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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101325/role-of-psilocybin-in-the-treatment-of-depression
#1
Ananya Mahapatra, Rishi Gupta
Psilocybin is a naturally occurring alkaloid, pharmacologically similar to the classic hallucinogen lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Although primarily used as a recreational drug or an entheogen in particular cultural settings, recent population based studies have shown that it does not lead to serious physical or mental health problems or dependent use. In view of recent work demonstrating psilocybin's potential to increase subjective sense of wellbeing and because of its novel mechanism of 5-HT2A serotonin receptor agonism, it is being explored for possible therapeutic utility in mood and anxiety disorders...
January 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097528/pharmacology-and-toxicology-of-n-benzylphenethylamine-nbome-hallucinogens
#2
Adam L Halberstadt
Serotonergic hallucinogens induce profound changes in perception and cognition. The characteristic effects of hallucinogens are mediated by 5-HT2A receptor activation. One class of hallucinogens are 2,5-dimethoxy-substituted phenethylamines, such as the so-called 2C-X compounds 2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenethylamine (2C-B) and 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenethylamine (2C-I). Addition of an N-benzyl group to phenethylamine hallucinogens produces a marked increase in 5-HT2A-binding affinity and hallucinogenic potency...
January 18, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088742/patterns-of-drug-use-and-hiv-infection-among-adults-in-a-nationally-representative-sample
#3
Stephanie Shiau, Stephen M Arpadi, Michael T Yin, Silvia S Martins
BACKGROUND: Little is known about drug use patterns among people living with HIV in comparison to an uninfected group in the general population. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between legal and illegal drug use and HIV infection in a nationally representative sample of adults in the United States. METHODS: Public use data files (2005-2014) from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) were used. Respondents were asked whether a medical professional had ever told them that they had HIV/AIDS...
January 7, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088739/the-effects-of-rurality-on-substance-use-disorder-diagnosis-a-multiple-groups-latent-class-analysis
#4
Billy Brooks, Matthew McBee, Robert Pack, Arsham Alamian
BACKGROUND: Rates of accidental overdose mortality from substance use disorder (SUD) have risen dramatically in the United States since 1990. Between 1999 and 2004 alone rates increased 62% nationwide, with rural overdose mortality increasing at a rate 3 times that seen in urban populations. Cultural differences between rural and urban populations (e.g., educational attainment, unemployment rates, social characteristics, etc.) affect the nature of SUD, leading to disparate risk of overdose across these communities...
January 6, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076644/main-mental-disorders-in-crack-cocaine-users-treated-at-psychosocial-care-centers-for-alcohol-and-drugs-in-the-city-of-recife-brazil
#5
Antonio Gomes de Castro, Diego César Nunes da Silva, Magda da Silva Figueiroa
Introduction: Brazil's Northeast region has the highest crack-cocaine consumption in the country. Crack-cocaine has more intense effects than cocaine powder and can cause greater chemical dependence. Psychosocial Care Centers for Alcohol and Drugs (CAPSad) are public health services that provide treatment for drug dependence. It is common for drug users, and particularly crack-cocaine users, to develop mental disorders. Objective: To evaluate the most common mental disorders in crack-cocaine dependents in treatment at CAPSad in the city of Recife, Brazil...
October 2016: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074670/metabolism-of-psilocybin-and-psilocin-clinical-and-forensic-toxicological-relevance
#6
Ricardo Jorge Dinis-Oliveira
Psilocybin and psilocin are controlled substances in many countries. These are the two main hallucinogenic compounds of the "magic mushrooms" and both act as agonists or partial agonists at 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2A subtype receptors. During the last few years, psilocybin and psilocin have gained therapeutic relevance but considerable physiological variability between individuals that can influence dose-response and toxicological profile has been reported. This review aims to discuss metabolism of psilocybin and psilocin, by presenting all major and minor psychoactive metabolites...
January 11, 2017: Drug Metabolism Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059498/rapid-screening-method-for-new-psychoactive-substances-of-forensic-interest-electrochemistry-and-analytical-determination-of-phenethylamines-derivatives-nbome-via-cyclic-and-differential-pulse-voltammetry
#7
Ana Flávia B Andrade, Samuel Kasahun Mamo, Jose Gonzalez-Rodriguez
The NBOMe derivatives are phenethylamines derived from the 2C class of hallucinogens. Only a few human pharmacologic studies have been conducted on these drugs, and several cases of intoxication and deaths have been reported. Presently, NBOMe are not a part of the routine drugs-of-abuse screening procedure for many police forces, and there are no rapid immunoassay screening tests that can detect the presence of those compounds. In this Article, the voltammetric behavior of 25B NBOMe and 25I NBOMe were investigated and their electroanalytical characteristics determined for the first time...
January 6, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057371/3-meo-pcp-intoxication-in-two-young-men-first-in-vivo-detection-in-italy
#8
Elisabetta Bertol, Jennifer Pascali, Diego Palumbo, Valeria Catalani, Maria Grazia Di Milia, Alessia Fioravanti, Francesco Mari, Fabio Vaiano
3-MeO-PCP or 3-methoxyphencyclidine is a derivative of phencyclidine. It acts as a dissociative anesthetic and it has allegedly hallucinogenic and sedative effects. There are almost no documented intoxication cases and references about its pharmacology and toxicity in literature. This study presents two concomitant intoxication cases due to consumption of 3-MeO-PCP and alcohol. A 19 (A) and a 21 years old (B) men were brought to Santa Maria Nuova Hospital in a comatose state (Glasgow score 3). They showed respiratory acidosis, right anisocoria with mydriatic pupils and hypothermia...
December 26, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027812/new-psychoactive-substances-nps-on-cryptomarket-fora-an-exploratory-study-of-characteristics-of-forum-activity-between-nps-buyers-and-vendors
#9
Marie Claire Van Hout, Evelyn Hearne
BACKGROUND: The continual diversification of new psychoactive substances (NPS) circumventing legislation creates a public health and law enforcement challenge, and one particularly challenged by availability on Hidden Web cryptomarkets. METHODS: This is the first study of its kind which aimed to explore and characterise cryptomarket forum members' views and perspectives on NPS vendors and products within the context of Hidden Web community dynamics. An internal site search was conducted on two cryptomarkets popular with NPS vendors and hosting fora; Alphabay and Valhalla, using the search terms of 40 popular NPS in the seven categories of stimulant/cathinone; GABA activating; hallucinogen, dissociative, cannabinoid, opioid and other/unspecified/uncategorised NPS...
December 24, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025814/phenomenology-structure-and-dynamic-of-psychedelic-states
#10
Katrin H Preller, Franz X Vollenweider
Classic serotonergic hallucinogens or psychedelics produce an Altered States of Consciousness (ASC) that is characterized by profound alterations in sensory perception, mood, thought including the perception of reality, and the sense of self. Over the past years, there has been considerable progress in the search for invariant and common features of psychedelic states. In the first part of this review, we outline contemporary approaches to characterize the structure of ASCs by means of three primary etiology-independent dimensions including Oceanic Boundlessness, Anxious Ego Dissolution, and Visionary Restructuralization as well as by 11 lower order factors, all of which can be reliably measured by the Altered State of Consciousness questionnaire (APZ-OAV)...
December 27, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012429/excess-mortality-among-people-who-report-lifetime-use-of-illegal-drugs-in-the-united-states-a-20-year-follow-up-of-a-nationally-representative-survey
#11
Elizabeth Reisinger Walker, Laura A Pratt, Charlotte A Schoenborn, Benjamin G Druss
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the mortality risks, over 20 years of follow-up in a nationally representative sample, associated with illegal drug use and to describe risk factors for mortality. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 1991 National Health Interview Survey, which is a nationally representative household survey in the United States, linked to the National Death Index through 2011. This study included 20,498 adults, aged 18-44 years in 1991, with 1047 subsequent deaths...
November 24, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979332/polydrug-use-among-urban-adolescent-cigarette-smokers
#12
Karma L McKelvey, Danielle E Ramo, Kevin Delucchi, Mark L Rubinstein
PURPOSE: Adolescent smokers are at increased risk for polydrug use, which is associated with more consequences than use of a single drug. Here we classified subgroups of polydrug use among urban adolescent cigarette-smokers; described the sociodemographic, smoking, and depression correlates; and identified three-year outcomes associated with subgroup membership. METHODS: Adolescent cigarette smokers (N=176; Mage=16.1; 35% male; 27% white) completed surveys assessing drug use, smoking characteristics, demographics, and depressive symptoms at baseline and 12, 24, and 36months follow-up...
March 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939599/i-like-the-old-stuff-better-than-the-new-stuff-subjective-experiences-of-new-psychoactive-substances
#13
Allison Matthews, Rachel Sutherland, Amy Peacock, Joe Van Buskirk, Elizabeth Whittaker, Lucinda Burns, Raimondo Bruno
BACKGROUND: Over the past decade, monitoring systems have identified the rapid emergence of new psychoactive substances (NPS). While the use of many NPS is minimal and transitory, little is known about which products have potential for capturing the attention of significant proportions of the drug consuming market. The aim of this study was to explore self-reported experiences of three commonly used NPS classes within the Australian context (synthetic cathinones, hallucinogenic phenethylamines and hallucinogenic tryptamines) relative to traditional illicit drug counterparts...
December 8, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936283/purity-adulteration-and-price-of-drugs-bought-online-versus-offline-in-the-netherlands
#14
Daan van der Gouwe, Tibor M Brunt, Margriet van Laar, Peggy van der Pol
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Online drug markets flourish and consumers have high expectations of online quality and drug value. The aim of this study was to i) describe online drug purchases, and ii) compare online with offline purchased drugs regarding purity, adulteration and price. DESIGN: Comparison of lab analyses of 32,663 drug consumer samples (stimulants and hallucinogens) purchased between January 2013 and January 2016, of which 928 were bought online. SETTING: The Netherlands...
December 9, 2016: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918874/effects-of-the-natural-%C3%AE-carboline-alkaloid-harmine-a-main-constituent-of-ayahuasca-in-memory-and-in-the-hippocampus-a-systematic-literature-review-of-preclinical-studies
#15
Rafael G Dos Santos, Jaime E C Hallak
Harmine is a natural β-carboline alkaloid found in several botanical species, such as the Banisteriopsis caapi vine used in the preparation of the hallucinogenic beverage ayahuasca and the seeds of Syrian rue (Peganum harmala). Preclinical studies suggest that harmine may have neuroprotective and cognitive-enhancing effects, and retrospective/observational investigations of the mental health of long-term ayahuasca users suggest that prolonged use of this harmine-rich hallucinogen is associated with better neuropsychological functioning...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916716/effects-of-a-non-competitive-n-methyl-d-aspartate-nmda-antagonist-tiletamine-in-adult-zebrafish
#16
Tatiana O Kolesnikova, Sergey L Khatsko, Vadim A Shevyrin, Yuri Yu Morzherin, Allan V Kalueff
Tiletamine is a non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist chemically related to ketamine and phencyclidine. A common veterinary anesthetic drug, tiletamine is currently a Schedule III controlled substance in USA. This compound exerts sedative effects in humans and animals, also having an abuse potential, toxicity and dissociative hallucinogenic properties clinically. However, the neurotropic profile of tiletamine remains poorly understood, necessitating novel models and in-vivo screens, including non-mammalian species...
December 2, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915193/metabolic-fate-and-detectability-of-the-new-psychoactive-substances-2-4-bromo-2-5-dimethoxyphenyl-n-2-methoxyphenyl-methyl-ethanamine-25b-nbome-and-2-4-chloro-2-5-dimethoxyphenyl-n-2-methoxyphenyl-methyl-ethanamine-25c-nbome-in-human-and-rat-urine-by-gc-ms
#17
Achim T Caspar, Simon D Brandt, Andreas E Stoever, Markus R Meyer, Hans H Maurer
25B-NBOMe and 25C-NBOMe are potent 5-HT2A receptor agonists that have been associated with inducing hallucinogenic effects in drug users and severe intoxications. This paper describes the identification of their metabolites in rat and human urine by liquid chromatography (LC)-high resolution (HR)-MS/MS, the comparison of metabolite formation in vitro and in vivo and in different species, the general involvement of human cytochrome-P450 (CYP) isoenzymes on their metabolism steps, and their detectability by standard urine screening approaches (SUSAs) using GC-MS, LC-MS(n), or LC-HR-MS/MS...
February 5, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908258/neurotoxicity-induced-by-mephedrone-an-up-to-date-review
#18
Flaminia Pantano, Roberta Tittarelli, Giulio Mannocchi, Roberta Pacifici, Alessandro di Luca, Francesco Paolo Busardò, Enrico Marinelli
Mephedrone is a β-ketoamphetamine belonging to the family of synthetic cathinones, an emerging class of designer drugs known for their hallucinogenic and psychostimulant properties as well as for their abuse potential. The aim of this review was to examine the emerging scientific literature on the possible mephedrone-induced neurotoxicity, yet not well defined due to the limited number of experimental studies, mainly carried on animal models. Relevant scientific articles were identified from international literature databases (Medline, Scopus, etc...
November 30, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903793/the-serotonin-5-ht2c-receptor-and-the-non-addictive-nature-of-classic-hallucinogens
#19
REVIEW
Clinton E Canal, Kevin S Murnane
Classic hallucinogens share pharmacology as serotonin 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, and 5-HT2C receptor agonists. Unique among most other Schedule 1 drugs, they are generally non-addictive and can be effective tools in the treatment of addiction. Mechanisms underlying these attributes are largely unknown. However, many preclinical studies show that 5-HT2C agonists counteract the addictive effects of drugs from several classes, suggesting this pharmacological property of classic hallucinogens may be significant. Drawing from a comprehensive analysis of preclinical behavior, neuroanatomy, and neurochemistry studies, this review builds rationale for this hypothesis, and also proposes a testable, neurobiological framework...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900674/serotonergic-hallucinogen-induced-visual-perceptual-alterations
#20
Michael Kometer, Franz X Vollenweider
Serotonergic hallucinogens, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), psilocybin, and N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), are famous for their capacity to temporally and profoundly alter an individual's visual experiences. These visual alterations show consistent attributes despite large inter- and intra-individual variances. Many reports document a common perception of colors as more saturated, with increased brightness and contrast in the environment ("Visual Intensifications"). Environmental objects might be altered in size ("Visual illusions") or take on a modified and special meaning for the subject ("Altered self-reference")...
November 30, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
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