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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550727/multiple-remote-sensing-data-sources-to-assess-spatio-temporal-patterns-of-fire-incidence-over-campos-amaz%C3%A3-nicos-savanna-vegetation-enclave-brazilian-amazon
#1
Daniel Borini Alves, Fernando Pérez-Cabello
Fire activity plays an important role in the past, present and future of Earth system behavior. Monitoring and assessing spatial and temporal fire dynamics have a fundamental relevance in the understanding of ecological processes and the human impacts on different landscapes and multiple spatial scales. This work analyzes the spatio-temporal distribution of burned areas in one of the biggest savanna vegetation enclaves in the southern Brazilian Amazon, from 2000 to 2016, deriving information from multiple remote sensing data sources (Landsat and MODIS surface reflectance, TRMM pluviometry and Vegetation Continuous Field tree cover layers)...
May 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540440/from-product-to-place-spatializing-governance-in-a-commodified-landscape
#2
Cora van Oosten, Moira Moeliono, Freerk Wiersum
This article analyzes the potential for landscape governance in large-scale commodity landscapes in Indonesia. It conceptualizes landscape governance as the spatialization of governance, which entails the interplay between natural-spatial conditions of place, public-private actor constellations, and policy responses. The article presents the case of a commodified oil palm landscape in West Kalimantan, where a potentially new type of landscape governance is emerging out of the experimental activities of an ecologically responsible commercial enterprise...
May 24, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531955/influence-of-sediment-chemistry-and-sediment-toxicity-on-macroinvertebrate-communities-across-99-wadable-streams-of-the-midwestern-usa
#3
Patrick W Moran, Lisa H Nowell, Nile E Kemble, Barbara J Mahler, Ian R Waite, Peter C Van Metre
Simultaneous assessment of sediment chemistry, sediment toxicity, and macroinvertebrate communities can provide multiple lines of evidence when investigating relations between sediment contaminants and ecological degradation. These three measures were evaluated at 99 wadable stream sites across 11 states in the Midwestern United States during the summer of 2013 to assess sediment pollution across a large agricultural landscape. This evaluation considers an extensive suite of sediment chemistry totaling 274 analytes (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, trace elements, and current-use pesticides) and a mixture assessment based on the ratios of detected compounds to available effects-based benchmarks...
May 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530509/genotyping-toxoplasma-gondii-with-the-b1-gene-in-naturally-infected-sheep-from-an-endemic-region-in-the-pacific-coast-of-mexico
#4
Williams Arony Martínez-Flores, José Manuel Palma-García, Heriberto Caballero-Ortega, Alejandra Del Viento-Camacho, Eduardo López-Escamilla, Fernando Martínez-Hernández, Pablo Vinuesa, Dolores Correa, Pablo Maravilla
Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite with a broad ecological valence, which has been detected in a wide range of hosts and landscapes. Although the genus is considered monospecific, in recent years it has been demonstrated to exhibit more genetic variability than previously known. In Mexico, there are few genotyping studies, which suggest that classical, autochthonous, and atypical strains are circulating. The goal of this study was to describe T. gondii genetic diversity in naturally infected sheep from Colima, Mexico...
May 22, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508077/resilience-offers-escape-from-trapped-thinking-on-poverty-alleviation
#5
REVIEW
Steven J Lade, L Jamila Haider, Gustav Engström, Maja Schlüter
The poverty trap concept strongly influences current research and policy on poverty alleviation. Financial or technological inputs intended to "push" the rural poor out of a poverty trap have had many successes but have also failed unexpectedly with serious ecological and social consequences that can reinforce poverty. Resilience thinking can help to (i) understand how these failures emerge from the complex relationships between humans and the ecosystems on which they depend and (ii) navigate diverse poverty alleviation strategies, such as transformative change, that may instead be required...
May 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506317/changes-in-microbial-ecology-after-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-recurrent-c-difficile-infection-affected-by-underlying-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#6
Sahil Khanna, Yoshiki Vazquez-Baeza, Antonio González, Sophie Weiss, Bradley Schmidt, David A Muñiz-Pedrogo, John F Rainey, Patricia Kammer, Heidi Nelson, Michael Sadowsky, Alexander Khoruts, Stefan L Farrugia, Rob Knight, Darrell S Pardi, Purna C Kashyap
BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota play a key role in maintaining homeostasis in the human gut. Alterations in the gut microbial ecosystem predispose to Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and gut inflammatory disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from a healthy donor can restore gut microbial diversity and pathogen colonization resistance; consequently, it is now being investigated for its ability to improve inflammatory gut conditions such as IBD...
May 15, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498334/pastoralism-versus-agriculturalism-how-do-altered-land-use-forms-affect-the-spread-of-invasive-plants-in-the-degraded-mutara-rangelands-of-north-eastern-rwanda
#7
Torsten Wronski, Jean Damascene Bariyanga, Ping Sun, Martin Plath, Ann Apio
Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae) originates from tropical Central and South America and has become invasive in about 50 countries. It causes problems when invading rangelands due to its toxicity to livestock and its tendency to form dense, monotonous thickets. Its invasiveness can partly be explained by the high tannin content largely protecting the species from being browsed, its tolerance to a wide range of environmental conditions, as well as its general preference for anthropogenically disturbed habitats...
May 12, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495494/unlimited-niche-packing-in-a-lotka-volterra-competition-game
#8
Ross Cressman, Abdel Halloway, Gordon G McNickle, Joe Apaloo, Joel S Brown, Thomas L Vincent
A central question in the study of ecology and evolution is: "Why are there so many species?" It has been shown that certain forms of the Lotka-Volterra (L-V) competition equations lead to an unlimited number of species. Furthermore, these authors note how any change in the nature of competition (the competition kernel) leads to a finite or small number of coexisting species. Here we build upon these works by further investigating the L-V model of unlimited niche packing as a reference model and evolutionary game for understanding the environmental factors restricting biodiversity...
May 8, 2017: Theoretical Population Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494421/forest-protected-areas-governance-in-zimbabwe-shift-needed-away-from-a-long-history-of-local-community-exclusion
#9
V T Mutekwa, J Gambiza
In this literature review based paper we explored the concept of exclusion of local communities from accessing resources in forest protected areas (FPAs) in Zimbabwe. We discussed the colonial and post-colonial forms, causes and mechanisms of exclusion and their social, economic and ecological outcomes. We examined the range of powers embodied in and exercised through various mechanisms, processes and social relations and their impact on local communities' access to FPA resources and associated benefits along the historical trajectory of forest governance in Zimbabwe...
May 7, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494004/increasing-land-use-intensity-reverses-the-relative-occupancy-of-two-quadrupedal-scavengers
#10
Joshua P Twining, Henry Bernard, Robert M Ewers
Human land use is continuously altering the natural environment, yet the greater ecological implications of this change for many groups that are key to healthy ecosystem functioning remains uncharacterised in the tropics. Terrestrial scavenging vertebrates are one such group, providing integral ecosystem services through the removal of carrion which is a crucial component of both nutrient cycling and disease dynamics. To explore how anthropogenic processes may affect forest scavengers, we investigated the changes in the relative occupancy of two important terrestrial scavengers along a gradient of land use intensity, ranging from protected forest to oil palm plantation in Borneo...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493999/leopard-in-a-tea-cup-a-study-of-leopard-habitat-use-and-human-leopard-interactions-in-north-eastern-india
#11
Aritra Kshettry, Srinivas Vaidyanathan, Vidya Athreya
There is increasing evidence of the importance of multi-use landscapes for the conservation of large carnivores. However, when carnivore ranges overlap with high density of humans, there are often serious conservation challenges. This is especially true in countries like India where loss of peoples' lives and property to large wildlife are not uncommon. The leopard (Panthera pardus) is a large felid that is widespread in India, often sharing landscapes with high human densities. In order to understand the ecology of leopards in a human use landscape and the nature of human-leopard interactions, we studied (i) the spatial and temporal distribution and the characteristics of leopard attacks on people, (ii) the spatial variability in the pattern of habitat use by the leopard, and (iii) the spatial relationship between attack locations and habitat use by leopards...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493017/ecological-equivalence-assessment-methods-what-trade-offs-between-operationality-scientific-basis-and-comprehensiveness
#12
Lucie Bezombes, Stéphanie Gaucherand, Christian Kerbiriou, Marie-Eve Reinert, Thomas Spiegelberger
In many countries, biodiversity compensation is required to counterbalance negative impacts of development projects on biodiversity by carrying out ecological measures, called offset when the goal is to reach "no net loss" of biodiversity. One main issue is to ensure that offset gains are equivalent to impact-related losses. Ecological equivalence is assessed with ecological equivalence assessment methods taking into account a range of key considerations that we summarized as ecological, spatial, temporal, and uncertainty...
May 10, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488295/a-global-synthesis-of-the-effects-of-diversified-farming-systems-on-arthropod-diversity-within-fields-and-across-agricultural-landscapes
#13
Elinor M Lichtenberg, Christina M Kennedy, Claire Kremen, Péter Batáry, Frank Berendse, Riccardo Bommarco, Nilsa A Bosque-Pérez, Luísa G Carvalheiro, William E Snyder, Neal M Williams, Rachael Winfree, Björn K Klatt, Sandra Åström, Faye Benjamin, Claire Brittain, Rebecca Chaplin-Kramer, Yann Clough, Bryan Danforth, Tim Diekötter, Sanford D Eigenbrode, Johan Ekroos, Elizabeth Elle, Breno M Freitas, Yuki Fukuda, Hannah R Gaines-Day, Heather Grab, Claudio Gratton, Andrea Holzschuh, Rufus Isaacs, Marco Isaia, Shalene Jha, Dennis Jonason, Vincent P Jones, Alexandra-Maria Klein, Jochen Krauss, Deborah K Letourneau, Sarina Macfadyen, Rachel E Mallinger, Emily A Martin, Eliana Martinez, Jane Memmott, Lora Morandin, Lisa Neame, Mark Otieno, Mia G Park, Lukas Pfiffner, Michael J O Pocock, Carlos Ponce, Simon G Potts, Katja Poveda, Mariangie Ramos, Jay A Rosenheim, Maj Rundlöf, Hillary Sardiñas, Manu E Saunders, Nicole L Schon, Amber R Sciligo, C Sheena Sidhu, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter, Teja Tscharntke, Milan Veselý, Wolfgang W Weisser, Julianna K Wilson, David W Crowder
Agricultural intensification is a leading cause of global biodiversity loss, which can reduce the provisioning of ecosystem services in managed ecosystems. Organic farming and plant diversification are farm management schemes that may mitigate potential ecological harm by increasing species richness and boosting related ecosystem services to agroecosystems. What remains unclear is the extent to which farm management schemes affect biodiversity components other than species richness, and whether impacts differ across spatial scales and landscape contexts...
May 10, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487260/pinpointing-cryptic-borders-fine-scale-phylogeography-and-genetic-landscape-analysis-of-the-hormogaster-elisae-complex-oligochaeta-hormogastridae
#14
Daniel F Marchán, Rosa Fernández, Irene de Sosa, Darío J Díaz Cosín, Marta Novo
Spatial and temporal aspects of the evolution of cryptic species complexes have received less attention than species delimitation within them. The phylogeography of the cryptic complex Hormogaster elisae (Oligochaeta, Hormogastridae) lacks knowledge on several aspects, including the small-scale distribution of its lineages or the palaeogeographic context of their diversification. To shed light on these topics, a dense specimen collection was performed in the center of the Iberian Peninsula - resulting in 28 new H...
May 6, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483864/multiple-extreme-climatic-events-strengthen-selection-for-earlier-breeding-in-a-wild-passerine
#15
Pascal Marrot, Dany Garant, Anne Charmantier
Global climate warming results in an increase in mean temperatures and in the frequency of extreme climatic events (ECEs), which could both strongly impact ecosystems and populations. Most studies assessing the impact of global warming on ecosystems have focused on warming trends while neglecting ECEs. In particular, the effects of multiple ECEs on fitness, and their consequences for selection, are still missing. Here we explored the effects of daily extreme rainfalls, as well as the occurrence of extremely hot and cold days, on clutch size and laying date in a wild blue tit population (Cyanistes caeruleus) monitored over 25 years...
June 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480629/drivers-of-tree-fecundity-in-pedunculate-oak-quercus-robur-refugial-populations-at-the-species-southwestern-range-margin
#16
Eva Moracho, Pedro Jordano, Arndt Hampe
RATIONALE: The current low-latitudinal range margins of many extra-tropical plant species consist of small and scattered populations that persist locally in microrefugia. It remains poorly understood how their refugial distribution affects mating patterns and reproductive success. Here we examine flower and acorn production and their determinants in refugial populations of the widespread European forest tree Pedunculate oak (Quercus robur). METHODS: We monitored male flower, female flower and acorn production in 159 adult trees from 12 oak stands over two years...
May 8, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480011/predicting-drought-tolerance-from-slope-aspect-preference-in-restored-plant-communities
#17
Sarah Kimball, Megan E Lulow, Kathleen R Balazs, Travis E Huxman
Plants employ strategies of tolerance, endurance, and avoidance to cope with aridity in space and time, yet understanding the differential importance of such strategies in determining patterns of abundance across a heterogeneous landscape is a challenge. Are the species abundant in drier microhabitats also better able to survive drought? Are there relationships among occupied sites and temporal dynamics that derive from physiological capacities to cope with stress or dormancy during unfavorable periods? We used a restoration project conducted on two slope aspects in a subwatershed to test whether species that were more abundant on more water-limited S-facing slopes were also better able to survive an extreme drought...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480006/watershed-characteristics-shape-the-landscape-genetics-of-brook-stickleback-culaea-inconstans-in-shallow-prairie-lakes
#18
Cory S Kremer, Steven M Vamosi, Sean M Rogers
Investigating the consequences of landscape features on population genetic patterns is increasingly important to elucidate the ecological factors governing connectivity between populations and predicting the evolutionary consequences of landscapes. Small prairie lakes in Alberta, Canada, and the brook stickleback (Culaea inconstans) that inhabit them, provide a unique aquatic system whereby populations are highly isolated from one another. These heterogeneous and extreme environments are prone to winterkills, an event whereby most of the fish die and frequent bottlenecks occur...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480004/creating-multithemed-ecological-regions-for-macroscale-ecology-testing-a-flexible-repeatable-and-accessible-clustering%C3%A2-method
#19
Kendra Spence Cheruvelil, Shuai Yuan, Katherine E Webster, Pang-Ning Tan, Jean-François Lapierre, Sarah M Collins, C Emi Fergus, Caren E Scott, Emily Norton Henry, Patricia A Soranno, Christopher T Filstrup, Tyler Wagner
Understanding broad-scale ecological patterns and processes often involves accounting for regional-scale heterogeneity. A common way to do so is to include ecological regions in sampling schemes and empirical models. However, most existing ecological regions were developed for specific purposes, using a limited set of geospatial features and irreproducible methods. Our study purpose was to: (1) describe a method that takes advantage of recent computational advances and increased availability of regional and global data sets to create customizable and reproducible ecological regions, (2) make this algorithm available for use and modification by others studying different ecosystems, variables of interest, study extents, and macroscale ecology research questions, and (3) demonstrate the power of this approach for the research question-How well do these regions capture regional-scale variation in lake water quality? To achieve our purpose we: (1) used a spatially constrained spectral clustering algorithm that balances geospatial homogeneity and region contiguity to create ecological regions using multiple terrestrial, climatic, and freshwater geospatial data for 17 northeastern U...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475906/watershed-influences-on-the-structure-and-function-of-riparian-wetlands-associated-with-headwater-streams-kenai-peninsula-alaska
#20
D F Whigham, C M Walker, J Maurer, R S King, W Hauser, S Baird, J A Keuskamp, P J Neale
Riparian wetlands are dynamic components of landscapes. Located between uplands and aquatic environments, riparian habitats intercept sediments and nutrients before they enter aquatic environments. They are a source of organic matter and nutrients to aquatic systems, and they provide important habitat for animals, often serving as corridors for the movement of animals between habitats in fragmented landscapes. In this project, we focused on the structure and function of riparian wetlands associated with headwater streams in Alaska that serve as nursery habitats for juvenile salmonids...
May 2, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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