behaviors. But how these rhythmic activities are linked to cell-type specific activity has remained unclear. Here, we suggest such a cell-to-systems level linkage. We found that the rate of burst spiking events is enhanced particularly during attention states and that attention-specific burst spikes have a unique temporal relationship to local theta and beta band population-level activities...
November 9, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128976/neurons-in-the-crow-nidopallium-caudolaterale-encode-varying-durations-of-visual-working-memory-periods
#4
Konstantin Hartmann, Lena Veit, Andreas Nieder
Adaptive sequential behaviors rely on the bridging and integration of temporally separate information for the realization of prospective goals. Corvids' remarkable behavioral flexibility is thought to depend on the workings of the nidopallium caudolaterale (NCL), a high-level avian associative forebrain area. We trained carrion crows to remember visual items for three alternating delay durations in a delayed match-to-sample task and recorded single-unit activity from the NCL. Sample-selective delay activity, a correlate of visual working memory, was maintained throughout different working memory durations...
November 11, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128740/motivational-capacities-after-prolonged-interpersonal-childhood-trauma-in-institutional-settings-in-a-sample-of-austrian-adult-survivors
#5
Dina Weindl, Matthias Knefel, Tobias M Glück, Ulrich S Tran, Brigitte Lueger-Schuster
A considerable amount of research has been conducted on the aversive impact of prolonged interpersonal childhood trauma, but data on possible associations with motivational concepts (self-efficacy, self-esteem and locus of control) in adult survivors is scarce. The purpose of this study is to investigate specific coherences between childhood abuse and adult life events with (a) motivational concepts (MC), (b) the emotion regulation strategy "goal-directed behavior" and (c) the possible mediation of emotion regulation (ER) on motivational concepts...
November 9, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126689/the-feasibility-and-impact-of-routine-combined-limited-transthoracic-echocardiography-and-lung-ultrasound-on-diagnosis-and-management-of-patients-admitted-to-icu-a-prospective-observational-study
#6
Kavi Haji, Darsim Haji, David J Canty, Alistair G Royse, Dhaksha Tharmaraj, Meor Azraee, Lynda Hopkins, Collin F Royse
OBJECTIVES: Limited transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and lung ultrasound increasingly is performed in the intensive care unit (ICU), though used in a goal-directed rather than routine manner. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTINGS: Tertiary ICU. PARTICIPANTS: Ninety-three critically ill participants within 24 hours of admission to ICU. METHODS: A treating intensivist documented a clinical diagnosis and management plan before and after combined limited TTE and lung ultrasound...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120938/fibrinogen-on-admission-in-trauma-score-early-prediction-of-low-plasma-fibrinogen-concentrations-in-trauma-patients
#7
Tobias Gauss, Sébastien Campion, Sébastien Kerever, Mathilde Eurin, Mathieu Raux, Anatole Harrois, Catherine Paugam-Burtz, Sophie Hamada
BACKGROUND: Early recognition of low fibrinogen concentrations in trauma patients is crucial for timely haemostatic treatment and laboratory testing is too slow to inform decision-making. OBJECTIVE: To develop a simple clinical tool to predict low fibrinogen concentrations in trauma patients on arrival. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Three designated level 1 trauma centres in the Paris Region, from January 2011 to December 2013...
November 8, 2017: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120894/advances-in-pharmacotherapies-for-movement-disorders-in-children-current-limitations-and-future-progress
#8
Jean-Pierre Lin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In childhood, movement disorders are generated by a very large number of disorders of the nervous system, and the very different developmental ages at which these occur make studies of pharmacotherapy efficacy extremely difficult. In most clinical practices, medication used in management is by trial and error, and limited by lack of efficacy and/or adverse drug reactions leading to drug intolerance. Nevertheless, symptom reduction using polypharmacy must be balanced against any accompanying comorbidities such as poor attention and concentration, constipation, ileus, urinary retention, blurred vision sedation and respiratory depression...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120268/treatment-mechanisms-with-homeless-veterans
#9
Jon T Moore, Michelle A Skinner
OBJECTIVE: Emotion regulation and social processes that longitudinally predict depressive symptom change have not yet been investigated as mechanisms of change within a residential treatment context for homeless veterans with substance use issues. METHODS: A longitudinal data analysis of 186 homeless veterans enrolled in a six-month residential rehabilitation and addiction treatment program was conducted to investigate the role of six different emotion regulation variables as well the impact of two relationship quality constructs when measured at three time points across treatment...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118199/rapid-feedback-responses-are-flexibly-coordinated-across-arm-muscles-to-support-goal-directed-reaching
#10
Jeffrey Weiler, Paul L Gribble, J Andrew Pruszynski
A transcortical pathway helps support goal-directed reaching by processing somatosensory information to produce rapid feedback responses across multiple joints and muscles. We tested whether such feedback responses can account for changes in arm configuration and for arbitrary visuomotor transformations - two manipulations that alter how muscles at the elbow and wrist need to be coordinated to achieve task success. Participants used a planar three degree-of-freedom exoskeleton robot to move a cursor to a target following a mechanical perturbation that flexed the elbow...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109237/sleep-deprivation-promotes-habitual-control-over-goal-directed-control-behavioral-and-neuroimaging-evidence
#11
Jie Chen, Jie Liang, Xiao Lin, Yang Zhang, Yan Zhang, Lin Lu, Jie Shi
Sleep is one of the most fundamental processes of life, playing an important role in the regulation of brain function. The long-term lack of sleep can cause memory impairments, declines in learning ability, and executive dysfunction. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of sleep deprivation on instrumental learning behavior, particularly goal-directed and habitual actions in humans, and investigated the underlying neural mechanisms. Healthy college students of either gender were enrolled and randomly divided into sleep deprivation group and sleep control group...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107551/caudate-microstimulation-increases-value-of-specific-choices
#12
Samantha R Santacruz, Erin L Rich, Joni D Wallis, Jose M Carmena
Value-based decision-making involves an assessment of the value of items available and the actions required to obtain them. The basal ganglia are highly implicated in action selection and goal-directed behavior [1-4], and the striatum in particular plays a critical role in arbitrating between competing choices [5-9]. Previous work has demonstrated that neural activity in the caudate nucleus is modulated by task-relevant action values [6, 8]. Nonetheless, how value is represented and maintained in the striatum remains unclear since decision-making in these tasks relied on spatially lateralized responses, confounding the ability to generalize to a more abstract choice task [6, 8, 9]...
November 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105239/different-shades-of-default-mode-disturbance-in-schizophrenia-subnodal-covariance-estimation-in-structure-and-function
#13
Jérémy Lefort-Besnard, Danielle S Bassett, Jonathan Smallwood, Daniel S Margulies, Birgit Derntl, Oliver Gruber, Andre Aleman, Renaud Jardri, Gaël Varoquaux, Bertrand Thirion, Simon B Eickhoff, Danilo Bzdok
Schizophrenia is a devastating mental disease with an apparent disruption in the highly associative default mode network (DMN). Interplay between this canonical network and others probably contributes to goal-directed behavior so its disturbance is a candidate neural fingerprint underlying schizophrenia psychopathology. Previous research has reported both hyperconnectivity and hypoconnectivity within the DMN, and both increased and decreased DMN coupling with the multimodal saliency network (SN) and dorsal attention network (DAN)...
November 3, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104544/sensorimotor-reorganizations-of-arm-kinematics-and-postural-strategy-for-functional-whole-body-reaching-movements-in-microgravity
#14
Thomas Macaluso, Christophe Bourdin, Frank Buloup, Marie-Laure Mille, Patrick Sainton, Fabrice R Sarlegna, Jean-Louis Vercher, Lionel Bringoux
Understanding the impact of weightlessness on human behavior during the forthcoming long-term space missions is of critical importance, especially when considering the efficiency of goal-directed movements in these unusual environments. Several studies provided a large set of evidence that gravity is taken into account during the planning stage of arm reaching movements to optimally anticipate its consequence upon the moving limbs. However, less is known about sensorimotor changes required to face weightless environments when individuals have to perform fast and accurate goal-directed actions with whole-body displacement...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102712/goal-directed-behavior-elevates-gamma-oscillations-in-nidopallium-caudolaterale-of-pigeon
#15
Xinyu Liu, Kun Zhao, Dongyun Wang, Yanna Ping, Hong Wan
Avian nidopallium caudolaterale (NCL), a functional analogue of mammalian prefrontal cortex, is thought to be participated to goal-directed behavior. However, few studies so far investigated local field potential (LFP) properties within this area. In this study, we recorded the LFP activity from the NCL of six pigeons when they performed a goal-directed decision-making task in a plus-maze. Spectral analysis revealed a significant LFP-power increase in the gamma-band (40-60Hz) during the decision-making process...
November 2, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101588/differences-in-emotion-regulation-difficulties-across-types-of-eating-disorders-during-adolescence
#16
Noam Weinbach, Helene Sher, Cara Bohon
Emotion regulation appears to play a key role in eating disorders. However, prior attempts to associate specific emotion regulation abilities with specific types of eating disorders resulted in inconsistent findings. Moreover, far less is known about emotion regulation in eating disorders during adolescence, a critical period of emotional development. The current study addresses this gap, comparing emotion regulation characteristics between adolescents with restrictive types of eating disorders and those with binge eating or purging types of eating disorders...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100631/drug-cues-conditioned-reinforcement-and-drug-seeking-the-sequelae-of-a-collaborative-venture-with-athina-markou
#17
REVIEW
Barry J Everitt
Athina Markou spent a research period in my laboratory, then in the Department of Anatomy in Cambridge University, in 1991 to help us establish a cocaine-seeking procedure. Thus we embarked on developing a second-order schedule of intravenous cocaine reinforcement to investigate the neural basis of the pronounced effects of cocaine-associated conditioned stimuli on cocaine seeking. This brief review summarizes the fundamental aspects of cocaine seeking measured using this approach and the importance of the methodology in enabling us to define the neural mechanisms and circuitry underlying conditioned reinforcement and cocaine, heroin, and alcohol seeking...
September 25, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097688/diverse-coordinate-frames-on-sensorimotor-areas-in-visuomotor-transformation
#18
Yusuke Fujiwara, Jongho Lee, Takahiro Ishikawa, Shinji Kakei, Jun Izawa
The visuomotor transformation during a goal-directed movement may involve a coordinate transformation from visual 'extrinsic' to muscle-like 'intrinsic' coordinate frames, which might be processed via a multilayer network architecture composed of neural basis functions. This theory suggests that the postural change during a goal-directed movement task alters activity patterns of the neurons in the intermediate layer of the visuomotor transformation that recieves both visual and proprioceptive inputs, and thus influence the multi-voxel pattern of the blood oxygenation level dependent signal...
November 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095069/effects-of-tryptophan-depletion-on-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitor-remitted-patients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#19
Sean D Hood, Annabel Broyd, Hayley Robinson, Jessica Lee, Abdul-Rahman Hudaib, Dana A Hince
BACKGROUND: Serotonergic antidepressants are first-line medication therapies for obsessive-compulsive disorder, however it is not known if synaptic serotonin availability is important for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor efficacy. The present study tested the hypothesis that temporary reduction in central serotonin transmission, through acute tryptophan depletion, would result in an increase in anxiety in selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-remitted obsessive-compulsive disorder patients...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094756/development-of-motor-imagery-ability-in-children-with-developmental-coordination-disorder-a%C3%A2-goal-directed-pointing-task
#20
Imke L J Adams, Jessica M Lust, Bert Steenbergen
Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have difficulties with the predictive control of movements. This was shown in studies that target motor imagery and motor planning, and appears to become particularly evident with increases in task complexity. In this study, we used a complex mental chronometry paradigm to examine the development of motor imagery ability in children with DCD, using a longitudinal design. Thirty children were included in the DCD group (aged 6-11 years) and age- and gender-matched to 30 controls...
November 2, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
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