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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351290/land-use-change-in-oil-palm-dominated-tropical-landscapes-an-agent-based-model-to-explore-ecological-and-socio-economic-trade-offs
#1
Claudia Dislich, Elisabeth Hettig, Jan Salecker, Johannes Heinonen, Jann Lay, Katrin M Meyer, Kerstin Wiegand, Suria Tarigan
Land-use changes have dramatically transformed tropical landscapes. We describe an ecological-economic land-use change model as an integrated, exploratory tool used to analyze how tropical land-use change affects ecological and socio-economic functions. The model analysis seeks to determine what kind of landscape mosaic can improve the ensemble of ecosystem functioning, biodiversity, and economic benefit based on the synergies and trade-offs that we have to account for. More specifically, (1) how do specific ecosystem functions, such as carbon storage, and economic functions, such as household consumption, relate to each other? (2) How do external factors, such as the output prices of crops, affect these relationships? (3) How do these relationships change when production inefficiency differs between smallholder farmers and learning is incorporated? We initialize the ecological-economic model with artificially generated land-use maps parameterized to our study region...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351017/temperature-dependent-species-interactions-shape-priority-effects-and-the-persistence-of-unequal-competitors
#2
Tess Nahanni Grainger, Adam Ivan Rego, Benjamin Gilbert
The order of species arrival at a site can determine the outcome of competitive interactions when early arrivers alter the environment or deplete shared resources. These priority effects are predicted to be stronger at high temperatures, as higher vital rates caused by warming allow early arrivers to more rapidly impact a shared environment. We tested this prediction using a pair of congeneric aphid species that specialize on milkweed plants. We manipulated temperature and arrival order of the two aphid species and measured aphid population dynamics and milkweed survival and defensive traits...
February 2018: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350826/dispersal-and-population-state-of-an-endangered-island-lizard-following-a-conservation-translocation
#3
Nicole F Angeli, Ian F Lundgren, Clayton G Pollock, Zandy M Hillis-Starr, Lee A Fitzgerald
Population size is widely used as a unit of ecological analysis, yet to estimate population size requires accounting for observed and latent heterogeneity influencing dispersion of individuals across landscapes. In newly established populations, such as when animals are translocated for conservation, dispersal and availability of resources influence patterns of abundance. We developed a process to estimate population size using N-mixture models and spatial models for newly established and dispersing populations...
January 19, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347456/survivability-of-a-metapopulation-under-local-extinctions
#4
Srilena Kundu, Soumen Majhi, Sourav Kumar Sasmal, Dibakar Ghosh, Biswambhar Rakshit
A metapopulation structure in landscape ecology comprises a group of interacting spatially separated subpopulations or patches of the same species that may experience several local extinctions. This makes the investigation of survivability (in the form of global oscillation) of a metapopulation on top of diverse dispersal topologies extremely crucial. However, among various dispersal topologies in ecological networks, which one can provide higher metapopulation survivability under local extinction is still not well explored...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346589/urban-evolutionary-ecology-and-the-potential-benefits-of-implementing-genomics
#5
Christopher J Schell
Urban habitats are quickly becoming exceptional models to address adaptation under rapid environmental change, given the expansive temporal and spatial scales with which anthropogenic landscape conversion occurs. Urban ecologists in the last 10-15 years have done an extraordinary job of highlighting phenotypic patterns that correspond with urban living, as well as delineating urban population structure using traditional genetic markers. The underpinning genetic mechanisms that govern those phenotypic patterns, however, are less well established...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346369/the-rise-of-neglected-tropical-diseases-in-the-new-texas
#6
REVIEW
Peter J Hotez
Within the last five years, the State of Texas has experienced either transmission or outbreaks of Ebola, chikungunya, West Nile, and Zika virus infections. Autochthonous transmission of neglected parasitic and bacterial diseases has also become increasingly reported. The rise of such emerging and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) has not occurred by accident but instead reflects rapidly evolving changes and shifts in a "new" Texas beset by modern and globalizing forces that include rapid expansions in population together with urbanization and human migrations, altered transportation patterns, climate change, steeply declining vaccination rates, and a new paradigm of poverty known as "blue marble health...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335417/europe-s-lost-forests-a-pollen-based-synthesis-for-the-last-11-000-years
#7
N Roberts, R M Fyfe, J Woodbridge, M-J Gaillard, B A S Davis, J O Kaplan, L Marquer, F Mazier, A B Nielsen, S Sugita, A-K Trondman, M Leydet
8000 years ago, prior to Neolithic agriculture, Europe was mostly a wooded continent. Since then, its forest cover has been progressively fragmented, so that today it covers less than half of Europe's land area, in many cases having been cleared to make way for fields and pasture-land. Establishing the origin of Europe's current, more open land-cover mosaic requires a long-term perspective, for which pollen analysis offers a key tool. In this study we utilise and compare three numerical approaches to transforming pollen data into past forest cover, drawing on >1000 14C-dated site records...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331835/integrating-priority-areas-and-ecological-corridors-into-national-network-for-conservation-planning-in-china
#8
Jie Liang, Xinyue He, Guangming Zeng, Minzhou Zhong, Xiang Gao, Xin Li, Xiaodong Li, Haipeng Wu, Chunting Feng, Wenle Xing, Yilong Fang, Dan Mo
Considering that urban expansion and increase of human activities represent important threats to biodiversity and ecological processes in short and long term, developing protected area (PA) network with high connectivity is considered as a valuable conservation strategy. However, conservation planning associated with the large-scale network in China involves important information loopholes about the land cover and landscape connectivity. In this paper, we made an integrative analysis for the identification of conservation priority areas and least-cost ecological corridors (ECs) in order to promote a more representative, connected and efficient ecological PA network for this country...
January 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328512/economy-of-scale-third-partner-strengthens-a-keystone-ant-plant-mutualism
#9
Kirsten M Prior, Todd M Palmer
While foundation species can stabilize ecosystems at landscape scales, their ability to persist is often underlain by keystone interactions occurring at smaller scales. Acacia drepanolobium is a foundation tree, comprising >95% of woody cover in East African black-cotton savanna ecosystems. Its dominance is underlain by a keystone mutualistic interaction with several symbiotic ant species in which it provides housing (swollen thorns) and carbohydrate-rich nectar from extra-floral nectaries (EFN). In return, it gains protection from catastrophic damage from mega-herbivores...
January 12, 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324044/the-management-of-insect-pests-in-australian-cotton-an-evolving-story
#10
Lewis J Wilson, Mary E A Whitehouse, Grant A Herron
The Australian cotton industry progressively embraced integrated pest management (IPM) to alleviate escalating insecticide resistance issues. A systems IPM approach was used with core principles that were built around pest ecology/biology and insecticide resistance management; together, these were integrated into a flexible, year-round approach that facilitated easy incorporation of new science, strategies, and pests. The approach emphasized both strategic and tactical elements to reduce pest abundance and rationalize decisions about pest control, with insecticides as a last resort...
January 7, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321891/population-genetic-structure-of-the-endemic-rosewoods-dalbergia-cochinchinensis-and-d-%C3%A2-oliveri-at-a-regional-scale-reflects-the-indochinese-landscape-and-life-history-traits
#11
Ida Hartvig, Thea So, Suchitra Changtragoon, Hoa Thi Tran, Somsanith Bouamanivong, Ida Theilade, Erik Dahl Kjær, Lene Rostgaard Nielsen
Indochina is a biodiversity hot spot and harbors a high number of endemic species, most of which are poorly studied. This study explores the genetic structure and reproductive system of the threatened endemic timber species Dalbergia cochinchinensis and Dalbergia oliveri using microsatellite data from populations across Indochina and relates it to landscape characteristics and life-history traits. We found that the major water bodies in the region, Mekong and Tonle Sap, represented barriers to gene flow and that higher levels of genetic diversity were found in populations in the center of the distribution area, particularly in Cambodia...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321884/gut-microbiota-composition-is-associated-with-environmental-landscape-in-honey-bees
#12
Julia C Jones, Carmelo Fruciano, Falk Hildebrand, Hasan Al Toufalilia, Nicholas J Balfour, Peer Bork, Philipp Engel, Francis Lw Ratnieks, William Oh Hughes
There is growing recognition that the gut microbial community regulates a wide variety of important functions in its animal hosts, including host health. However, the complex interactions between gut microbes and environment are still unclear. Honey bees are ecologically and economically important pollinators that host a core gut microbial community that is thought to be constant across populations. Here, we examined whether the composition of the gut microbial community of honey bees is affected by the environmental landscape the bees are exposed to...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320514/sound-mapping-a-coniferous-forest-perspectives-for-biodiversity-monitoring-and-noise-mitigation
#13
Anthony Turner, Michael Fischer, Joseph Tzanopoulos
Acoustic diversity indices have been proposed as low-cost biodiversity monitoring tools. The acoustic diversity of a soundscape can be indicative of the richness of an acoustic community and the structural/vegetation characteristics of a habitat. There is a need to apply these methods to landscapes that are ecologically and/or economically important. We investigate the relationship between the acoustic properties of a coniferous forest with stand-age and structure. We sampled a 73 point grid in part of the UK's largest man-made lowland coniferous plantation forest, covering a 320ha mosaic of different aged stands...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319883/trait-specific-processes-of-convergence-and-conservatism-shape-ecomorphological-evolution-in-ground-dwelling-squirrels
#14
Bryan S McLean, Kristofer M Helgen, H Thomas Goodwin, Joseph A Cook
Our understanding of mechanisms operating over deep timescales to shape phenotypic diversity often hinges on linking variation in one or few trait(s) to specific evolutionary processes. When distinct processes are capable of similar phenotypic signatures, however, identifying these drivers is difficult. We explored ecomorphological evolution across a radiation of ground-dwelling squirrels whose history includes convergence and constraint, two processes that can yield similar signatures of standing phenotypic diversity...
January 10, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315522/predation-risk-and-patch-size-jointly-determine-perceived-patch-quality-in-ovipositing-treefrogs-hyla-chrysoscelis
#15
William J Resetarits, Jason R Bohenek, Tyler Breech, Matthew R Pintar
Two of the most important factors determining community structure and diversity within and among habitat patches are patch size and patch quality. Despite the importance of patch size in existing paradigms in island biogeography, metapopulation biology, landscape ecology, and metacommunity ecology, and growing conservation concerns with habitat fragmentation, there has been little investigation into how patch size interacts with patch quality. We crossed three levels of patch size (1.13 m2 , 2.54 m2 and 5.73 m2 ) with two levels of patch quality [fish presence/absence - green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus) and golden shiners (Notemigonus chrysoleucus) in 6 replicate experimental landscapes (3 x 2 x 6 = 36 patches)...
January 7, 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311604/effects-of-urban-sprawl-on-arthropod-communities-in-peri-urban-farmed-landscape-in-shenbei-new-district-shenyang-liaoning-province-china
#16
Zhen-Xing Bian, Shuai Wang, Qiu-Bing Wang, Miao Yu, Feng-Kui Qian
Peri-urban farmland provides a diversity of ecological services. However, it is experiencing increasing pressures from urban sprawl. While the effects of land use associated with farming on arthropod assemblages has received increasing attention, most of this research has been conducted by comparing conventional and organic cropping systems. The present study identifies the effects of urban sprawl and the role of non-cropped habitat in defining arthropod diversity in peri-urban farmed landscapes. Multi-scale arthropod data from 30 sampling plots were used with linear-mixed models to elucidate the effects of distance from urban areas (0-13 km; 13-25 km and >25 km, zones I, II, and III, respectively) on arthropods...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304165/genetic-diversity-genetic-structure-and-diet-of-ancient-and-contemporary-red-deer-cervus-elaphus-l-from-north-eastern-france
#17
Annik Schnitzler, José Granado, Olivier Putelat, Rose-Marie Arbogast, Dorothée Drucker, Anna Eberhard, Anja Schmutz, Yuri Klaefiger, Gérard Lang, Walter Salzburger, Joerg Schibler, Angela Schlumbaum, Hervé Bocherens
In north-eastern France, red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) populations were rebuilt from a few hundred individuals, which have subsisted in remote valleys of the Vosges mountains, and to a lesser extent from individuals escaped from private enclosures; at present times, this species occupies large areas, mainly in the Vosges Mountains. In this study, we examined the population dynamics of red deer in the Vosges Mountains using ancient and contemporary mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from 140 samples (23 ancient + 117 modern) spanning the last 7'000 years...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302271/paleolimnology-and-resurrection-ecology-the-future-of-reconstructing-the-past
#18
REVIEW
David R L Burge, Mark B Edlund, Dagmar Frisch
Paleolimnologists have utilized lake sediment records to understand historical lake and landscape development, timing and magnitude of environmental change at lake, watershed, regional and global scales, and as historical datasets to target watershed and lake management. Resurrection ecologists have long recognized lake sediments as sources of viable propagules ("seed or egg banks") with which to explore questions of community ecology, ecological response, and evolutionary ecology. Most researchers consider Daphnia as the primary model organism in these efforts, but many other aquatic biota, from viruses to macrophytes, similarly produce viable propagules that are incorporated in the sediment record but have been underutilized in resurrection ecology...
January 2018: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299267/thresholds-of-sea-level-rise-rate-and-sea-level-rise-acceleration-rate-in-a-vulnerable-coastal-wetland
#19
Wei Wu, Patrick Biber, Matthew Bethel
Feedbacks among inundation, sediment trapping, and vegetation productivity help maintain coastal wetlands facing sea-level rise (SLR). However, when the SLR rate exceeds a threshold, coastal wetlands can collapse. Understanding the threshold helps address key challenges in ecology-nonlinear response of ecosystems to environmental change, promotes communication between ecologists and resource managers, and facilitates decision-making in climate change policies. We studied the threshold of SLR rate and developed a new threshold of SLR acceleration rate on sustainability of coastal wetlands as SLR is likely to accelerate due to enhanced anthropogenic forces...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299261/disturbance-modulated-symbioses-in-termitophily
#20
Ivan Monteiro, Arleu Barbosa Viana-Junior, Ricardo Ribeiro de Castro Solar, Frederico de Siqueira Neves, Og DeSouza
Symbiosis, the living-together of unlike organisms, underlies every major transition in evolution and pervades most ecological dynamics. Among examples of symbioses, the simultaneous occupation of a termite nest by its builder termites and intruding invertebrate species (so-called termitophily) provides suitable macroscopic scenarios for the study of species coexistence in confined environments. Current evidence on termitophily abounds for dynamics occurring at the interindividual level within the termitarium, but is insufficient for broader scales such as the community and the landscape...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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