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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987938/tcb-2-7r-3-bromo-2-5-dimethoxy-bicyclo-4-2-0-octa-1-3-5-trien-7-yl-methanamine-a-hallucinogenic-drug-a-selective-5-ht2a-receptor-pharmacological-tool-or-none-of-the-above
#1
REVIEW
Giuseppe Di Giovanni, Philippe De Deurwaerdère
The development of 5-HT2A receptor agonists has been considerably marginalized since the demonstration that the tryptaminergic drugs, LSD and psilocybin, or the phenylakylamine drugs, mescaline and DOI, exert their hallucinogenic properties via the stimulation of 5-HT2A receptors. Nonetheless, the ability of drugs to stimulate 5-HT2A receptors is not necessarily associated with psychedelic experience and the hallucinogenic properties are still not understood. Several studies have increased interest in stimulating 5-HT2A receptors in various CNS diseases...
October 4, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956316/anesthetic-implications-of-recreational-drug-use
#2
Pierre Beaulieu
PURPOSE: As the use of recreational drugs increases, the likelihood of an anesthesiologist perioperatively encountering patients using or addicted to these drugs will also increase. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Addicted patients may present for anesthetic care in a variety of circumstances in everyday elective surgeries or in acute or life-saving situations, such as emergency Cesarean delivery or trauma surgery. Therefore, it is important for anesthesiologists to know about the most common illicit drugs being used, their clinical presentation and side effects, and the anesthetic options that are beneficial or detrimental to these patients...
September 27, 2017: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954366/-research-on-hallucinogenic-drugs-used-in-shaman-religious-activities
#3
X Y Fang, P F Fei, J P Zhu, B Yuan
The development of medicine experienced a long history, and the origin of medicine is not appeared overnight. Due to the lack of historical data, the question of the origin of medicine has not been agreed upon. As an ancient primitive religion, Shamanism retains the use of hallucinogenic drugs in its early religious activities rather well, providing a guidance for exploring the cognition on drugs in early human. Through the review of the hallucinogenic plants used by shaman religious activities in different countries and areas, it was found that hallucinogenic drugs can be classified into two categories: single and mixed, which came mainly from plants and fungi, and the origin of hallucinogenic drugs has a high fitting degree with Shaman location...
July 28, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Shi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Medical History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949320/-bunanje-xx-century-abuse-of-atropa-belladonna-halucinogenic-berries-in-continental-croatia
#4
Zdravko Lacković
BACKGROUND: Atropa belladonna (Engl. deadly nightshade, Cro. velebilje, bunika) is a plant containing pharmacologically active, potentially toxic alkaloids: atropine, hyocyamine and scopolamine. The risk of poisoning in children is important because of possible confusion of black/dark blue belladonna fruit berries with other edible berries. There are many reports in literature of accidental intoxication but no report on traditional intentional usage to achieve hallucinogenic effects. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Here we report purposeful ingestion of Atropa belladonna berries for hallucinatory effects among adolescents in Bjelovar region in north part of Croatia...
September 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948056/could-hallucinogens-induce-permanent-pupillary-changes-in-ab-users-a-case-report-from-new-zealand
#5
Ahmed Al-Imam
An eighteen-year-old female patient of the Caucasian ethnicity from Australasia presented with a persistently dilated pupil causing her discomfort and occasional burning sensation when she is outdoors due to oversensitivity to sunlight. However, her pupillary reaction to light (pupillary light reflex) was intact. The patient is a known user of psychedelic substances (entheogens) including LSD, NBOMe, psilocybin, and DMT. The condition affects both eyes to the same extent. Thorough medical, neurological, and radiological examinations, including an EEG and an MRI of the head and neck region, were completely normal...
2017: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947181/serotonergic-hallucinogens-in-the-treatment-of-anxiety-and-depression-in-patients-suffering-from-a-life-threatening-disease-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Simon Reiche, Leo Hermle, Stefan Gutwinski, Henrik Jungaberle, Peter Gasser, Tomislav Majić
Anxiety and depression are some of the most common psychiatric symptoms of patients suffering with life-threatening diseases, often associated with a low quality of life and a poor overall prognosis. 5-HT2A-receptor agonists (serotonergic hallucinogens, 'psychedelics') like lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and psilocybin were first investigated as therapeutic agents in the 1960s. Recently, after a long hiatus period of regulatory obstacles, interest in the clinical use of these substances has resumed. The current article provides a systematic review of studies investigating psychedelics in the treatment of symptoms of existential distress in life-threatening diseases across different periods of research, highlighting how underlying concepts have developed over time...
September 22, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942288/differences-in-behavioral-health-disorders-and-unmet-treatment-needs-between-medical-marijuana-users-and-recreational-marijuana-users-results-from-a-national-adult-sample
#7
Ji-Yeun Park, Li-Tzy Wu
BACKGROUND: Available data suggest that medical marijuana users may have more mental health problems than recreational marijuana users. There is limited information about differences in behavioral health disorders and unmet treatment needs between medical and recreational marijuana users. METHODS: We compared past-year prevalence of behavioral health disorders and unmet treatment needs across three marijuana subgroups (recreational use only, medical use only, and both)...
September 14, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940312/increased-thalamic-resting-state-connectivity-as-a-core-driver-of-lsd-induced-hallucinations
#8
F Müller, C Lenz, P Dolder, U Lang, A Schmidt, M Liechti, S Borgwardt
OBJECTIVE: It has been proposed that the thalamocortical system is an important site of action of hallucinogenic drugs and an essential component of the neural correlates of consciousness. Hallucinogenic drugs such as LSD can be used to induce profoundly altered states of consciousness, and it is thus of interest to test the effects of these drugs on this system. METHOD: 100 μg LSD was administrated orally to 20 healthy participants prior to fMRI assessment. Whole brain thalamic functional connectivity was measured using ROI-to-ROI and ROI-to-voxel approaches...
September 21, 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929753/identification-of-%C3%AF-n-methyl-4-hydroxytryptamine-norpsilocin-as-a-psilocybe-natural-product
#9
Claudius Lenz, Jonas Wick, Dirk Hoffmeister
We report the identification of ω-N-methyl-4-hydroxytryptamine (norpsilocin, 1) from the carpophores of the hallucinogenic mushroom Psilocybe cubensis. The structure was elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Norpsilocin has not previously been reported as a natural product. It likely represents the actual psychotropic agent liberated from its 4-phosphate ester derivative, the known natural product baeocystin. We further present a simple and artifact-free extraction method that prevents dephosphorylation and therefore helps reflect the naturally occurring metabolic profile of Psilocybe mushrooms in subsequent analyses...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918777/-classic-psychedelic-drugs-and-their-potential-therapeutic-effect
#10
Michael Bayat
Over the past decade we have witnessed a renewed scientific interest in the classic hallucinogens (psychedelic drugs). These are substances which exert their effects by an agonist action on the 5-HT2A receptors. The purpose of this paper is to provide a short review and discussion of the psychedelic drugs, their safety profile and their potential antidepressive, anxiolytic and antiaddictive effects. The article primarily focusses on the most recent clinical trials.
September 11, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918441/long-lasting-subjective-effects-of-lsd-in-normal-subjects
#11
Yasmin Schmid, Matthias E Liechti
RATIONALE: Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and other serotonergic hallucinogens can induce profound alterations of consciousness and mystical-type experiences, with reportedly long-lasting effects on subjective well-being and personality. METHODS: We investigated the lasting effects of a single dose of LSD (200 μg) that was administered in a laboratory setting in 16 healthy participants. The following outcome measures were assessed before and 1 and 12 months after LSD administration: Persisting Effects Questionnaire (PEQ), Mysticism Scale (MS), Death Transcendence Scale (DTS), NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)...
September 16, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918193/psychedelic-pleasures-an-affective-understanding-of-the-joys-of-tripping
#12
Frederik Bøhling
BACKGROUND: This paper considers the pleasures of psychedelic drugs and proposes a Deleuzian understanding of drugged pleasures as affects. In spite of a large body of work on psychedelics, not least on their therapeutic potentials, the literature is almost completely devoid of discussions of the recreational practices and pleasures of entheogenic drugs. Yet, most people do not use psychedelics because of their curative powers, but because they are fun and enjoyable ways to alter the experience of reality...
September 13, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917801/development-of-a-quantitative-approach-in-blood-plasma-for-low-dosed-hallucinogens-and-opioids-using-lc-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#13
Achim T Caspar, Andreas B Kollas, Hans H Maurer, Markus R Meyer
The WHO annually reports an increasing abuse of new psychoactive substances (NPS), which are a heterogeneous group of synthetic drugs and are consumed as substitute for controlled drugs of abuse. In this work, we focused on highly potent derivatives such those of phenethylamine (2C), N-2-methoxybenzyl phenethylamine (NBOMes), lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), and fentanyl. Severe to fatal intoxications were described due to their high potency. Therefore, they have to be taken at very low doses resulting in low blood concentration in the low ng/mL range, which is a challenge for reliable analytical detection and quantification...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913501/acute-poisoning-due-to-ingestion-of-datura-stramonium-a-case-report
#14
Sebastian Daniel Trancă, Robert Szabo, Mihaela Cociş
Datura stramonium (DS) is a widespread annual plant, containing atropine, hyoscyamine, and scopolamine, which can produce poisoning with a severe anticholinergic syndrome. Teenagers ingest the roots, seeds or the entire plant to obtain its hallucinogenic and euphoric effects. We presented the case of a 22 year old male who was admitted to the Emergency Room in a coma after consuming Datura stramonium, 2 hours earlier. The patient presented with fever, tachycardia with right bundle branch block, and urinary retention...
April 2017: Rom J Anaesth Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910664/the-analysis-of-132-novel-psychoactive-substances-in-human-hair-using-a-single-step-extraction-by-tandem-lc-ms
#15
Vassiliki A Boumba, Matthew Di Rago, Melissa Peka, Olaf H Drummer, Dimitri Gerostamoulos
A rapid LC-MS/MS method for the targeted screening of 132 NPS in hair is described. Drugs include cathinones and synthetic cannabinoids, as well as amphetamine-type stimulants, piperazines and other hallucinogenic compounds. This method utilizes hair pulverization in acidified methanol followed by analysis using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem MS. The limit of detection varied from 0.001 to 0.1ng/mg hair among the various analytes. The method was validated in terms of sensitivity, selectivity, repeatability and stability...
October 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905663/epidemiology-and-clinics-of-mushroom-poisoning-in-northern-italy-a-21-year-retrospective-analysis
#16
G Cervellin, I Comelli, G Rastelli, F Sanchis-Gomar, F Negri, C De Luca, G Lippi
BACKGROUND: Limited information exists about epidemiology and management of mushroom poisoning. We analyzed and described epidemiology, clinical presentation, and clinical course of mushroom-poisoned patients admitted to emergency departments (EDs) of the Province of Parma, Italy. METHODS: Data from the database of mycological service were matched with clinical information retrieved from hospitals' database, from January 1, 1996 to December 31, 2016. RESULTS: Mycologist consultation was obtained in 379/443 identified mushroom poisonings...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890736/the-psychoactive-drug-25b-nbome-recapitulates-rhabdomyolysis-in-zebrafish-larvae
#17
Genri Kawahara, Hideyuki Maeda, Ruri Kikura-Hanajiri, Ken-Ichi Yoshida, Yukiko K Hayashi
N-Benzyl-substituted 2C class phenethylamines (NBOMes) are psychoactive designer drugs, with strong hallucinogenic and stimulant effects, even at low doses. The designer drug, 2-(4-bromo-2, 5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(2-methoxybenzyl) ethanamine (25B-NBOMe) is considered to be one of the most potent agonists of the serotonin-2A (5-HT2A) receptor. Recently, we reported the first lethal case of 25B-NBOMe intoxication with severe rhabdomyolysis, concluded by clinical, pathological and toxicological analyses. There are currently no good animal models that closely recapitulate serotonin receptor-dependent rhabdomyolysis...
2017: Forensic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884869/the-future-of-the-international-drug-control-system-and-national-drug-prohibitions
#18
Wayne Hall
A major impediment to any nation abandoning the policy of drug prohibition has been the fact that international drug treaties to which the majority of United Nations (UN) member states are signatory prohibit the non-medical use of amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine and heroin. The future of these treaties is now uncertain because of decisions by Uruguay, eight US states and Canada to legalize cannabis use. This paper: (1) provides a brief account of the international drug control treaties; (2) outlines the major criticisms of the treaties; (3) analyses critically proposals for treaty reform; and (4) provides a personal view on policies that nation states could adopt to minimize the harms from the use of cannabis, party drugs and hallucinogens, opioids, stimulants and new psychoactive substances...
September 8, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874085/comparing-the-dopaminergic-neurotoxic-effects-of-benzylpiperazine-and-benzoylpiperazine
#19
Daniel P Katz, Mohammed Majrashi, Sindhu Ramesh, Manoj Govindarajulu, Dwipayan Bhattacharya, Subhrajit Bhattacharya, Aiman Shalgum, Chastity Bradford, Vishnu Suppiramaniam, Jack Deruiter, C Randall Clark, Muralikrishnan Dhanasekaran
Benzylpiperazine has been designated as Schedule I substance under the Controlled Substances Act by Drug Enforcement Administration. Benzylpiperazine is a piperazine derivative, elevates both dopamine and serotonin extracellular levels producing stimulatory and hallucinogenic effects, respectively, similar to methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). However, the comparative neurotoxic effects of Piperazine derivatives (Benzylpiperazine and Benzoylpiperazine) have not been elucidated. Here, piperazine derivatives (Benzylpiperazine and Benzoylpiperazine) were synthesized in our lab and the mechanisms of cellular-based neurotoxicity were elucidated in a dopaminergic human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y)...
September 5, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872641/polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-deficiency-during-neurodevelopment-in-mice-models-the-prodromal-state-of-schizophrenia-through-epigenetic-changes-in-nuclear-receptor-genes
#20
M Maekawa, A Watanabe, Y Iwayama, T Kimura, K Hamazaki, S Balan, H Ohba, Y Hisano, Y Nozaki, T Ohnishi, M Toyoshima, C Shimamoto, K Iwamoto, M Bundo, N Osumi, E Takahashi, A Takashima, T Yoshikawa
The risk of schizophrenia is increased in offspring whose mothers experience malnutrition during pregnancy. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are dietary components that are crucial for the structural and functional integrity of neural cells, and PUFA deficiency has been shown to be a risk factor for schizophrenia. Here, we show that gestational and early postnatal dietary deprivation of two PUFAs-arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-elicited schizophrenia-like phenotypes in mouse offspring at adulthood...
September 5, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
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