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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140754/comparing-diversity-of-fungi-from-living-leaves-using-culturing-and-high-throughput-environmental-sequencing
#1
Peter R Johnston, Duckchul Park, Rob D Smissen
High-throughput sequencing technologies using amplicon approaches have changed the way that studies investigating fungal distribution are undertaken. These powerful and time-efficient technologies have the potential for the first time to accurately map fungal distributions across landscapes or changes in diversity across ecological or biological gradients of interest. There is no requirement for a fungus to form a fruiting body to be detected, and both culturable and nonculturable organisms can be detected...
October 6, 2017: Mycologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139572/exposing-ecological-and-economic-costs-of-the-research-implementation-gap-and-compromises-in-decision-making
#2
Santtu Kareksela, Atte Moilanen, Olli Ristaniemi, Reima Välivaara, Janne S Kotiaho
The frequently discussed gap between conservation science and practice is manifest in the gap between spatial conservation prioritization plans and their implementation. We analyzed the research-implementation gap of 1 zoning case by comparing results of a spatial prioritization analysis aimed at avoiding ecological impact of peat mining in a regional zoning process with the final zoning plan. We examined the relatively complex planning process to determine the gaps among research, zoning, and decision making...
November 15, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137670/modelling-and-mapping-tick-dynamics-using-volunteered-observations
#3
Irene Garcia-Martí, Raúl Zurita-Milla, Arnold J H van Vliet, Willem Takken
BACKGROUND: Tick populations and tick-borne infections have steadily increased since the mid-1990s posing an ever-increasing risk to public health. Yet, modelling tick dynamics remains challenging because of the lack of data and knowledge on this complex phenomenon. Here we present an approach to model and map tick dynamics using volunteered data. This approach is illustrated with 9 years of data collected by a group of trained volunteers who sampled active questing ticks (AQT) on a monthly basis and for 15 locations in the Netherlands...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Health Geographics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132720/intensify-production-transform-biomass-to-energy-and-novel-goods-and-protect-soils-in-europe-a-vision-how-to-mobilize-marginal-lands
#4
REVIEW
P Schröder, B Beckers, S Daniels, F Gnädinger, E Maestri, N Marmiroli, M Mench, R Millan, M M Obermeier, N Oustriere, T Persson, C Poschenrieder, F Rineau, B Rutkowska, T Schmid, W Szulc, N Witters, A Sæbø
The rapid increase of the world population constantly demands more food production from agricultural soils. This causes conflicts, since at the same time strong interest arises on novel bio-based products from agriculture, and new perspectives for rural landscapes with their valuable ecosystem services. Agriculture is in transition to fulfill these demands. In many countries, conventional farming, influenced by post-war food requirements, has largely been transformed into integrated and sustainable farming...
November 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132298/population-genetic-structure-is-shaped-by-historical-geographic-and-environmental-factors-in-the-leguminous-shrub-caragana-microphylla-on-the-inner-mongolia-plateau-of-china
#5
Bo Xu, Guoli Sun, Xuemin Wang, Jingwei Lu, Ian J Wang, Zan Wang
BACKGROUND: Understanding how landscape factors, including suites of geographic and environmental variables, and both historical and contemporary ecological and evolutionary processes shape the distribution of genetic diversity is a primary goal of landscape and conservation genetics and may be particularly consequential for species involved in ecological restoration. In this study, we examine the factors that shape the distribution of genetic variation in a leguminous shrub (Caragana microphylla) important for restoration efforts on the Mongolian Plateau in China...
November 13, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128841/anthropogenic-water-bodies-as-drought-refuge-for-aquatic-macroinvertebrates-and-macrophytes
#6
David T Dodemaide, Ty G Matthews, Dion Iervasi, Rebecca E Lester
Ecological research associated with the importance of refuges has tended to focus on natural rather than anthropogenic water bodies. The frequency of disturbances, including drought events, is predicted to increase in many regions worldwide due to human-induced climate change. More frequent disturbance will affect freshwater ecosystems by altering hydrologic regimes, water chemistry, available habitat and assemblage structure. Under this scenario, many aquatic biota are likely to rely on permanent water bodies as refuge, including anthropogenic water bodies...
November 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127669/conserving-connectivity-human-influence-on-subsidy-transfer-and-relevant-restoration-efforts
#7
REVIEW
Emily V Buckner, Daniel L Hernández, Jameal F Samhouri
Conservation efforts tend to focus on the direct impacts humans have on their surrounding environment; however there are also many ways in which people indirectly affect ecosystems. Recent research on ecological subsidies-the transfer of energy and nutrients from one ecosystem to another-has highlighted the importance of nutrient exchange for maintaining productivity and diversity at a landscape scale, while also pointing toward the fragility of ecotones and vulnerability of subsidies to human activities. We review the recent literature on landscape connectivity and ecosystem subsidies from aquatic systems to terrestrial systems...
November 10, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127217/adding-landscape-genetics-and-individual-traits-to-the-ecosystem-function-paradigm-reveals-the-importance-of-species-functional-breadth
#8
Antonio R Castilla, Nathaniel S Pope, Megan O'Connell, María F Rodriguez, Laurel Treviño, Alonso Santos, Shalene Jha
Animal pollination mediates both reproduction and gene flow for the majority of plant species across the globe. However, past functional studies have focused largely on seed production; although useful, this focus on seed set does not provide information regarding species-specific contributions to pollen-mediated gene flow. Here we quantify pollen dispersal for individual pollinator species across more than 690 ha of tropical forest. Specifically, we examine visitation, seed production, and pollen-dispersal ability for the entire pollinator community of a common tropical tree using a series of individual-based pollinator-exclusion experiments followed by molecular-based fractional paternity analyses...
November 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122354/potentials-and-limitations-of-remote-fire-monitoring-in-protected-areas
#9
João Flávio Costa Dos Santos, Joyce Machado Nunes Romeiro, José Batuíra de Assis, Fillipe Tamiozzo Pereira Torres, José Marinaldo Gleriani
Protected areas (PAs) play an important role in maintaining the biodiversity and ecological processes of the site. One of the greatest challenges for the PA management in several biomes in the world is wildfires. The objective of this work was to evaluate the potentialities and limitations of the use of data obtained by orbital remote sensing in the monitoring fire occurrence in PAs. Fire Occurrence Records (FORs) were analyzed in Serra do Brigadeiro State Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil, from 2007 to 2015, using photo interpreted data from TM, ETM(+) and OLI sensors of the Landsat series and the Hot Spot Database (HSD) from the Brazilian Institute of Space Research - INPE...
November 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121060/the-effects-of-demographic-social-and-environmental-characteristics-on-pathogen-prevalence-in-wild-felids-across-a-gradient-of-urbanization
#10
Jesse S Lewis, Kenneth A Logan, Mat W Alldredge, Scott Carver, Sarah N Bevins, Michael Lappin, Sue VandeWoude, Kevin R Crooks
Transmission of pathogens among animals is influenced by demographic, social, and environmental factors. Anthropogenic alteration of landscapes can impact patterns of disease dynamics in wildlife populations, increasing the potential for spillover and spread of emerging infectious diseases in wildlife, human, and domestic animal populations. We evaluated the effects of multiple ecological mechanisms on patterns of pathogen exposure in animal populations. Specifically, we evaluated how ecological factors affected the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (Toxoplasma), Bartonella spp...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121054/differing-long-term-trends-for-two-common-amphibian-species-bufo-bufo-and-rana-temporaria-in-alpine-landscapes-of-salzburg-austria
#11
Martin Kyek, Peter H Kaufmann, Robert Lindner
This study focuses on the population trends of two widespread European anuran species: the common toad (Bufo bufo) and the common frog (Rana temporaria). The basis of this study is data gathered over two decades of amphibian fencing alongside roads in the Austrian state of Salzburg. Different statistical approaches were used to analyse the data. Overall average increase or decrease of each species was estimated by calculating a simple average locality index. In addition the statistical software TRIM was used to verify these trends as well as to categorize the data based on the geographic location of each migration site...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119653/a-social-ecological-framework-a-model-for-addressing-ethical-practice-in-nursing
#12
P M Davidson, C H Rushton, M Kurtz, B Wise, D Jackson, A Beaman, M Broome
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To develop a framework to enable discussion, debate and the formulation of interventions to address ethical issues in nursing practice. BACKGROUND: Social, cultural, political and economic drivers are rapidly changing the landscape of health care in our local environments but also in a global context. Increasingly, nurses are faced with a range of ethical dilemmas in their work. This requires investigation into the culture of health care systems and organisations to identify the root causes and address the barriers and enablers of ethical practice...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119410/africanizing-science-in-post-colonial-kenya-long-term-field-research-in-the-amboseli-ecosystem-1963-1989
#13
Amanda E Lewis
Following Kenya's independence in 1963, scientists converged on an ecologically sensitive area in southern Kenya on the northern slope of Mt. Kilimanjaro called Amboseli. This region is the homeland of the Ilkisongo Maasai who grazed this ecosystem along with the wildlife of interest to the scientists. Biologists saw opportunities to study this complex community, an environment rich in biological diversity. The Amboseli landscape proved to be fertile ground for testing new methods and lines of inquiry in the biological sciences that were generalizable and important for shaping natural resource management policies in Kenya...
November 8, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118750/an-rna-virome-associated-to-the-golden-orb-weaver-spider-nephila-clavipes
#14
Humberto J Debat
The golden orb-weaver spider Nephila clavipes, known for its sexual size dimorphism, is abundant and widespread in the New World. The first annotated genome of orb-weaver spiders, exploring N. clavipes, has recently been reported. The study, focused primarily on the diversity of silk specific genes, shed light into the complex evolutionary history of spiders. Furthermore, a robust transcriptome analysis provided a massive resource for N. clavipes RNA survey. Here, I present evidence of viral sequences corresponding to the first 10 extant virus species associated to N...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114986/towards-an-eco-phylogenetic-framework-for-infectious-disease-ecology
#15
Nicholas M Fountain-Jones, William D Pearse, Luis E Escobar, Ana Alba-Casals, Scott Carver, T Jonathan Davies, Simona Kraberger, Monica Papeş, Kurt Vandegrift, Katherine Worsley-Tonks, Meggan E Craft
Identifying patterns and drivers of infectious disease dynamics across multiple scales is a fundamental challenge for modern science. There is growing awareness that it is necessary to incorporate multi-host and/or multi-parasite interactions to understand and predict current and future disease threats better, and new tools are needed to help address this task. Eco-phylogenetics (phylogenetic community ecology) provides one avenue for exploring multi-host multi-parasite systems, yet the incorporation of eco-phylogenetic concepts and methods into studies of host pathogen dynamics has lagged behind...
November 8, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113494/ecologies-of-power-countermapping-the-logistical-landscapes-military-geographies-of-the-u-s-department-of-defense
#16
Marion Birch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 7, 2017: Medicine, Conflict, and Survival
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109425/landscape-scale-conservation-design-across-biotic-realms-sequential-integration-of-aquatic-and-terrestrial-landscapes
#17
Paul B Leonard, Robert F Baldwin, R Daniel Hanks
Systematic conservation planning has been used extensively throughout the world to identify important areas for maintaining biodiversity and functional ecosystems, and is well suited to address large-scale biodiversity conservation challenges of the twenty-first century. Systematic planning is necessary to bridge implementation, scale, and data gaps in a collaborative effort that recognizes competing land uses. Here, we developed a conservation planning process to identify and unify conservation priorities around the central and southern Appalachian Mountains as part of the Appalachian Landscape Conservation Cooperative (App LCC)...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109261/scale-dependent-portfolio-effects-explain-growth-inflation-and-volatility-reduction-in-landscape-demography
#18
Cang Hui, Gordon A Fox, Jessica Gurevitch
Population demography is central to fundamental ecology and for predicting range shifts, decline of threatened species, and spread of invasive organisms. There is a mismatch between most demographic work, carried out on few populations and at local scales, and the need to predict dynamics at landscape and regional scales. Inspired by concepts from landscape ecology and Markowitz's portfolio theory, we develop a landscape portfolio platform to quantify and predict the behavior of multiple populations, scaling up the expectation and variance of the dynamics of an ensemble of populations...
November 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107801/linear-infrastructure-impacts-on-landscape-hydrology
#19
Keren G Raiter, Suzanne M Prober, Hugh P Possingham, Fiona Westcott, Richard J Hobbs
The extent of roads and other forms of linear infrastructure is burgeoning worldwide, but their impacts are inadequately understood and thus poorly mitigated. Previous studies have identified many potential impacts, including alterations to the hydrological functions and soil processes upon which ecosystems depend. However, these impacts have seldom been quantified at a regional level, particularly in arid and semi-arid systems where the gap in knowledge is the greatest, and impacts potentially the most severe...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102408/meta-ecosystems-2-0-rooting-the-theory-into-the-field
#20
REVIEW
Isabelle Gounand, Eric Harvey, Chelsea J Little, Florian Altermatt
The meta-ecosystem framework demonstrates the significance of among-ecosystem spatial flows for ecosystem dynamics and has fostered a rich body of theory. The high level of abstraction of the models, however, impedes applications to empirical systems. We argue that further understanding of spatial dynamics in natural systems strongly depends on dense exchanges between field and theory. From empiricists, more and specific quantifications of spatial flows are needed, defined by the major categories of organismal movement (dispersal, foraging, life-cycle, and migration)...
November 1, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
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