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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811082/correlation-between-molecular-analysis-diagnosis-according-to-the-2015-who-classification-of-unresected-lung-tumours-and-ttf1-expression-in-small-biopsies-and-cytology-specimens-from-344-non-small-cell-lung-carcinoma-patients
#1
Prudence A Russell, Toni-Maree Rogers, Benjamin Solomon, Naveed Alam, Stephen A Barnett, Vivek Rathi, Richard A Williams, Gavin M Wright, Matthew Conron
We investigated correlations between diagnosis according to the 2015 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of unresected lung tumours, molecular analysis and TTF1 expression in small biopsy and cytology specimens from 344 non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patients. One case failed testing for EGFR, KRAS and ALK abnormalities and six had insufficient tumour for ALK testing. Overall mutation rate in 343 cases was 48% for the genes tested, with 19% EGFR, 33% KRAS and 4% BRAF mutations, and 5% ALK rearrangements detected...
August 12, 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810605/microrna-19a-promotes-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-by-targeting-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-receptor-2
#2
Fang Ma, Zhiyuan Wang, Jingjing Wang, Xianling Liu, Chunhong Hu
MicroRNA (miR), a class of small non-coding RNA, function as key regulators in gene expression through directly binding to the 3' untranslated region of their target mRNA, which further leads to translational repression or mRNA degradation. miR-19a, a member of miR-17-92 cluster, has an oncogenic role in a variety of malignant tumors. However, the exact role of miR-19a in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has not previously been studied. The present study aimed to investigate the function and mechanism of miR-19a in regulating the viability and invasion of NPC cells...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807841/racial-disparity-in-gastrointestinal-cancer-risk
#3
REVIEW
Hassan Ashktorab, Sonia S Kupfer, Hassan Brim, John M Carethers
Cancer from the gastrointestinal tract and its associated excretory organs will occur in over 300,000 Americans in 2017, with colorectal cancer responsible for over forty percent of that burden; there will be over 150,000 deaths from this group of cancers in the same time period. Disparities among subgroups related to these cancers' incidence and mortality exist. The epidemiology and risk factors associated with each cancer bear out differences for racial groups in the United States. Esophageal adenocarcinoma is more frequent in Non-Hispanic Whites, whereas esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with risk factors of tobacco and alcohol is more frequent among Blacks...
August 11, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807337/evaluation-of-cd43-expression-in-non-hematopoietic-malignancies
#4
Bjorn H Batdorf, Steven H Kroft, Paul R Hosking, Alexandra M Harrington, Alexander C Mackinnon, Horatiu Olteanu
OBJECTIVES: CD43 is normally expressed only on the surface of leukocytes, and is considered a sensitive and specific marker for hematologic malignancies. As such, it may have diagnostic utility in confirming hematolymphoid lineage in cases that are negative for CD45. Aberrant CD43 expression has been described in non-hematopoietic tumors, although literature data on this topic is variable and sometimes contradictory. To clarify and expand on existing literature findings, we evaluated CD43 expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in a large cohort (307) of non-hematopoietic neoplasms, including poorly differentiated malignancies...
August 2017: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806116/systemic-therapy-for-stage-iv-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-american-society-of-clinical-oncology-clinical-practice-guideline-update
#5
Nasser Hanna, David Johnson, Sarah Temin, Sherman Baker, Julie Brahmer, Peter M Ellis, Giuseppe Giaccone, Paul J Hesketh, Ishmael Jaiyesimi, Natasha B Leighl, Gregory J Riely, Joan H Schiller, Bryan J Schneider, Thomas J Smith, Joan Tashbar, William A Biermann, Gregory Masters
Purpose Provide evidence-based recommendations updating the 2015 ASCO guideline on systemic therapy for patients with stage IV non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods The ASCO NSCLC Expert Panel made recommendations based on a systematic review of randomized controlled trials from February 2014 to December 2016 plus the Cancer Care Ontario Program in Evidence-Based Care's update of a previous ASCO search. Results This guideline update reflects changes in evidence since the previous guideline update. Fourteen randomized controlled trials provide the evidence base; earlier phase trials also informed recommendation development...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805682/alk-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-nsclc-pathobiology-epidemiology-detection-from-tumor-tissue-and-algorithm-diagnosis-in-a-daily-practice
#6
REVIEW
Paul Hofman
Patients with advanced-stage non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) harboring an ALK rearrangement, detected from a tissue sample, can benefit from targeted ALK inhibitor treatment. Several increasingly effective ALK inhibitors are now available for treatment of patients. However, despite an initial favorable response to treatment, in most cases relapse or progression occurs due to resistance mechanisms mainly caused by mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of ALK. The detection of an ALK rearrangement is pivotal and can be done using different methods, which have variable sensitivity and specificity depending, in particular, on the quality and quantity of the patient's sample...
August 12, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805673/alk-status-assessment-with-liquid-biopsies-of-lung-cancer-patients
#7
REVIEW
Paul Hofman
Patients with advanced stage non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) harboring an anaplastic lymphoma kinase ALK gene rearrangement, detected from a tissue sample, can benefit from targeted ALK inhibitor treatment. However, while treatment is initially effective in most cases, relapse or progression occurs due to different resistance mechanisms including mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML44)-ALK. The liquid biopsy concept has recently radically changed the clinical care of NSCLC patients, in particular for those harboring an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutation...
August 12, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804548/overexpression-of-pten-suppresses-non-small-cell-lung-carcinoma-metastasis-through-inhibition-of-integrin-%C3%AE-v%C3%AE-6-signaling
#8
Yan Xia Yu, Yi Wang, Hong Liu
Studies have demonstrated that the abnormal expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is associated with multiple malignancies, but its functional role in non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) metastasis remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the role of PTEN in regulating proliferation, migration, and invasion of NSCLC cells by establishing NSCLC cell strains with constitutively silenced or elevated PTEN expression. We demonstrated that ectopic expression of PTEN inhibits migration and invasion of NSCLC cells in vitro through wound healing and Transwell invasion assays...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802669/studies-on-the-dynamic-resolution-of-crizotinib-intermediate
#9
Alexandre da S de França, Marcus V M Silva, Rebeca V Neves, Stefania P de Souza, Raquel A C Leão, Carlos M Monteiro, Ângelo Rocha, Carlos A M Afonso, Rodrigo O M A de Souza
Crizotinib is an anti-cancer agent approved for treatment of non-small cell lung carcinoma. Retrosynthetic analysis revels 1-(2,6-dichloro-3-fluorophenyl)ethanol as an important intermediate, which can be made available by different biocatalytic approaches. Herein we report our results on the kinetic and dynamic resolution towards the desired chiral intermediate for Crizotinib synthesis. The results obtained show that very good conversions and high selectivity could be obtained for the kinetic resolution (45% conv...
July 21, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802022/microrna-492-overexpression-involves-in-cell-proliferation-migration-and-radiotherapy-response-of-cervical-squamous-cell-carcinomas
#10
Mei Liu, Jusheng An, Manni Huang, Liming Wang, Binbin Tu, Yan Song, Kai Ma, Yu Wang, Shuren Wang, Hongxia Zhu, Ningzhi Xu, Lingying Wu
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA that target protein-coding mRNAs at the post-transcriptional level. The aim of this study was to define the role of miR-492 in cervical squamous cell carcinomas. After microRNA profiling and comparison, we firstly detected miR-492 expression in 104 tumor tissues biopsies derived from advanced staged (FIGO IIB-IIIB) cervical squamous cell carcinoma patients before receiving concomitant chemoradiotherapy and found miR-492 expression was significantly higher in the specimens that were sensitive to concomitant chemoradiotherapy, as compared with insensitive cancer specimens (p < 0...
August 12, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801308/egfr-mutations-compromise-hypoxia-associated-radiation-resistance-through-impaired-replication-fork-associated-dna-damage-repair
#11
Mohammad Saki, Haruhiko Makino, Prashanthi Javvadi, Nozomi Tomimatsu, Lianghao Ding, Jennifer E Clark, Elaine Gavin, Kenichi Takeda, Joel Andrews, Debabrata Saha, Michael D Story, Sandeep Burma, Chaitanya Nirodi
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling has been implicated in hypoxia-associated resistance to radiation or chemotherapy. Non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC) with activating L858R or ΔE746-E750 EGFR mutations exhibit elevated EGFR activity and downstream signaling. Here, relative to wild type (WT) EGFR, mutant (MT) EGFR expression significantly increases radiosensitivity in hypoxic cells. Gene expression profiling in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) revealed that MT-EGFR expression elevated transcripts related to cell cycle and replication in aerobic and hypoxic conditions and down-regulated RAD50, a critical component of non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair pathways...
August 11, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801183/paired-phase-ii-studies-of-erlotinib-bevacizumab-for-advanced-bronchioloalveolar-carcinoma-or-never-smokers-with-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-swog-s0635-and-s0636-trials
#12
Howard L West, James Moon, Antoinette J Wozniak, Philip Mack, Fred R Hirsch, Martin J Bury, Myron Kwong, Dorothy D Nguyen, Dennis F Moore, Jieling Miao, Mary Redman, Karen Kelly, David R Gandara
BACKGROUND: Before mutation testing of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene was recognized as highly associated with the activity of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), clinically defined patient populations with bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) and never smokers were identified as likely to benefit from EGFR TKIs. From preclinical and clinical data suggesting potentially improved efficacy with a combination of an EGFR TKI and the antiangiogenic agent bevacizumab, the Southwestern Oncology Group (SWOG) initiated paired phase II trials to evaluate the combination of erlotinib/bevacizumab in patients with advanced BAC (SWOG S0635) or never smokers with advanced lung adenocarcinoma (SWOG S0636)...
July 6, 2017: Clinical Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799431/vulvar-cancer-in-germany-increase-in-incidence-and-change-in-tumour-biological-characteristics-from-1974-to-2013
#13
Bernd Holleczek, Jalid Sehouli, Jana Barinoff
BACKGROUND: The incidence of vulvar cancer in Germany is increasing. Moreover, gynaecological oncologists reported observing increasing numbers of women presenting with small tumours. The aim of the present study is to validate this observation on a population level and to extend available incidence data. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data from the population-based Saarland Cancer Registry were used and included 1136 women diagnosed with invasive vulvar cancer (ICD-9 codes: 181...
August 11, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799211/expression-signatures-and-roles-of-micrornas-in-human-oesophageal-adenocarcinomas
#14
Xiangyi Kong, Shun Gong, Lijuan Su, Chen Li, Yanguo Kong
The most common forms of oesophageal cancers are adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Although the incidence of SCC in the United States tends to be declining, the adenocarcinoma incidence caused by Barrett's oesophagus has been increasing. Oesophageal cancer is regarded as one of the most fatal malignancies with a short prognosis. Systemic manifestations of patients with PCNSL keep backward in spite of recent development of chemoradiotherapy. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that can post-transcriptionally down-regulate the expression of genes by targeting mRNAs, causing their translational repression as well as degradation...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795418/cd274-pdl1-and-jak2-genomic-amplifications-in-pulmonary-squamous-cell-and-adenocarcinoma-patients
#15
Sergi Clavé, Lara Pijuan, David Casadevall, Álvaro Taus, Javier Gimeno, Sílvia Hernández-Llodrà, María Rodríguez-Rivera, Marta Lorenzo, Sílvia Menéndez, Joan Albanell, Blanca Espinet, Edurne Arriola, Marta Salido
AIMS: CD274 (PDL1) and JAK2 (9p24.1) gene amplifications have been recently described in pulmonary carcinomas in association with PD-L1 protein expression. Also, PTEN loss have been explored preclinically in relation with PD-L1 expression. It remains to be determined if these genomic alterations may affect PD-L1 expression levels in non-small cell lung cancer. METHODS AND RESULTS: PD-L1 and PTEN protein expression by IHC, and CD274, JAK2 and PTEN gene copy number alterations (CNAs) by FISH were studied in 171 pulmonary carcinoma specimens...
August 10, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795312/treatment-of-lung-carcinosarcoma-and-other-rare-histologic-subtypes-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Han Yang, Yongbin Lin, Ying Liang
Lung carcinosarcoma (PCS) and other histological subtypes of non-small cell lung cancer, such as primary pulmonary lymphoma (PPL), pulmonary carcinoid (PC), and primary pulmonary lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC), are rare. For their low incidence, the diagnosis and treatment are still controversial. Some patients only need surgery, while others may need chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or targeted therapy. In this paper, we retrospectively reviewed the literature of some rare histological subtype of NSCLC for the recent 20 years, and try to get some conclusions...
August 10, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794695/water-filtered-infrared-a-wira-overcomes-swallowing-disorders-and-hypersalivation-a-case-report
#17
Gerd Hoffmann
Case description: A patient with a Barrett oesophageal carcinoma and a resection of the oesophagus with gastric pull-up developed swallowing disorders 6 years and 2 months after the operation. Within 1 year and 7 months two recurrences of the tumor at the anastomosis were found and treated with combined chemoradiotherapy or chemotherapy respectively. 7 years and 9 months after the operation local tumor masses and destruction were present with no ability to orally drink or eat (full feeding by jejunal PEG tube): quality of life was poor, as saliva and mucus were very viscous (pulling filaments) and could not be swallowed and had to be spat out throughout the day and night resulting in short periods of sleep (awaking from the necessity to spit out)...
2017: German Medical Science: GMS E-journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793041/experimental-study-of-peripheral-blood-pro-surfactant-protein-b-for-screening-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#18
Yong He, Zhenjie Jiang, Fengzhi Tong, Mingwu Li, Xingru Yin, Shixin Hu, Linlin Wang
Purpose: To evaluate the possibility of using peripheral-blood presurfactant protein B (Pro-SFTPB) for screening non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: A total of 873 healthy volunteers and 165 lung cancer patients hospitalized in the Fifth People's Hospital of Dalian were tested Pro-SFTPB once every half year from January 2014 to September 2015. The healthy volunteers were also conducted spiral computed tomography (CT) examination once every year. The data were then com-pared and statistically analyzed...
July 2017: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792981/hyperphosphorylation-of-rps6kb1-rather-than-overexpression-predicts-worse-prognosis-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients
#19
Bojiang Chen, Lan Yang, Rui Zhang, Yuncui Gan, Wen Zhang, Dan Liu, Hong Chen, Huairong Tang
RPS6KB1 is the kinase of ribosomal protein S6 which is 70 kDa and is required for protein translation. Although the abnormal activation of RPS6KB1 has been found in types of diseases, its role and clinical significance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has not been fully investigated. In this study, we identified that RPS6KB1 was over-phosphorylated (p-RPS6KB1) in NSCLC and it was an independent unfavorable prognostic marker for NSCLC patients. In spite of the frequent expression of total RPS6KB1 and p-RPS6KB1 in NSCLC specimens by immunohistochemical staining (IHC), only p-RPS6KB1 was associated with the clinicopathologic characteristics of NSCLC subjects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791411/microrna-195-inhibits-growth-and-invasion-of-laryngeal-carcinoma-cells-by-directly-targeting-dcun1d1
#20
Shuang Yu, Chao Li, Xuan Zhou, Yongwang Huang, Lun Zhang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression and are involved in cell biological processes. The aberrant expression of miR-195 has been found in various types of human cancer. However, the effect of miR‑195 on the initiation and development of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) remains to be elucidated. Accordingly, in the present study, we detected the expression level of miR-195 in the LSCC and the normal tissues and found that miR-195 were significantly down-regulated in the LSCC tissues...
August 3, 2017: Oncology Reports
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