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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791767/increased-body-size-along-urbanization-gradients-at-both-community-and-intraspecific-level-in-macro-moths
#1
Thomas Merckx, Aurélien Kaiser, Hans Van Dyck
Urbanization involves a cocktail of human-induced rapid environmental changes and is forecasted to gain further importance. Urban-heat-island effects result in increased metabolic costs expected to drive shifts towards smaller body sizes. However, urban environments are also characterized by strong habitat fragmentation, often selecting for dispersal phenotypes. Here, we investigate to what extent, and at which spatial scale(s), urbanization drives body size shifts in macro-moths-an insect group characterized by positive size-dispersal links-at both the community and intraspecific level...
May 23, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790957/cultivating-collaborations-site-specific-design-for-embodied-science-learning
#2
Katherine Gill, Jocelyn Glazier, Betsy Towns
Immersion in well-designed outdoor environments can foster the habits of mind that enable critical and authentic scientific questions to take root in students' minds. Here we share two design cases in which careful, collaborative, and intentional design of outdoor learning environments for informal inquiry provide people of all ages with embodied opportunities to learn about the natural world, developing the capacity for understanding ecology and the ability to empathize, problem-solve and reflect. Embodied learning, as facilitated by and in well-designed outdoor learning environments, leads students to develop new ways of seeing, new scientific questions, new ways to connect with ideas, with others and new ways of thinking about the natural world...
May 21, 2018: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787637/fear-based-niche-shifts-in-neotropical-birds
#3
Ari E Martínez, Eliseo Parra, Oliver Muellerklein, Vance T Vredenburg
Predation is a strong ecological force that shapes animal communities through natural selection. Recent studies have shown the cascading effects of predation risk on ecosystems through changes in prey behavior. Minimizing predation risk may explain why multiple prey species associate together in space and time. For example, mixed-species flocks that have been widely documented from forest systems, often include birds that eavesdrop on sentinel species (alarm calling heterospecifics). Sentinel species may be pivotal in (1) allowing flocking species to forage in open areas within forests that otherwise incur high predation risk, and (2) influencing flock occurrence (the amount of time species spend with a flock)...
May 22, 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787595/current-and-previous-spatial-distributions-of-oilseed-rape-fields-influence-the-abundance-and-the-body-size-of-a-solitary-wild-bee-andrena-cineraria-in-permanent-grasslands
#4
Colin Van Reeth, Gaël Caro, Christian Bockstaller, Nadia Michel
Wild bees are essential pollinators whose survival partly depends on the capacity of their environment to offer a sufficient amount of nectar and pollen. Semi-natural habitats and mass-flowering crops such as oilseed rape provide abundant floristic resources for bees. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influences of the spatial distribution of semi-natural habitats and oilseed rape fields on the abundance and the mean body size of a solitary bee in grasslands. We focused on a generalist mining bee, Andrena cineraria, that forages and reproduces during oilseed rape flowering...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784774/physiology-underlies-the-assembly-of-ecological-communities
#5
Denon Start, Shannon McCauley, Benjamin Gilbert
Trait-based community ecology promises an understanding of the factors that determine species abundances and distributions across habitats. However, ecologists are often faced with large suites of potentially important traits, making generalizations across ecosystems and species difficult or even impossible. Here, we hypothesize that key traits structuring ecological communities may be causally dependent on common physiological mechanisms and that elucidating these mechanisms can help us understand the distributions of traits and species across habitats...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781169/effects-of-urbanization-on-the-population-structure-of-freshwater-turtles-across-the-united-states
#6
David R Bowne, Bradley J Cosentino, Laurel J Anderson, Christopher P Bloch, Sandra Cooke, Patrick W Crumrine, Jason Dallas, Alexandra Doran, Jerald J Dosch, Daniel L Druckenbrod, Richard D Durtsche, Danielle Garneau, Kristen S Genet, Todd S Fredericksen, Peter A Kish, Mary Beth Kolozsvary, Frank T Kuserk, Erin S Lindquist, Carol Mankiewicz, James G March, Timothy J Muir, K Greg Murray, Madeline N Santulli, Frank J Sicignano, Peter D Smallwood, Rebecca A Urban, Kathy Winnett-Murray, Craig R Zimmermann
Landscape-scale alterations that accompany urbanization may negatively affect the population structure of wildlife species such as freshwater turtles. Changes to nesting sites and higher mortality rates due to vehicular collisions and increased predator populations may particularly affect immature turtles and mature female turtles. We hypothesized that the proportions of adult female and immature turtles in a population will negatively correlate with landscape urbanization. As a collaborative effort of the Ecological Research as Education Network (EREN), we sampled freshwater turtle populations in 11 states across the central and eastern United States...
May 20, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780337/making-sense-of-biodiversity-the-affordances-of-systems-ecology
#7
REVIEW
Erik Andersson, Timon McPhearson
We see two related, but not well-linked fields that together could help us better understand biodiversity and how it, over time, provides benefits to people. The affordances approach in environmental psychology offers a way to understand our perceptual appraisal of landscapes and biodiversity and, to some extent, intentional choice or behavior, i.e., a way of relating the individual to the system s/he/it lives in. In the field of ecology, organism-specific functional traits are similarly understood as the physiological and behavioral characteristics of an organism that informs the way it interacts with its surroundings...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780172/a-spatially-integrated-framework-for-assessing-socioecological-drivers-of-carnivore-decline
#8
Nicolás Gálvez, Gurutzeta Guillera-Arroita, Freya A V St John, Elke Schüttler, David W Macdonald, Zoe G Davies
Habitat loss, fragmentation and degradation are key threats to the long-term persistence of carnivores, which are also susceptible to direct persecution by people. Integrating natural and social science methods to examine how habitat configuration/quality and human-predator relations may interact in space and time to effect carnivore populations within human-dominated landscapes will help prioritise conservation investment and action effectively.We propose a socioecological modelling framework to evaluate drivers of carnivore decline in landscapes where predators and people coexist...
May 2018: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777687/physiological-stress-responses-in-wild-asian-elephants-elephas-maximus-in-a-human-dominated-landscape-in-the-western-ghats-southern-india
#9
Sreedhar Vijayakrishnan, Mavatur Ananda Kumar, G Umapathy, Vinod Kumar, Anindya Sinha
Increasing anthropogenic pressures on forests, especially in the tropical regions of the world, have restricted several large mammalian species such as the Asian elephant to fragmented habitats within human-dominated landscapes. In this study, we assessed the effects of an anthropogenic landscape and its associated conflict with humans on the physiological stress responses displayed by Asian elephants in the Anamalai Hills of the Western Ghats mountains in south India. We have quantified faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) concentrations in focal individual elephants within and across herds, inhabiting both anthropogenic and natural habitats, and evaluated their physiological responses to different socio-ecological situations between November 2013 and April 2014...
May 16, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771923/invasion-complexity-at-large-spatial-scales-is-an-emergent-property-of-interactions-among-landscape-characteristics-and-invader-traits
#10
Ranjan Muthukrishnan, Adam S Davis, Nicholas R Jordan, James D Forester
Invasion potential should be part of the evaluation of candidate species for any species introduction. However, estimating invasion risks remains a challenging problem, particularly in complex landscapes. Certain plant traits are generally considered to increase invasive potential and there is an understanding that landscapes influence invasions dynamics, but little research has been done to explore how those drivers of invasions interact. We evaluate the relative roles of, and potential interactions between, plant invasiveness traits and landscape characteristics on invasions with a case study using a model parameterized for the potentially invasive biomass crop, Miscanthus × giganteus...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771321/associational-interactions-between-urban-trees-are-native-neighbors-better-than-non-natives
#11
Carl Scott Clem, David W Held
This project investigated associational interactions (associational resistance or susceptibility) between native and non-native trees commonly found in urban landscapes in the southeastern United States. Non-native plants offer limited ecological services because few native herbivore species are capable of feeding on them. In a 2-yr field study, abundance and species richness of caterpillars, plant damage, and herbivore natural enemies were evaluated in plots where a native red maple (Acer rubrum L. [Sapindales: Aceraceae]) was planted singly (no neighbors) or interplanted with either non-native non-congeneric crepe myrtles (Lagerstroemia indica L...
May 15, 2018: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767736/pollination-of-granadilla-passiflora-ligularis-benefits-from-large-wild-insects
#12
Catalina Gutiérrez-Chacón, Felix Fornoff, Rodulfo Ospina-Torres, Alexandra-Maria Klein
The contribution of wild pollinators to food production has recently been assessed for many crops, although it remains unclear for several tropical crops. Granadilla (Passiflora ligularis Juss), a crop native to the tropical Andes, is one such crop where a gap exists regarding comprehensive knowledge about its pollination system. In a field experiment in the Colombian Andes, we 1) describe flower visitors in terms of visit quantity (visitation rate) and quality (touches of flower-reproductive structures), 2) assess the pollination system by comparing fruit set and fruit weight per flower in three pollination treatments: pollinator exclusion, open pollination, and supplementary pollination, and 3) evaluate pollination deficits (difference between open and supplementary pollination) in relation to pollinator density...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757518/mosquito-species-composition-and-phenology-diptera-culicidae-in-two-german-zoological-gardens-imply-different-risks-of-mosquito-borne-pathogen-transmission
#13
Eva C Heym, Helge Kampen, Doreen Walther
Due to their large diversity of potential blood hosts, breeding habitats, and resting sites, zoological gardens represent highly interesting places to study mosquito ecology. In order to better assess the risk of mosquito-borne disease-agent transmission in zoos, potential vector species must be known, as well as the communities in which they occur. For this reason, species composition and dynamics were examined in 2016 in two zoological gardens in Germany. Using different methods for mosquito sampling, a total of 2,257 specimens belonging to 20 taxa were collected...
June 2018: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753225/losing-a-heritage-hedgerow-landscape-biocultural-diversity-conservation-in-a-changing-social-ecological-mediterranean-system
#14
Cecilia Arnaiz-Schmitz, Cristina Herrero-Jáuregui, María F Schmitz
Traditional rural landscapes host a biocultural heritage acquired by rural societies, developed in a secular adaptation with nature. Hedgerows play a key role in preserving biocultural diversity and associated ecosystem services. Despite their benefits, in some European regions inappropriate hedge management has led to a drastic degradation of hedgerows, with significant effects on natural and biocultural diversity, landscape connectivity and sustainable flow of ecosystem services. In Central Spain, an ancient hedgerow landscape constitutes a valuable natural and cultural heritage recognized by the establishment of different protection categories...
May 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752683/reconciling-farming-and-wild-nature-integrating-human-wildlife-coexistence-into-the-land-sharing-and-land-sparing-framework
#15
Silvio J Crespin, Javier A Simonetti
Land has traditionally been spared to protect biodiversity; however, this approach has not succeeded by itself and requires a complementary strategy in human-dominated landscapes: land-sharing. Human-wildlife conflicts are rampant in a land-sharing context where wildlife co-occur with crops or livestock, but whose resulting interactions adversely affect the wellbeing of land owners, ultimately impeding coexistence. Therefore, true land-sharing only works if coexistence is also considered an end goal. We reviewed the literature on land-sharing and found that conflicts have not yet found their way into the land-sharing/sparing framework, with wildlife and humans co-occurring without coexisting in a dynamic process...
May 11, 2018: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751427/assessment-of-rural-ecosystem-health-and-type-classification-in-jiangsu-province-china
#16
Lingran Meng, Jiu Huang, Jihong Dong
Quantitative analysis of rural ecosystem health (REH) is required to comprehend the spatial differentiation of rural landscape and promote rural sustainable development under the pressure of urbanization and industrialization, especially those with dramatic changes in rural ecology of China and other developing countries. In this study, taking Jiangsu province as the case study, appropriate indicators were selected in the perspective of compound ecosystem and the rural ecosystem health index (REHI) was developed including four rural ecological subsystems of resource, environmental, social and economic...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750075/the-orthopterans-of-the-rice-agroecosystem-in-western-lomellina-lombardy-italy
#17
Davide Giuliano, Giuseppe Bogliani
Rice fields represent a valuable surrogate habitat for many wetland species, playing an important role for biodiversity conservation in human-managed landscapes. Despite the fact that several taxonomic groups have been thoroughly investigated in this agroecosystem, little is known about the orthopteran fauna which lives in and around rice paddies, especially in Europe. In this paper, we provide a first description of the orthopteran assemblages hosted in the rice agroecosystems of northern Italy, trying to evaluate their conservation value through an analysis of species ecological traits (habitat specificity and dispersal capacity)...
2018: Biodiversity Data Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748822/vascular-plant-and-bryophyte-species-richness-in-response-to-water-quality-in-lowland-spring-niches-with-different-anthropogenic-impacts
#18
Katarzyna Puczko, Piotr Zieliński, Szymon Jusik, Anita Kołakowska, Elżbieta Jekatierynczuk-Rudczyk
Many freshwater ecosystems face severe threats from anthropogenic disturbances. In the field, we investigated the morphology of spring niches and the species richness of vascular plants and bryophytes in 16 springs, draining the quaternary aquifers, located in two different environments-an urban area (city of Białystok) and a protected area (Knyszyn Forest Landscape Park, NE Poland). In total, 47 vascular plant and 45 bryophyte species were recorded, representing mostly crenophytes including protected species...
May 10, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745204/-identification-of-the-cumulative-eco-environment-effect-of-coal-electricity-integration-based-on-interpretative-structural-model
#19
Lin Wei Han, Xiao Fu, Yan Yan, Chen Xing Wang, Gang Wu
In order to determine the cumulative eco-environmental effect of coal-electricity integration, we selected 29 eco-environmental factors including different development and construction activities of coal-electricity integration, soil, water, atmospheric conditions, biology, landscape, and ecology. Literature survey, expert questionnaire and interview were conducted to analyze the interactive relationships between different factors. The structure and correlations between the eco-environmental factors influenced by coal-electricity integration activities were analyzed using interpretive structural modeling (ISM) and the cumulative eco-environment effect of development and construction activities was determined...
May 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745203/-ecosystem-services-of-chongyi-hakka-terraces
#20
Jian Qun Miao, Zhi Qiang Wang, Wen Ting Yang, Song Sun, Guo Qin Huang
An economic evaluation of the main ecosystem services of Chongyi Hakka Terraces can help to demonstrate the contributions of the terrace system to Hakka society, on the basis of which the protection of Hakka Terrace system could be undertaken by the local government. In view of the social and economic characteristics of Chongyi Hakka Terrace ecosystem and its location, an index system was established to evaluate the service function, and a qualitative analysis was conducted for these functions and their importance...
May 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
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