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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453613/functional-characterization-of-the-human-speech-articulation-network
#1
Alexandra Basilakos, Kimberly G Smith, Paul Fillmore, Julius Fridriksson, Evelina Fedorenko
A number of brain regions have been implicated in articulation, but their precise computations remain debated. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examine the degree of functional specificity of articulation-responsive brain regions to constrain hypotheses about their contributions to speech production. We find that articulation-responsive regions (1) are sensitive to articulatory complexity, but (2) are largely nonoverlapping with nearby domain-general regions that support diverse goal-directed behaviors...
April 27, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448253/a-map-of-abstract-relational-knowledge-in-the-human-hippocampal-entorhinal-cortex
#2
Mona M Garvert, Raymond J Dolan, Timothy Ej Behrens
The hippocampal-entorhinal system encodes a map of space that guides spatial navigation. Goal-directed behaviour outside of spatial navigation similarly requires a representation of abstract forms of relational knowledge. This information relies on the same neural system, but it is not known whether the organisational principles governing continuous maps may extend to the implicit encoding of discrete, non-spatial graphs. Here, we show that the human hippocampal-entorhinal system can represent relationships between objects using a metric that depends on associative strength...
April 27, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446872/a-neurocomputational-model-of-goal-directed-navigation-in-insect-inspired-artificial-agents
#3
Dennis Goldschmidt, Poramate Manoonpong, Sakyasingha Dasgupta
Despite their small size, insect brains are able to produce robust and efficient navigation in complex environments. Specifically in social insects, such as ants and bees, these navigational capabilities are guided by orientation directing vectors generated by a process called path integration. During this process, they integrate compass and odometric cues to estimate their current location as a vector, called the home vector for guiding them back home on a straight path. They further acquire and retrieve path integration-based vector memories globally to the nest or based on visual landmarks...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446868/triggering-avoidance-dissociable-influences-of-aversive-pavlovian-conditioned-stimuli-on-human-instrumental-behavior
#4
Sara Garofalo, Trevor W Robbins
The present study investigates human aversive Pavlovian-to-Instrumental Transfer (PIT) and possible influences of outcome devaluation and instrumental overtraining on this effect. PIT measures the extent to which a Pavlovian conditioned stimulus (CS) can increase instrumental responses independently paired with the same (outcome-specific transfer) or a different (general transfer) reinforcer. Two measures of PIT were obtained: the percentage of instrumental responses and the vigor of such responses. Thirty-eight volunteers performed a standard PIT task sequence...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444823/dissociable-corticostriatal-circuits-underlie-goal-directed-versus-cue-elicited-habitual-food-seeking-after-satiation-evidence-from-a-multimodal-mri-study
#5
Henk van Steenbergen, Poppy Watson, Reinout W Wiers, Bernhard Hommel, Sanne de Wit
The present multimodal MRI study advances our understanding of the corticostriatal circuits underlying goal-directed versus cue-driven, habitual food seeking. To this end, we employed a computerized Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT) paradigm. During the test phase, participants were free to perform learnt instrumental responses (left and right key presses) for popcorn and Smarties outcomes. Importantly, prior to this test half of the participants had been sated on popcorn and the other half on Smarties - resulting in a reduced desirability of those outcomes...
April 26, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444633/distributed-representations-of-action-sequences-in-anterior-cingulate-cortex-a-recurrent-neural-network-approach
#6
Danesh Shahnazian, Clay B Holroyd
Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has been the subject of intense debate over the past 2 decades, but its specific computational function remains controversial. Here we present a simple computational model of ACC that incorporates distributed representations across a network of interconnected processing units. Based on the proposal that ACC is concerned with the execution of extended, goal-directed action sequences, we trained a recurrent neural network to predict each successive step of several sequences associated with multiple tasks...
April 25, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444320/complex-skill-training-transfers-to-improved-performance-and-control-of-simpler-tasks-after-stroke
#7
Shailesh S Kantak, Nazaneen Zahedi, Robert McGrath
Background: Given limited therapy time, it is important to practice tasks that optimize transfer to other tasks that cannot be practiced during therapy. However, little is known about how tasks can be selected for practice to optimize generalization. Objective: One dimension of task selection is the complexity of the task. The purpose of the current study was to test if learning of a complex motor skill with the paretic arm would transfer to simpler unpracticed goal-directed reaching task...
April 21, 2017: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443002/to-wait-or-not-to-wait-separate-mechanisms-in-the-oculomotor-circuit-of-basal-ganglia
#8
Masaharu Yasuda, Okihide Hikosaka
We reach a goal immediately after detecting the target, or later by withholding the immediate action. Each time, we choose one of these actions by suppressing the other. How does the brain control these antagonistic actions? We hypothesized that the output of basal ganglia (BG), substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), suppresses antagonistic oculomotor signals by sending strong inhibitory output to superior colliculus (SC). To test this hypothesis, we trained monkeys to perform two kinds of saccade task: Immediate (visually guided) and delayed (visually-withheld but memory-guided) saccade tasks...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441333/how-are-service-dogs-for-adults-with-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-integrated-with-rehabilitation-in-denmark-a-case-study
#9
Chalotte Glintborg, Tia G B Hansen
A severe mental illness like Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is known to have psychosocial consequences that can lead to a decreased quality of life. Research in Animal-Assisted Therapy (AAT) has revealed that the presence of a dog can have a positive effect on health, e.g., increase quality of life and lessen depression and anxiety. However, canine companionship is not a catch-all solution. Previous research has revealed methodological limitations that prohibit any clear conclusions, as well as a sparsity of critical reflection in anecdotal reports and case studies, which means that more research is needed to contextualize the findings...
April 25, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439225/magnitude-codes-for-cross-modal-working-memory-in-the-primate-frontal-association-cortex
#10
REVIEW
Andreas Nieder
Quantitative features of stimuli may be ordered along a magnitude continuum, or line. Magnitude refers to parameters of different types of stimulus properties. For instance, the frequency of a sound relates to sensory and continuous stimulus properties, whereas the number of items in a set is an abstract and discrete property. In addition, within a stimulus property, magnitudes need to be processed not only in one modality, but across multiple modalities. In the sensory domain, for example, magnitude applies to both to the frequency of auditory sounds and tactile vibrations...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439133/importance-of-pharmacy-involvement-in-the-treatment-of-sepsis
#11
Joseph B Cavanaugh, Jesse B Sullivan, Nicole East, Jessica N Nodzon
Purpose: A review of the impact of pharmacists on appropriate medication selection, timing of administration, and as members of a multidisciplinary sepsis response team. Summary: Early goal-directed therapy (EGDT), currently recommended by the 2013 Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines for the management of patients with sepsis, includes the administration of appropriate antibiotics in patients with septic shock within the first hour. Multidisciplinary teams containing pharmacists have been shown to decrease time to antibiotic delivery, time to antibiotic administration, and patient mortality...
March 2017: Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438707/contributions-of-the-parietal-cortex-to-increased-efficiency-of-planning-based-action-selection
#12
Jennifer Randerath, Kenneth Valyear, Benjamin A Philip, Scott H Frey
Response selection is foundational to adaptive behavior, and considerable attention has been devoted to investigating this behavior under conditions in which the mapping between stimuli and responses is fixed. Results from prior studies implicate the left supramarginal gyrus (SMg), premotor and prefrontal cortices, as well as the cerebellum in this essential function. Yet, many goal-directed motor behaviors have multiple solutions with flexible mappings between stimuli and responses whose solutions are believed to involve prospective planning...
April 21, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435008/cortical-and-amygdalar-neuronal-ensembles-in-alcohol-seeking-drinking-and-withdrawal
#13
REVIEW
Olivier George, Bruce T Hope
Alcohol induces many alterations in the brain that are thought to contribute to alcohol addiction. Most of the known alterations are induced in all neurons of a brain area or all neurons of a given cell type, regardless of whether they were activated during behavior. While these alterations can have important modulatory effects on behavior, they cannot explain why animals respond specifically to alcohol-paired cues as opposed to all other non-paired cues, and evoke highly specific goal-directed learned responses in models of drug craving...
April 20, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432560/executive-function-and-life-space-mobility-in-old-age
#14
Taina Poranen-Clark, Mikaela B von Bonsdorff, Merja Rantakokko, Erja Portegijs, Johanna Eronen, Markku Kauppinen, Johan G Eriksson, Taina Rantanen, Anne Viljanen
BACKGROUND: Life-space assessment incorporates all movements in terms of the distance from home, the frequency of movement and the need of assistance for movement. Executive function (EF) is an important higher order cognitive ability that controls and guides people's goal-directed actions. We examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between EF and life-space mobility, and investigated if perceived walking difficulties, lower extremity performance, and transportation difficulties explain the association...
April 21, 2017: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430039/distractor-resistant-stm-is-supported-by-transient-changes-in-neural-stimulus-representations
#15
Jan Derrfuss, Matthias Ekman, Michael Hanke, Marc Tittgemeyer, Christian J Fiebach
Goal-directed behavior in a complex world requires the maintenance of goal-relevant information despite multiple sources of distraction. However, the brain mechanisms underlying distractor-resistant working or STM are not fully understood. Although early single-unit recordings in monkeys and fMRI studies in humans pointed to an involvement of lateral prefrontal cortices, more recent studies highlighted the importance of posterior cortices for the active maintenance of visual information also in the presence of distraction...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423977/age-associated-differences-in-motor-output-variability-and-coordination-during-the-simultaneous-dorsiflexion-of-both-feet
#16
Amanda Marchini, Rafael Pereira, Wellington Pedroso, Evangelos Christou, Osmar Pinto Neto
Older adults are more variable than young adults on tasks that demand the simultaneous control of more than one effector, and the difference between age groups may be related to their different capacity of coordinating the force output of the involved effectors. The goal of this study was to determine whether age-associated differences in motor output variability during tasks involving the simultaneous dorsiflexion of two feet can be partially explained by differences in coordination and possibly attenuated by physical training...
April 19, 2017: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419776/the-involuntary-nature-of-binge-drinking-goal-directedness-and-awareness-of-intention
#17
Nuria DoƱamayor, Daniela Strelchuk, Kwangyeol Baek, Paula Banca, Valerie Voon
Binge drinking represents a public health issue and is a known risk factor in the development of alcohol use disorders. Previous studies have shown behavioural as well as neuroanatomical alterations associated with binge drinking. Here, we address the question of the automaticity or involuntary nature of the behaviour by assessing goal-directed behaviour and intentionality. In this study, we used a computational two-step task, designed to discern between model-based/goal-directed and model-free/habitual behaviours, and the classic Libet clock task, to study intention awareness, in a sample of 31 severe binge drinkers (BD) and 35 matched healthy volunteers...
April 16, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418405/adenosine-a2a-receptor-and-erk-driven-impulsivity-potentiates-hippocampal-neuroblast-proliferation
#18
A Oliveros, C H Cho, A Cui, S Choi, D Lindberg, D Hinton, M-H Jang, D-S Choi
Dampened adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) function has been implicated in addiction through enhancement of goal-directed behaviors. However, the contribution of the A2AR to the control of impulsive reward seeking remains unknown. Using mice that were exposed to differential reward of low rate (DRL) schedules during Pavlovian-conditioning, second-order schedule discrimination, and the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT), we demonstrate that deficits of A2AR function promote impulsive responses. Antagonism of the A2AR lowered ERK1 and ERK2 phosphorylation in the dorsal hippocampus (dHip) and potentiated impulsivity during Pavlovian-conditioning and the 5-CSRTT...
April 18, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414042/promising-technological-innovations-in-cognitive-training-to-treat-eating-related-behavior
#19
Evan M Forman, Stephanie P Goldstein, Daniel Flack, Brittney C Evans, Stephanie M Manasse, Cara Dochat
One potential reason for the suboptimal outcomes of treatments targeting appetitive behavior, such as eating and alcohol consumption, is that they do not target the implicit cognitive processes that may be driving these behaviors. Two groups of related neurocognitive processes that are robustly associated with dysregulated eating and drinking are attention bias (AB; selective attention to specific stimuli) and executive function (EF; a set of cognitive control processes such as inhibitory control, working memory, set shifting, that govern goal-directed behaviors)...
April 14, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411561/selective-attention-moderates-the-relationship-between-attentional-capture-by-signals-of-nondrug-reward-and-illicit-drug-use
#20
Lucy Albertella, Jan Copeland, Daniel Pearson, Poppy Watson, Reinout W Wiers, Mike E Le Pelley
BACKGROUND: The current study examined whether cognitive control moderates the association between (non-drug) reward-modulated attentional capture and use of alcohol and other drugs (AOD). METHODS: Participants were 66 university students who completed an assessment including questions about AOD use, a visual search task to measure value-modulated attentional capture, and a goal-directed selective attention task as a measure of cognitive control. RESULTS: The association between the effect of value-modulated attentional capture and illicit drug use was moderated by level of cognitive control...
March 30, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
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