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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318131/hydrologic-refugia-plants-and-climate-change
#1
REVIEW
Blair C McLaughlin, David D Ackerly, P Zion Klos, Jennifer Natali, Todd E Dawson, Sally E Thompson
Climate, physical landscapes, and biota interact to generate heterogeneous hydrologic conditions in space and over time, which are reflected in spatial patterns of species distributions. As these species distributions respond to rapid climate change, microrefugia may support local species persistence in the face of deteriorating climatic suitability. Recent focus on temperature as a determinant of microrefugia insufficiently accounts for the importance of hydrologic processes and changing water availability with changing climate...
March 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314726/global-distribution-patterns-and-pangenomic-diversity-of-the-candidate-phylum-latescibacteria-ws3
#2
Ibrahim F Farag, Noha H Youssef, Mostafa S Elshahed
We investigated the global distribution patterns and pangenomic diversity of the candidate phylum "Latescibacteria" (WS3) in 16S rRNA gene as well as metagenomic datasets. We document distinct distribution patterns for various "Latescibacteria" orders in 16S rRNA gene datasets, with prevalence of orders sediment_1 in terrestrial, PBSIII_9 in groundwater and temperate freshwater, and GN03 in pelagic marine, saline-hypersaline, and wastewater habitats. Using a fragment recruitment approach, we identified 68.9 Mb of "Latescibacteria"-affiliated contigs in publicly available metagenomic datasets comprising 73,079 proteins...
March 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306717/barriers-to-dog-rabies-vaccination-during-an-urban-rabies-outbreak-qualitative-findings-from-arequipa-peru
#3
Ricardo Castillo-Neyra, Joanna Brown, Katty Borrini, Claudia Arevalo, Michael Z Levy, Alison Buttenheim, Gabrielle C Hunter, Victor Becerra, Jere Behrman, Valerie A Paz-Soldan
BACKGROUND: Canine rabies was reintroduced to the city of Arequipa, Peru in March 2015. The Ministry of Health has conducted a series of mass dog vaccination campaigns to contain the outbreak, but canine rabies virus transmission continues in Arequipa's complex urban environment, putting the city's 1 million inhabitants at risk of infection. The proximate driver of canine rabies in Arequipa is low dog vaccination coverage. Our objectives were to qualitatively assess barriers to and facilitators of rabies vaccination during mass campaigns, and to explore strategies to increase participation in future efforts...
March 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303184/the-shifting-phenological-landscape-within-and-between-species-variation-in-leaf-emergence-in-a-mixed-deciduous-woodland
#4
Ella F Cole, Ben C Sheldon
Many organisms rely on synchronizing the timing of their life-history events with those of other trophic levels-known as phenological matching-for survival or successful reproduction. In temperate deciduous forests, the extent of matching with the budburst date of key tree species is of particular relevance for many herbivorous insects and, in turn, insectivorous birds. In order to understand the ecological and evolutionary forces operating in these systems, we require knowledge of the factors influencing leaf emergence of tree communities...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301488/species-free-species-distribution-models-describe-macroecological-properties-of-protected-area-networks
#5
Jason L Robinson, James A Fordyce
Among the greatest challenges facing the conservation of plants and animal species in protected areas are threats from a rapidly changing climate. An altered climate creates both challenges and opportunities for improving the management of protected areas in networks. Increasingly, quantitative tools like species distribution modeling are used to assess the performance of protected areas and predict potential responses to changing climates for groups of species, within a predictive framework. At larger geographic domains and scales, protected area network units have spatial geoclimatic properties that can be described in the gap analysis typically used to measure or aggregate the geographic distributions of species (stacked species distribution models, or S-SDM)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301480/management-and-modeling-approaches-for-controlling-raccoon-rabies-the-road-to-elimination
#6
REVIEW
Stacey A Elmore, Richard B Chipman, Dennis Slate, Kathryn P Huyvaert, Kurt C VerCauteren, Amy T Gilbert
Rabies is an ancient viral disease that significantly impacts human and animal health throughout the world. In the developing parts of the world, dog bites represent the highest risk of rabies infection to people, livestock, and other animals. However, in North America, where several rabies virus variants currently circulate in wildlife, human contact with the raccoon rabies variant leads to the highest per capita population administration of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) annually. Previous rabies variant elimination in raccoons (Canada), foxes (Europe), and dogs and coyotes (United States) demonstrates that elimination of the raccoon variant from the eastern US is feasible, given an understanding of rabies control costs and benefits and the availability of proper tools...
March 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295840/climatic-changes-can-drive-the-loss-of-genetic-diversity-in-a-neotropical-savanna-tree-species
#7
Jacqueline S Lima, Liliana Ballesteros-Mejia, Matheus S Lima-Ribeiro, Rosane G Collevatti
The high rates of future climatic changes, compared with the rates reported for past changes, may hamper species adaptation to new climates or the tracking of suitable conditions, resulting in significant loss of genetic diversity. Trees are dominant species in many biomes and because they are long-lived, they may not be able to cope with ongoing climatic changes. Here, we coupled Ecological Niche Modelling (ENM) and genetic simulations to forecast the effects of climatic changes on the genetic diversity and the structure of genetic clusters...
March 13, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294305/differential-impacts-of-wildfire-on-the-population-dynamics-of-an-old-forest-species
#8
Jeremy T Rockweit, Alan B Franklin, Peter C Carlson
Ecological disturbances shape and maintain natural communities, but climate change and human land use can alter disturbance regimes and affect population persistence and vital rates in unpredictable ways. Species inhabiting landscapes shaped by wildfire have evolved mechanisms allowing them to persist under this dynamic disturbance type, which creates habitats of varying quality for these species. We utilized data from a 26-year demographic study of northern spotted owls to analyze the influence of wildfire on apparent survival and recruitment rates...
March 14, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293696/intestinal-microbial-community-dynamics-of-white-tailed-deer-odocoileus-virginianus-in-an-agroecosystem
#9
M Lisette Delgado, Pallavi Singh, Julie A Funk, Jennifer A Moore, Emily M Cannell, Jeannette Kanesfsky, Shannon D Manning, Kim T Scribner
The intestinal microbiota has important functions that contribute to host health. The compositional dynamics of microbial communities are affected by many factors, including diet and presence of pathogens. In contrast to humans and domestic mammals, the composition and seasonal dynamics of intestinal microbiota of wildlife species remain comparatively understudied. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is an ecologically and economically important wildlife species that inhabits agricultural ecosystems and is known to be a reservoir of enteric pathogens...
March 14, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292644/resilient-landscapes-in-mediterranean-urban-areas-understanding-factors-influencing-forest-trends
#10
Antonio Tomao, Valerio Quatrini, Piermaria Corona, Agostino Ferrara, Raffaele Lafortezza, Luca Salvati
Urban and peri-urban forests are recognized as basic elements for Nature-Based Solutions (NBS), as they preserve and may increase environmental quality in urbanized contexts. For this reason, the amount of forest land per inhabitant is a pivotal efficiency indicator to be considered in the sustainable governance, land management, planning and design of metropolitan areas. The present study illustrates a multivariate analysis of per-capita forest area (PFA) in mainland Attica, the urban region surrounding Athens, Greece...
March 11, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284373/reframing-the-food-biodiversity-challenge
#11
REVIEW
Joern Fischer, David J Abson, Arvid Bergsten, Neil French Collier, Ine Dorresteijn, Jan Hanspach, Kristoffer Hylander, Jannik Schultner, Feyera Senbeta
Given the serious limitations of production-oriented frameworks, we offer here a new conceptual framework for how to analyze the nexus of food security and biodiversity conservation. We introduce four archetypes of social-ecological system states corresponding to win-win (e.g., agroecology), win-lose (e.g., intensive agriculture), lose-win (e.g., fortress conservation), and lose-lose (e.g., degraded landscapes) outcomes for food security and biodiversity conservation. Each archetype is shaped by characteristic external drivers, exhibits characteristic internal social-ecological features, and has characteristic feedbacks that maintain it...
March 8, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281565/changes-in-land-use-driven-by-urbanization-impact-nitrogen-cycling-and-the-microbial-community-composition-in-soils
#12
Haitao Wang, Christopher W Marshall, Minying Cheng, Huijuan Xu, Hu Li, Xiaoru Yang, Tianling Zheng
Transition of populations from rural to urban living causes landscape changes and alters the functionality of soil ecosystems. It is unclear how this urbanization disturbs the microbial ecology of soils and how the disruption influences nitrogen cycling. In this study, microbial communities in turfgrass-grown soils from urban and suburban areas around Xiamen City were compared to microbial communities in the soils from rural farmlands. The potential N2O emissions, potential denitrification activity, and abundances of denitrifiers were higher in the rural farmland soils compared with the turfgrass soils...
March 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273135/low-tortoise-abundances-in-pine-forest-plantations-in-forest-shrubland-transition-areas
#13
Roberto C Rodríguez-Caro, Cornelia S Oedekoven, Eva Graciá, José D Anadón, Stephen T Buckland, Miguel A Esteve-Selma, Julia Martinez, Andrés Giménez
In the transition between Mediterranean forest and the arid subtropical shrublands of the southeastern Iberian Peninsula, humans have transformed habitat since ancient times. Understanding the role of the original mosaic landscapes in wildlife species and the effects of the current changes as pine forest plantations, performed even outside the forest ecological boundaries, are important conservation issues. We studied variation in the density of the endangered spur-thighed tortoise (Testudo graeca) in three areas that include the four most common land types within the species' range (pine forests, natural shrubs, dryland crop fields, and abandoned crop fields)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271150/german-water-infrastructure-in-china-colonial-qingdao-1898-1914
#14
Agnes Kneitz
Within the colorful tapestry of colonial possessions the German empire acquired over the short period of its existence, Qingdao stands out because it fulfilled a different role from settlements in Africa-especially because of its exemplary planned water infrastructure: its technological model, the resulting (public) hygiene, and the adjunct brewery. The National Naval Office (Reichsmarineamt), which oversaw the administration of the future "harbour colony"-at first little more than a little fishing village-enjoyed a remarkable degree of freedom in implementing this project...
March 7, 2017: NTM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267242/arctic-shrub-growth-trajectories-differ-across-soil-moisture-levels
#15
Daniel Ackerman, Daniel Griffin, Sarah E Hobbie, Jacques C Finlay
The circumpolar expansion of woody deciduous shrubs in arctic tundra alters key ecosystem properties including carbon balance and hydrology. However, landscape-scale patterns and drivers of shrub expansion remain poorly understood, inhibiting accurate incorporation of shrub effects into climate models. Here, we use dendroecology to elucidate the role of soil moisture in modifying the relationship between climate and growth for a dominant deciduous shrub, Salix pulchra, on the North Slope of Alaska, USA. We improve upon previous modeling approaches by using ecological theory to guide model selection for the relationship between climate and shrub growth...
March 7, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265058/hunter-gatherer-residential-mobility-and-the-marginal-value-of-rainforest-patches
#16
Vivek V Venkataraman, Thomas S Kraft, Nathaniel J Dominy, Kirk M Endicott
The residential mobility patterns of modern hunter-gatherers broadly reflect local resource availability, but the proximate ecological and social forces that determine the timing of camp movements are poorly known. We tested the hypothesis that the timing of such moves maximizes foraging efficiency as hunter-gatherers move across the landscape. The marginal value theorem predicts when a group should depart a camp and its associated foraging area and move to another based on declining marginal return rates. This influential model has yet to be directly applied in a population of hunter-gatherers, primarily because the shape of gain curves (cumulative resource acquisition through time) and travel times between patches have been difficult to estimate in ethnographic settings...
March 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263450/wild-connected-and-diverse-building-a-more-resilient-system-of-protected-areas
#17
R Travis Belote, Matthew S Dietz, Clinton N Jenkins, Peter S McKinley, G Hugh Irwin, Timothy J Fullman, Jason C Leppi, Gregory H Aplet
Current systems of conservation reserves may be insufficient to sustain biodiversity in the face of climate change and habitat losses. Faced with these pressures, calls have been made to protect the Earth's remaining wildlands and complete the system of protected areas by establishing conservation reserves that (i) better represent ecosystems; (ii) increase connectivity to facilitate biota movement in response to stressors including climate change; and (iii) promote species persistence within intact landscapes...
March 6, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261465/native-herbivores-and-environmental-heterogeneity-as-mediators-of-an-exotic-grass-invasion
#18
Cody L Ender, Caroline E Christian, J Hall Cushman
Given that many exotic plant species throughout the world are having large ecological and economic effects, it is vital to understand the forces that mediate their success in novel landscapes. Both native herbivores and recipient ecosystems can have substantial effects on the performance of exotic plant species, and may interact with each other or vary in their effects over time. Unfortunately, few studies have evaluated the importance of these kinds of context-dependent effects. Here, we use a 17-year-old exclosure experiment stratified across a coastal grassland in northern California to address the relative importance of a reintroduced mammalian herbivore, tule elk (Cervus canadensis nannodes), and environmental heterogeneity in mediating the growth, abundance, and recruitment of a problematic grass invader, Holcus lanatus...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261455/long-term-consistency-in-spatial-patterns-of-primate-seed-dispersal
#19
Eckhard W Heymann, Laurence Culot, Christoph Knogge, Tony Enrique Noriega Piña, Emérita R Tirado Herrera, Matthias Klapproth, Dietmar Zinner
Seed dispersal is a key ecological process in tropical forests, with effects on various levels ranging from plant reproductive success to the carbon storage potential of tropical rainforests. On a local and landscape scale, spatial patterns of seed dispersal create the template for the recruitment process and thus influence the population dynamics of plant species. The strength of this influence will depend on the long-term consistency of spatial patterns of seed dispersal. We examined the long-term consistency of spatial patterns of seed dispersal with spatially explicit data on seed dispersal by two neotropical primate species, Leontocebus nigrifrons and Saguinus mystax (Callitrichidae), collected during four independent studies between 1994 and 2013...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260996/ecosystem-services-classification-a-systems-ecology-perspective-of-the-cascade-framework
#20
Alessandra La Notte, Dalia D'Amato, Hanna Mäkinen, Maria Luisa Paracchini, Camino Liquete, Benis Egoh, Davide Geneletti, Neville D Crossman
Ecosystem services research faces several challenges stemming from the plurality of interpretations of classifications and terminologies. In this paper we identify two main challenges with current ecosystem services classification systems: i) the inconsistency across concepts, terminology and definitions, and; ii) the mix up of processes and end-state benefits, or flows and assets. Although different ecosystem service definitions and interpretations can be valuable for enriching the research landscape, it is necessary to address the existing ambiguity to improve comparability among ecosystem-service-based approaches...
March 2017: Ecological Indicators
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