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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722248/screening-of-hallucinogenic-compounds-and-genomic-characterisation-of-40-anatolian-salvia-species
#1
Seda Damla Hatipoglu, Burhanettin Yalcinkaya, Muslum Akgoz, Turan Ozturk, Ahmet C Goren, Gulacti Topcu
INTRODUCTION: Salvia, an important and widely available member of Lamiaceae family. Although comparative analysis on secondary metabolites in several Salvia species from Turkey has been reported, their hallucinogenic chemicals have not been screened thoroughly. OBJECTIVE: This study provides LC-MS/MS analysis of 40 Salvia species for screening their psychoactive constituents of salvinorin A and salvinorin B. 5S-rRNA gene non-coding region of Salvia plants was sequenced, aligned and compared with that sequence of Salvia divinorum plant...
July 19, 2017: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714411/pharmacology-and-literature-review-based-on-related-death-and-non-fatal-case-reports-of-the-benzofurans-and-benzodifurans-designer-drugs
#2
Bernardino Barceló Martín, Isabel Gomila
BACKGROUND: Benzofurans and benzodifurans are two groups of psychoactive substances that had originally been synthesized for research purpose. Benzofurans' structure is quite similar to the known recreational drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine together with its active metabolite 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine. Benzodifurans are closely related to phenethylamines, but have more hallucinogens effects and much longer duration of action. This study aims to review the accessible evidence-based literature on benzofurans and benzodifurans pharmacology and toxicology...
July 14, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706205/the-alkaloids-of-banisteriopsis-caapi-the-plant-source-of-the-amazonian-hallucinogen-ayahuasca-stimulate-adult-neurogenesis-in-vitro
#3
Jose A Morales-García, Mario de la Fuente Revenga, Sandra Alonso-Gil, María Isabel Rodríguez-Franco, Amanda Feilding, Ana Perez-Castillo, Jordi Riba
Banisteriopsis caapi is the basic ingredient of ayahuasca, a psychotropic plant tea used in the Amazon for ritual and medicinal purposes, and by interested individuals worldwide. Animal studies and recent clinical research suggests that B. caapi preparations show antidepressant activity, a therapeutic effect that has been linked to hippocampal neurogenesis. Here we report that harmine, tetrahydroharmine and harmaline, the three main alkaloids present in B. caapi, and the harmine metabolite harmol, stimulate adult neurogenesis in vitro...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686061/lsd-experiments-by-the-united-states-army
#4
Colin A Ross
Extensive LSD testing was conducted by the US Army at Edgewood Arsenal and other locations from 1955 to 1967. A number of different reports have been produced describing the health effects of this testing, including the Veterans Health Initiative Report in 2003. By and large, these reports gloss over and minimize the short and long-term side effects and complications of this testing. However, the reports themselves document frequent, severe complications of the LSD. These side effects were regarded by the Army as having been directly caused by the LSD exposure...
July 1, 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682218/differences-in-the-rates-of-drug-polyconsumption-and-psychiatric-comorbidity-among-patients-with-cocaine-use-disorders-according-to-the-mental-health-service
#5
P Araos, Esperanza Vergara-Moragues, Francisco González-Saiz, María Pedraz, Nuria García-Marchena, Pablo Romero-Sanchiz, Juan Jesus Ruiz, Rafael Campos-Cloute, Antonia Serrano, Francisco Javier Pavón, Marta Torrens, Fernando Rodriguez De Fonseca
Cocaine continues to be a worldwide public health concern in Europe. To improve prognosis and intervention, it is necessary to understand the characteristics of the patients who depend on the services where they receive care. The objective is to analyze the differences among patients who use cocaine and between ambulatory and residential resources to better adapt treatment. This is a descriptive, observational study of two populations of cocaine users in treatment: the ambulatory therapeutic community (ATC) and the therapeutic community (TC)...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677880/study-of-the-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-metabolism-of-the-tryptamine-5-meo-mipt-using-human-liver-microsomes-and-real-case-samples
#6
Katharina Elisabeth Grafinger, Marianne Hädener, Stefan König, Wolfgang Weinmann
The synthetic tryptamine 5-methoxy-N-methyl-N-isopropyltryptamine (5-MeO-MiPT) has recently been abused as a hallucinogenic drug in Germany and Switzerland. This study presents a case of 5-MeO-MiPT intoxication and the structural elucidation of metabolites in pooled human liver microsomes (pHLM), blood, and urine. Microsomal incubation experiments were performed using pHLM to detect and identify in vitro metabolites. In August 2016, the police encountered a naked man, agitated and with aggressive behavior on the street...
July 5, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677096/hallucinogens-and-serotonin-5-ht2a-receptor-mediated-signaling-pathways
#7
Juan F López-Giménez, Javier González-Maeso
The neuropsychological effects of naturally occurring psychoactive chemicals have been recognized for millennia. Hallucinogens, which include naturally occurring chemicals such as mescaline and psilocybin, as well as synthetic compounds, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), induce profound alterations of human consciousness, emotion, and cognition. The discovery of the hallucinogenic effects of LSD and the observations that LSD and the endogenous ligand serotonin share chemical and pharmacological profiles led to the suggestion that biogenic amines like serotonin were involved in the psychosis of mental disorders such as schizophrenia...
July 5, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677095/the-effects-of-hallucinogens-on-gene-expression
#8
David A Martin, Charles D Nichols
The classic serotonergic hallucinogens, or psychedelics, have the ability to profoundly alter perception and behavior. These can include visual distortions, hallucinations, detachment from reality, and mystical experiences. Some psychedelics, like LSD, are able to produce these effects with remarkably low doses of drug. Others, like psilocybin, have recently been demonstrated to have significant clinical efficacy in the treatment of depression, anxiety, and addiction that persist for at least several months after only a single therapeutic session...
July 5, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661822/the-comorbidity-of-psychiatric-and-substance-use-disorders-among-hispanic-adolescents
#9
Karina A Gattamorta, Maite P Mena, Jordan B Ainsley, Daniel A Santisteban
OBJECTIVES: The comorbidity of psychiatric disorders and substance abuse disorders among adolescents and adults is well-documented in the literature (Colder et al., 2013). The current study investigates the relationship between psychiatric and substance use disorders in a sample of treatment-seeking Hispanic adolescents. METHODS: The study uses baseline data (N = 190) from a randomized control trial testing the effectiveness of a family-based treatment for Hispanic adolescents with substance abuse disorder to examine the relationship between psychiatric disorders and substance use patterns at baseline, including types of substances used (both lifetime use and past month use) and age of onset of substance use controlling for age and gender...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657160/ketamine-as-an-adjuvant-to-opioids-for-cancer-pain
#10
REVIEW
Rae F Bell, Christopher Eccleston, Eija A Kalso
BACKGROUND: This is an update of a review first published in 2003 and updated in 2012.Ketamine is a commonly used anaesthetic agent, and in subanaesthetic doses is also given as an adjuvant to opioids for the treatment of refractory cancer pain, when opioids alone or in combination with appropriate adjuvant analgesics prove to be ineffective. Ketamine is known to have psychomimetic (including hallucinogenic), urological, and hepatic adverse effects. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness and adverse effects of ketamine as an adjuvant to opioids for refractory cancer pain in adults...
June 28, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654720/comparing-triggers-to-visual-disturbances-among-individuals-with-positive-vs-negative-experiences-of-hallucinogen-persisting-perception-disorder-hppd-following-lsd-use
#11
Shaul Lev-Ran, Daniel Feingold, Craig Goodman, Arturo G Lerner
BACKGROUND AND OJECTIVE: Exploring differences in visual disturbances and triggers between Hallucinogen-Persisting-Perceptual-Disorder (HPPD) Type I ("positive/benign") and II ("negative/distressing"). METHODS: Forty individuals with HPPD and prior LSD use completed clinical questionnaires. RESULTS: The most common type of visual disturbances among individuals with HPPD I and II was slow movement of still objects and trailing phenomena, respectively...
June 27, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641537/lsd-detection-and-interpretation-in-hair
#12
Camille Richeval, Delphine Allorge, X Vanhoye, Jean-Michel Gaulier
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a powerful hallucinogen, active at very low dosages, with, as a direct consequence, potential difficulties to be detected and quantified in a clinical or forensic context, in body fluids and even more in hair. The aim of this work is to review literature data related to hair analysis of LSD with a particular focus on the main issues encountered in LSD detection in hair. Results of LSD investigation in hair remain difficult to interpret regarding the very sparse data available on LSD concentrations in hair (n=10)...
June 22, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635375/therapeutic-effect-of-increased-openness-investigating-mechanism-of-action-in-mdma-assisted-psychotherapy
#13
Mark T Wagner, Michael C Mithoefer, Ann T Mithoefer, Rebecca K MacAulay, Lisa Jerome, Berra Yazar-Klosinski, Rick Doblin
A growing body of research suggests that traumatic events lead to persisting personality change characterized by increased neuroticism. Relevantly, enduring improvements in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms have been found in response to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-assisted psychotherapy. There is evidence that lasting changes in the personality feature of "openness" occur in response to hallucinogens, and that this may potentially act as a therapeutic mechanism of change. The present study investigated whether heightened Openness and decreased Neuroticism served as a mechanism of change within a randomized trial of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for chronic, treatment-resistant PTSD...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635057/pill-testing-or-drug-checking-in-australia-acceptability-of-service-design-features
#14
Monica J Barratt, Raimondo Bruno, Nadine Ezard, Alison Ritter
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: This study aimed to determine design features of a drug-checking service that would be feasible, attractive and likely to be used by Australian festival and nightlife attendees. DESIGN AND METHODS: Web survey of 851 Australians reporting use of psychostimulants and/or hallucinogens and attendance at licensed venues past midnight and/or festivals in the past year (70% male; median age 23 years). RESULTS: A drug-checking service located at festivals or clubs would be used by 94%; a fixed-site service external to such events by 85%...
June 20, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631397/the-effects-and-toxicity-of-cathinones-from-the-users-perspectives-a-qualitative-study
#15
Sulaf Assi, Nargilya Gulyamova, Paul Kneller, David Osselton
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to explore the users' perspectives regarding the effects and toxicity of cathinones. METHODS: A systematic search of Internet discussion forums yielded 303 threads relevant to the research objectives. The threads were analysed by conventional content analysis where concepts were developed from codes and themes. RESULTS: The study identified 3 main themes in relation to cathinone use, effects, and toxicity...
June 20, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630559/drug-policy-and-indigenous-peoples
#16
Julian Burger, Mary Kapron
This paper identifies the principal concerns of indigenous peoples with regard to current international treaties on certain psychoactive substances and policies to control and eradicate their production, trafficking, and sale. Indigenous peoples have a specific interest in the issue since their traditional lands have become integrated over time into the large-scale production of coca, opium poppy, and cannabis crops, in response to high demand from the American and European markets, among others. As a consequence, indigenous peoples are persecuted because of their traditional use of these and other plant-based narcotics and hallucinogens...
June 2017: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625859/harmine-produces-antidepressant-like-effects-via-restoration-of-astrocytic-functions
#17
Fengguo Liu, Jingjing Wu, Yu Gong, Peng Wang, Lei Zhu, Lijuan Tong, Xiangfan Chen, Yong Ling, Chao Huang
Depression is a world-wide disease with no effective therapeutic methods. Increasing evidence indicates that astrocytic pathology contributes to the formation of depression. In this study, we investigated the effects of harmine, a natural β-carboline alkaloid and potent hallucinogen, known to modulate astrocytic glutamate transporters, on chronic unpredictable stress (CUS)-induced depressive-like behaviors and astrocytic dysfunctions. Results showed that harmine treatment (10, 20mg/kg) protected the mice against the CUS-induced increases in the immobile time in the tail suspension test (TST) and forced swimming test (FST), and also reversed the reduction in sucrose intake in the sucrose preference experiment...
June 15, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622100/prevalence-of-substance-use-among-middle-school-aged-e-cigarette-users-compared-with-cigarette-smokers-nonusers-and-dual-users-implications-for-primary-prevention
#18
Alfgeir L Kristjansson, Michael J Mann, Megan L Smith
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of substance use in e-cigarette (EC)-only users with combustible cigarette (CC)-only users, dual users, and nonusers in a large sample of middle school-aged adolescents. METHODS: Population-based cross-sectional school survey conducted in 15 middle schools in 3 counties in West Virginia in the United States between October and December of 2015 (N = 6547, girls = 49.6%; response rate 84.7%). RESULTS: Approximately 4...
June 16, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588463/looking-for-the-self-phenomenology-neurophysiology-and-philosophical-significance-of-drug-induced-ego-dissolution
#19
Raphaël Millière
There is converging evidence that high doses of hallucinogenic drugs can produce significant alterations of self-experience, described as the dissolution of the sense of self and the loss of boundaries between self and world. This article discusses the relevance of this phenomenon, known as "drug-induced ego dissolution (DIED)", for cognitive neuroscience, psychology and philosophy of mind. Data from self-report questionnaires suggest that three neuropharmacological classes of drugs can induce ego dissolution: classical psychedelics, dissociative anesthetics and agonists of the kappa opioid receptor (KOR)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585392/return-of-the-lysergamides-part-iv-analytical-and-pharmacological-characterization-of-lysergic-acid-morpholide-lsm-775
#20
Simon D Brandt, Pierce V Kavanagh, Brendan Twamley, Folker Westphal, Simon P Elliott, Jason Wallach, Alexander Stratford, Landon M Klein, John D McCorvy, David E Nichols, Adam L Halberstadt
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is perhaps one of the best-known psychoactive substances and many structural modifications of this prototypical lysergamide have been investigated. Several lysergamides were recently encountered as "research chemicals" or new psychoactive substances (NPS). Although lysergic acid morpholide (LSM-775) appeared on the NPS market in 2013, there is disagreement in the literature regarding the potency and psychoactive properties of LSM-775 in humans. The present investigation attempts to address the gap of information that exists regarding the analytical profile and pharmacological effects of LSM-775...
June 5, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
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