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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212791/echinococcosis-control-and-prevention
#1
P S Craig, D Hegglin, M W Lightowlers, P R Torgerson, Q Wang
Human cystic echinococcosis (CE) has been eliminated or significantly reduced as a public health problem in several previously highly endemic regions. This has been achieved by the long-term application of prevention and control measures primarily targeted to deworming dogs, health education, meat inspection, and effective surveillance in livestock and human populations. Human CE, however, remains a serious neglected zoonotic disease in many resource-poor pastoral regions. The incidence of human alveolar echinococcosis (AE) has increased in continental Europe and is a major public health problem in parts of Eurasia...
2017: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211463/ecological-and-genetic-basis-of-metapopulation-persistence-of-the-glanville-fritillary-butterfly-in-fragmented-landscapes
#2
Ilkka Hanski, Torsti Schulz, Swee Chong Wong, Virpi Ahola, Annukka Ruokolainen, Sami P Ojanen
Ecologists are challenged to construct models of the biological consequences of habitat loss and fragmentation. Here, we use a metapopulation model to predict the distribution of the Glanville fritillary butterfly during 22 years across a large heterogeneous landscape with 4,415 small dry meadows. The majority (74%) of the 125 networks into which the meadows were clustered are below the extinction threshold for long-term persistence. Among the 33 networks above the threshold, spatial configuration and habitat quality rather than the pooled habitat area predict metapopulation size and persistence, but additionally allelic variation in a SNP in the gene Phosphoglucose isomerase (Pgi) explains 30% of variation in metapopulation size...
February 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211249/improving-the-interpretability-of-climate-landscape-metrics-an-ecological-risk-analysis-of-japan-s-marine-protected-areas
#3
Jorge García Molinos, Shintaro Takao, Naoki H Kumagai, Elvira S Poloczanska, Michael T Burrows, Masahiko Fujii, Hiroya Yamano
Conservation efforts strive to protect significant swaths of terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems from a range of threats. As climate change becomes an increasing concern, these efforts must take into account how resilient protected spaces will be in the face of future drivers of change such as warming temperatures. Climate landscape metrics, which signal the spatial magnitude and direction of climate change, support a convenient initial assessment of potential threats to and opportunities within ecosystems to inform conservation and policy efforts where biological data are not available...
February 17, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211141/potential-relocation-of-climatic-environments-suggests-high-rates-of-climate-displacement-within-the-north-american-protection-network
#4
Enric Batllori, Marc-André Parisien, Sean A Parks, Max A Moritz, Carol Miller
Ongoing climate change may undermine the effectiveness of protected area networks in preserving the set of biotic components and ecological processes they harbor, thereby jeopardizing their conservation capacity into the future. Metrics of climate change, particularly rates and spatial patterns of climatic alteration, can help assess potential threats. Here, we perform a continent-wide climate change vulnerability assessment whereby we compare the baseline climate of the protected area network in North America (Canada, USA, México - NAM) to the projected end-of-century climate (2071-2100)...
February 17, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210894/expansion-of-sugarcane-monoculture-associated-impacts-and-management-measures-in-the-semi-arid-east-african-rift-valley-ethiopia
#5
Solomon A Beza, Mohammed A Assen
The study examined the expansion of sugarcane monoculture over the period 1957-2010 and its implications for land degradation and land management measures in the semi-arid northern Main Ethiopian Rift Valley. It used multi-scale and multi-temporal imageries aided by qualitative surveying to investigate the dynamics of land use and cover changes. The study applied both a pixel-based supervised classification and feature extraction methods at subclass levels and merged them into major compatible and comparable land use and cover groups...
March 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209969/solution-of-the-spatial-neutral-model-yields-new-bounds-on-the-amazonian-species-richness
#6
Yahav Shem-Tov, Matan Danino, Nadav M Shnerb
Neutral models, in which individual agents with equal fitness undergo a birth-death-mutation process, are very popular in population genetics and community ecology. Usually these models are applied to populations and communities with spatial structure, but the analytic results presented so far are limited to well-mixed or mainland-island scenarios. Here we combine analytic results and numerics to obtain an approximate solution for the species abundance distribution and the species richness for the neutral model on continuous landscape...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205107/tree-biomass-in-the-swiss-landscape-nationwide-modelling-for-improved-accounting-for-forest-and-non-forest-trees
#7
B Price, A Gomez, L Mathys, O Gardi, A Schellenberger, C Ginzler, E Thürig
Trees outside forest (TOF) can perform a variety of social, economic and ecological functions including carbon sequestration. However, detailed quantification of tree biomass is usually limited to forest areas. Taking advantage of structural information available from stereo aerial imagery and airborne laser scanning (ALS), this research models tree biomass using national forest inventory data and linear least-square regression and applies the model both inside and outside of forest to create a nationwide model for tree biomass (above ground and below ground)...
March 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204868/specific-vicariance-of-two-primeval-lowland-forest-lichen-indicators
#8
Dariusz Kubiak, Piotr Osyczka
To date, the lichens Chrysothrix candelaris and Varicellaria hemisphaerica have been classified as accurate primeval lowland forest indicators. Both inhabit particularly valuable remnants of oak-hornbeam forests in Europe, but tend toward a specific kind of vicariance on a local scale. The present study was undertaken to determine habitat factors responsible for this phenomenon and verify the indicative and conservation value of these lichens. The main spatial and climatic parameters that, along with forest structure, potentially affect their distribution patterns and abundance were analysed in four complexes with typical oak-hornbeam stands in NE Poland...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195419/migratory-flight-behaviour-of-the-pollen-beetle-meligethes-aeneus
#9
Alice L Mauchline, Sam M Cook, Wilf Powell, Jason W Chapman, Juliet L Osborne
BACKGROUND: The field ecology of the pollen beetle Meligethes aeneus and its damaging effects on oilseed rape crops are well understood. However, the flight behaviour of M. aeneus, in particular the drivers for migratory movements across the landscape, is not well studied. We combined three established methodologies; suction traps, vertical-looking radar and high-altitude aerial netting to demonstrate that M. aeneus fly at a range of altitudes at different points during its active season...
February 13, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195346/herbivore-induced-plant-volatiles-and-tritrophic-interactions-across-spatial-scales
#10
Yavanna Aartsma, Felix J J A Bianchi, Wopke van der Werf, Erik H Poelman, Marcel Dicke
Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) are an important cue used in herbivore location by carnivorous arthropods such as parasitoids. The effects of plant volatiles on parasitoids have been well characterised at small spatial scales, but little research has been done on their effects at larger spatial scales. The spatial matrix of volatiles ('volatile mosaic') within which parasitoids locate their hosts is dynamic and heterogeneous. It is shaped by the spatial pattern of HIPV-emitting plants, the concentration, chemical composition and breakdown of the emitted HIPV blends, and by environmental factors such as wind, turbulence and vegetation that affect transport and mixing of odour plumes...
February 14, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193289/microgeographical-structure-in-the-major-neotropical-malaria-vector-anopheles-darlingi-using-microsatellites-and-snp-markers
#11
Melina Campos, Jan E Conn, Diego Peres Alonso, Joseph M Vinetz, Kevin J Emerson, Paulo Eduardo Martins Ribolla
BACKGROUND: In recent decades, throughout the Amazon Basin, landscape modification contributing to profound ecological change has proceeded at an unprecedented rate. Deforestation that accompanies human activities can significantly change aspects of anopheline biology, though this may be site-specific. Such local changes in anopheline biology could have a great impact on malaria transmission. The aim of this study was to investigate population genetics of the main malaria vector in Brazil, Anopheles darlingi, from a microgeographical perspective...
February 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190573/stable-sulfur-isotopes-identify-habitat-specific-foraging-and-mercury-exposure-in-a-highly-mobile-fish-community
#12
Meghan K Carr, Timothy D Jardine, Lorne E Doig, Paul D Jones, Lalita Bharadwaj, Brett Tendler, John Chételat, Pete Cott, Karl-Erich Lindenschmidt
Tracking the uptake and transfer of toxic chemicals, such as mercury (Hg), in aquatic systems is challenging when many top predators are highly mobile and may therefore be exposed to chemicals in areas other than their location of capture, confounding interpretation of bioaccumulation trends. Here we show how the application of a less commonly used ecological tracer, stable sulfur isotope ratios ((34)S/(32)S, or δ(34)S), in a large river-delta-lake complex in northern Canada allows differentiation of resident from migrant fishes, beyond what was possible with more conventional (13)C/(12)C and (15)N/(14)N measurements...
February 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188969/interpreting-beta-diversity-components-over-time-to-conserve-metacommunities-in-highly-dynamic-ecosystems
#13
Albert Ruhí, Thibault Datry, John L Sabo
The concept of 'metacommunity', or a set of local communities linked by dispersal, has gained great popularity among community ecologists over the last decade. However, whereas metacommunity research mostly addresses questions on spatial biodiversity patterns at the regional scale, conservation planning requires quantifying temporal variation in those metacommunities, and the contributions that individual (local) habitats make to regional dynamics. Here we propose that recent advances in diversity partitioning methods may allow for a better understanding of metacommunity dynamics and for the identification of keystone habitats...
February 11, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188416/keystone-species-forest-and-landscape-a-model-to-select-protected-areas
#14
Daniela Barbosa da Silva Lins, Fernando Ravanini Gardon, João Frederico da Costa Azevedo Meyer, Rozely Ferreira Dos Santos
The selection of forest fragments for conservation is usually based on spatial parameters as forest size and canopy integrity. This strategy assumes that chosen fragments present high conservation status, ensuring biodiversity and ecological functions. We argue that a well-preserved forest fragment that remains connected by the landscape structure, does not necessarily hold attributes that ensure the presence of keystone species. We also discuss that the presence of keystone species does not always mean that it has the best conditions for its occurrence and maintenance...
February 10, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180140/land-use-and-land-cover-data-changes-in-indian-ocean-islands-case-study-of-unguja-in-zanzibar-island
#15
Sizah Mwalusepo, Eliud Muli, Asha Faki, Suresh Raina
Land use and land cover changes will continue to affect resilient human communities and ecosystems as a result of climate change. However, an assessment of land use and land cover changes over time in Indian Ocean Islands is less documented. The land use/cover data changes over 10 years at smaller geographical scale across Unguja Island in Zanzibar were analyzed. Downscaling of the data was obtained from SERVIR through partnership with Kenya-based Regional Centre for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD) database (http://www...
April 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179522/landscape-context-alters-cost-of-living-in-honeybee-metabolism-and-feeding
#16
Sean Tomlinson, Kingsley W Dixon, Raphael K Didham, S Donald Bradshaw
Field metabolic rate (FMR) links the energy budget of an animal with the constraints of its ecosystem, but is particularly difficult to measure for small organisms. Landscape degradation exacerbates environmental adversity and reduces resource availability, imposing higher costs of living for many organisms. Here, we report a significant effect of landscape degradation on the FMR of free-flying Apis mellifera, estimated using (86)Rb radio-isotopic turnover. We validated the relationship between (86)Rb kb and metabolic rate for worker bees in the laboratory using flow-through respirometry...
February 8, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174661/movement-patterns-of-a-keystone-waterbird-species-are-highly-predictable-from-landscape-configuration
#17
Erik Kleyheeg, Jacintha G B van Dijk, Despina Tsopoglou-Gkina, Tara Y Woud, Dieuwertje K Boonstra, Bart A Nolet, Merel B Soons
BACKGROUND: Movement behaviour is fundamental to the ecology of animals and their interactions with other organisms, and as such contributes to ecosystem dynamics. Waterfowl are key players in ecological processes in wetlands and surrounding habitats through predator-prey interactions and their transportation of nutrients and other organisms. Understanding the drivers of their movement behaviour is crucial to predict how environmental changes affect their role in ecosystem functioning...
2017: Movement Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169468/modeling-individual-movement-decisions-of-brown-hare-lepus-europaeus-as-a-key-concept-for-realistic-spatial-behavior-and-exposure-a-population-model-for-landscape-level-risk-assessment
#18
Joachim U Kleinmann, Magnus Wang
Spatial behavior is of crucial importance for the risk assessment of pesticides and for the assessment of effects of agricultural practice or multiple stressors, because it determines field use, exposition and recovery. Recently, population models have increasingly been used to understand the mechanisms driving risk and recovery or to conduct landscape level risk assessments. To include spatial behavior appropriately in population models for use in risk assessments a new method, "probabilistic walk", was developed, which simulates the detailed daily movement of individuals by taking food resources, vegetation cover and presence of conspecifics, into account...
February 7, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160782/assessment-of-wetland-hydrological-dynamics-in-a-modified-catchment-basin-case-of-lake-buninjon-victoria-australia
#19
Yohannes Yihdego, John A Webb
  The common method to estimate lake levels is the water balance equation, where water input and output result in lake storage and water level changes. However, all water balance components cannot always be quickly assessed, such as due to significant modification of the catchment area. A method that assesses general changes in lake level can be a useful tool in examining why lakes have different lake level variation patterns. Assessment of wetlands using the dynamics of the historical hydrological and hydrogeological data set can provide important insights into variations in wetland levels in different parts of the world...
February 1, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146570/temporal-and-spatial-scales-matter-circannual-habitat-selection-by-bird-communities-in-vineyards
#20
Claire Guyot, Raphaël Arlettaz, Pius Korner, Alain Jacot
Vineyards are likely to be regionally important for wildlife, but we lack biodiversity studies in this agroecosystem which is undergoing a rapid management revolution. As vine cultivation is restricted to arid and warm climatic regions, biodiversity-friendly management would promote species typical of southern biomes. Vineyards are often intensively cultivated, mostly surrounded by few natural features and offering a fairly mineral appearance with little ground vegetation cover. Ground vegetation cover and composition may further strongly vary with respect to season, influencing patterns of habitat selection by ecological communities...
2017: PloS One
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