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landscape ecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637304/effects-of-alternative-electron-acceptors-on-the-activity-and-community-structure-of-methane-producing-and-consuming-microbes-in-the-sediments-of-two-shallow-boreal-lakes
#1
Antti J Rissanen, Anu Karvinen, Hannu Nykänen, Sari Peura, Marja Tiirola, Anita Mäki, Paula Kankaala
The role of anaerobic CH4 oxidation in controlling lake sediment CH4 emissions remains unclear. Therefore, we tested how relevant EAs (SO42-, NO3-, Fe3+, Mn4+, O2) affect CH4 production and oxidation in the sediments of two shallow boreal lakes. The changes induced to microbial communities by the addition of Fe3+ and Mn4+ were studied using next-generation sequencing targeting the 16S rRNA and methyl-coenzyme M reductase (mcrA) genes and mcrA transcripts. Putative anaerobic CH4 oxidizing archaea (ANME-2D) and bacteria (NC 10) were scarce (up to 3...
June 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634476/changes-in-n-p-supply-ratios-affect-the-ecological-stoichiometry-of-a-toxic-cyanobacterium-and-its-fungal-parasite
#2
Thijs Frenken, Joren Wierenga, Alena S Gsell, Ellen van Donk, Thomas Rohrlack, Dedmer B Van de Waal
Human activities have dramatically altered nutrient fluxes from the landscape into receiving waters. As a result, not only the concentration of nutrients in surface waters has increased, but also their elemental ratios have changed. Such shifts in resource supply ratios will alter autotroph stoichiometry, which may in turn have consequences for higher trophic levels, including parasites. Here, we hypothesize that parasite elemental composition will follow changes in the stoichiometry of its host, and that its reproductive success will decrease with host nutrient limitation...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631859/determining-the-drivers-of-population-structure-in-a-highly-urbanized-landscape-to-inform-conservation-planning
#3
Henri A Thomassen, Ryan J Harrigan, Kathleen Semple Delaney, Seth P D Riley, Laurel E K Serieys, Katherine Pease, Robert K Wayne, Thomas B Smith
Understanding the environmental contributors to population structure is of paramount importance for conservation in urbanized environments. We used spatially-explicit models to determine genetic population structure under current and future environmental conditions across a highly fragmented, human-dominated environment in Southern California to assess the effects of natural ecological variation and urbanization. We focused on seven common species with diverse habitat requirements, home range sizes, and dispersal abilities...
June 20, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631376/scale-of-human-mobility-in-the-southern-andes-argentina-and-chile-a-new-framework-based-on-strontium-isotopes
#4
Ramiro Barberena, Víctor A Durán, Paula Novellino, Diego Winocur, Anahí Benítez, Augusto Tessone, María N Quiroga, Erik J Marsh, Alejandra Gasco, Valeria Cortegoso, Gustavo Lucero, Carina Llano, Kelly J Knudson
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this article is to assess the scale of human paleomobility and ecological complementarity between the lowlands and highlands in the southern Andes during the last 2,300 years. By providing isotope results for human bone and teeth samples, we assess a hypothesis of "high residential mobility" suggested on the basis of oxygen isotopes from human remains. METHODS: We develop an isotopic assessment of human mobility in a mountain landscape combining strontium and oxygen isotopes...
June 20, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630802/effects-of-a-wind-farm-installation-on-the-understory-bat-community-of-a-highly-biodiverse-tropical-region-in-mexico
#5
Miguel Briones-Salas, Mario C Lavariega, Claudia E Moreno
Wind energy has rapidly become an important alternative among renewable energies, and it is generally considered clean. However, little is known about its impact at the level of ecological communities, especially in biodiversity hotspots. The Isthmus of Tehuantepec is a highly biodiverse region in Mesoamerica, and has the highest potential for generating wind energy in Mexico. To assess the effects of installing a wind farm on the understory bat community in a landscape of fragmented habitat, we assessed its diversity and composition over four stages of installation (site preparation, construction, and two stages of operation)...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630712/quantifying-drivers-of-wild-pig-movement-across-multiple-spatial-and-temporal-scales
#6
Shannon L Kay, Justin W Fischer, Andrew J Monaghan, James C Beasley, Raoul Boughton, Tyler A Campbell, Susan M Cooper, Stephen S Ditchkoff, Steve B Hartley, John C Kilgo, Samantha M Wisely, A Christy Wyckoff, Kurt C VerCauteren, Kim M Pepin
BACKGROUND: The movement behavior of an animal is determined by extrinsic and intrinsic factors that operate at multiple spatio-temporal scales, yet much of our knowledge of animal movement comes from studies that examine only one or two scales concurrently. Understanding the drivers of animal movement across multiple scales is crucial for understanding the fundamentals of movement ecology, predicting changes in distribution, describing disease dynamics, and identifying efficient methods of wildlife conservation and management...
2017: Movement Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622933/evaluating-the-potential-for-tactical-hunting-in-the-middle-stone-age-insights-from-a-bonebed-of-the-extinct-bovid-rusingoryx-atopocranion
#7
Kirsten E Jenkins, Sheila Nightingale, J Tyler Faith, Daniel J Peppe, Lauren A Michel, Steven G Driese, Kieran P McNulty, Christian A Tryon
The foraging behaviors of Middle Stone Age (MSA) early modern humans have largely been based on evidence from well-stratified cave sites in South Africa. Whereas these sites have provided an abundance of data for behavioral reconstruction that are unmatched elsewhere in Africa, they are unlikely to preserve evidence of the diversity of foraging strategies employed by MSA hunters who lived in a variety of ecological and landscape settings across the African continent. Here we describe the results of recent excavations at the open-air site of Bovid Hill at Wakondo, Rusinga Island, Kenya, which yielded 24 in situ MSA artifacts within an assemblage of bones comprised exclusively of the extinct alcelaphin bovid Rusingoryx atopocranion...
July 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620759/participative-spatial-scenario-analysis-for-alpine-ecosystems
#8
Marina Kohler, Rike Stotten, Melanie Steinbacher, Georg Leitinger, Erich Tasser, Uta Schirpke, Ulrike Tappeiner, Markus Schermer
Land use and land cover patterns are shaped by the interplay of human and ecological processes. Thus, heterogeneous cultural landscapes have developed, delivering multiple ecosystem services. To guarantee human well-being, the development of land use types has to be evaluated. Scenario development and land use and land cover change models are well-known tools for assessing future landscape changes. However, as social and ecological systems are inextricably linked, land use-related management decisions are difficult to identify...
June 15, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618079/protected-areas-as-social-ecological-systems-perspectives-from-resilience-and-social-ecological-systems-theory
#9
Graeme S Cumming, Craig R Allen
Conservation biology and applied ecology increasingly recognise that natural resource management is both an outcome and a driver of social, economic, and ecological dynamics. Protected areas offer a fundamental approach to conserving ecosystems, but they are also social-ecological systems whose ecological management and sustainability are heavily influenced by people. This editorial, and the papers in the invited feature that it introduces, discuss three emerging themes in social-ecological systems approaches to understanding protected areas: (1) the resilience and sustainability of protected areas, including analyses of their internal dynamics, their effectiveness, and the resilience of the landscapes within which they occur; (2) the relevance of spatial context and scale for protected areas, including such factors as geographic connectivity, context, exchanges between protected areas and their surrounding landscapes, and scale dependency in the provision of ecosystem services; and (3) efforts to re-frame what protected areas are and how they both define and are defined by the relationships of people and nature...
June 15, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616172/developing-approaches-for-linear-mixed-modeling-in-landscape-genetics-through-landscape-directed-dispersal-simulations
#10
Jeffrey R Row, Steven T Knick, Sara J Oyler-McCance, Stephen C Lougheed, Bradley C Fedy
Dispersal can impact population dynamics and geographic variation, and thus, genetic approaches that can establish which landscape factors influence population connectivity have ecological and evolutionary importance. Mixed models that account for the error structure of pairwise datasets are increasingly used to compare models relating genetic differentiation to pairwise measures of landscape resistance. A model selection framework based on information criteria metrics or explained variance may help disentangle the ecological and landscape factors influencing genetic structure, yet there are currently no consensus for the best protocols...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616069/population-genetic-and-field-ecological-analyses-return-similar-estimates-of-dispersal-over-space-and-time-in-an-endangered-amphibian
#11
Ian J Wang, H Bradley Shaffer
The explosive growth of empirical population genetics has seen a proliferation of analytical methods leading to a steady increase in our ability to accurately measure key population parameters, including genetic isolation, effective population size, and gene flow, in natural systems. Assuming they yield similar results, population genetic methods offer an attractive complement to, or replacement of, traditional field-ecological studies. However, empirical assessments of the concordance between direct field-ecological and indirect population genetic studies of the same populations are uncommon in the literature...
July 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614366/de-novo-transcriptomic-analysis-and-development-of-est-ssrs-for-sorbus-pohuashanensis-hance-hedl
#12
Congcong Liu, Ying Dou, Xuelian Guan, Qiang Fu, Ze Zhang, Zenghui Hu, Jian Zheng, Yizeng Lu, Wei Li
Sorbus pohuashanensis is a native tree species of northern China that is used for a variety of ecological purposes. The species is often grown as an ornamental landscape tree because of its beautiful form, silver flowers in early summer, attractive pinnate leaves in summer, and red leaves and fruits in autumn. However, development and further utilization of the species are hindered by the lack of comprehensive genetic information, which impedes research into its genetics and molecular biology. Recent advances in de novo transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) technology have provided an effective means to obtain genomic information from non-model species...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609989/freshwater-fishes-of-northern-australia
#13
Bradley J Pusey, Damien W Burrows, Mark J Kennard, Colton N Perna, Peter J Unmack, Quentin Allsop, Michael P Hammer
Northern Australia is biologically diverse and of national and global conservation signicance. Its ancient landscape contains the world's largest area of savannah ecosystem in good ecological condition and its rivers are largely free-flowing. Agriculture, previously confined largely to open range-land grazing, is set to expand in extent and to focus much more on irrigated cropping and horticulture. Demands on the water resources of the region are thus, inevitably increasing. Reliable information is required to guide and inform development and help plan for a sustainable future for the region which includes healthy rivers that contain diverse fish assemblages...
April 11, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609467/land-cover-more-than-monthly-fire-weather-drives-fire-size-distribution-in-southern-qu%C3%A3-bec-forests-implications-for-fire-risk-management
#14
Jean Marchal, Steve G Cumming, Eliot J B McIntire
Fire activity in North American forests is expected to increase substantially with climate change. This would represent a growing risk to human settlements and industrial infrastructure proximal to forests, and to the forest products industry. We modelled fire size distributions in southern Québec as functions of fire weather and land cover, thus explicitly integrating some of the biotic interactions and feedbacks in a forest-wildfire system. We found that, contrary to expectations, land-cover and not fire weather was the primary driver of fire size in our study region...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609466/multi-level-multi-scale-resource-selection-functions-and-resistance-surfaces-for-conservation-planning-pumas-as-a-case-study
#15
Katherine A Zeller, T Winston Vickers, Holly B Ernest, Walter M Boyce
The importance of examining multiple hierarchical levels when modeling resource use for wildlife has been acknowledged for decades. Multi-level resource selection functions have recently been promoted as a method to synthesize resource use across nested organizational levels into a single predictive surface. Analyzing multiple scales of selection within each hierarchical level further strengthens multi-level resource selection functions. We extend this multi-level, multi-scale framework to modeling resistance for wildlife by combining multi-scale resistance surfaces from two data types, genetic and movement...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609437/shifting-brucellosis-risk-in-livestock-coincides-with-spreading-seroprevalence-in-elk
#16
Angela Brennan, Paul C Cross, Katie Portacci, Brandon M Scurlock, William H Edwards
Tracking and preventing the spillover of disease from wildlife to livestock can be difficult when rare outbreaks occur across large landscapes. In these cases, broad scale ecological studies could help identify risk factors and patterns of risk to inform management and reduce incidence of disease. Between 2002 and 2014, 21 livestock herds in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) were affected by brucellosis, a bacterial disease caused by Brucella abortus, while no affected herds were detected between 1990 and 2001...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608705/a-tridiagonal-patch-model-of-bacteria-inhabiting-a-nanofabricated-landscape
#17
Robert Stephen Cantrell, Brian Coomes, Yifan Sha
In this paper we employ a discrete-diffusion modeling framework to examine a system inspired by the nano-ecology experiments on the bacterium Escherichia coli reported upon in Keymer et al. (2006). In these experiments, the bacteria inhabit a linear array of 85 ``microhabitat patches (MHP's)", linked by comparatively thinner corridors through which bacteria may pass between adjacent MHP's. Each MHP is connected to its own source of nutrient substrate, which flows into the MHP at a rate that can be controlled in the experiment...
August 1, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605315/tracking-young-adults-attitudes-toward-tobacco-marketing-using-ecological-momentary-assessment-ema
#18
Megan E Roberts, Bo Lu, Christopher R Browning, Amy K Ferketich
BACKGROUND: Decades of research demonstrate the pernicious effects of targeted cigarette marketing on young people. Now, with tobacco marketing shifting toward greater incorporation of alternative products, it is critical to identify current attitudes toward the new landscape of tobacco advertisements. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to understand the present landscape of tobacco marketing to which young adults are exposed, and to assess how they respond to it...
June 12, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603148/-put-it-near-the-indians-indigenous-perspectives-on-pulp-mill-contaminants-in-their-traditional-territories-pictou-landing-first-nation-canada
#19
Heather Castleden, Ella Bennett, Pictou Landing Group, Diana Lewis, Debbie Martin
BACKGROUND: Pictou Landing First Nation (PLFN), a small Mi'kmaw community on the Canadian east coast, has had a relationship with a tidal estuary known as A'se'k for millennia. In the 1960s, it became the site of effluent disposal from a nearby pulp mill. Almost immediately, health concerns regularly and consistently reverberated throughout the community. OBJECTIVES: The Pictou Landing Native Women's Group (PLNWG) formed a community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership with an academic team to conceptualize community well-being in the context of environment and human health connections...
2017: Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602236/scaling-up-our-understanding-of-non-consumptive-effects-in-insect-systems
#20
REVIEW
Sara L Hermann, Douglas A Landis
Non-consumptive effects (NCEs) of predators on prey is an important topic in insect ecology with potential applications for pest management. NCEs are changes in prey behavior and physiology that aid in predation avoidance. While NCEs can have positive outcomes for prey survival there may also be negative consequences including increased stress and reduced growth. These effects can cascade through trophic systems influencing ecosystem function. Most NCEs have been studied at small spatial and temporal scales...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
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