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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620934/factors-associated-with-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants
#1
Adriana Weinberg, Marisa Mussi-Pinhata, Qilu Yu, Rachel A Cohen, Volia C Almeida, Fabiana R Amaral, Laura Freimanis, D Robert Harris, Christiana Smith, George Siberry
OBJECTIVES: To identify factors that predispose HIV-exposed uninfected infants (HEUs) to higher incidence of severe infections, hospitalization and death in the first 6 to 24 months of life compared with HEUs with and without lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in the first 6 months of life. DESIGN: Nested case-control study of 107 LRTI+ infants enrolled in the NISDI Perinatal and LILAC studies with and 140 LRTI- in the first 6 months of, matched by date and place of birth...
March 18, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610253/deconstructing-progression-from-pneumococcal-colonization-to-disease
#2
Stephen I Pelton
Despite advances in treatment and prevention, the pneumococcus continues as a dominant cause of severe pneumonia and sepsis, of otitis media, sinusitis and nonbacteremic pneumonia. Lewnard and colleagues use a unique data set of nasopharyngeal and middle ear fluid samples to provide further insight into the progression of nasopharyngeal pneumococcal colonization to disease. They report the comparative rate of progression from colonization to otitis media by serotype, providing insight as to how conjugate vaccines that do not reduce the overall presence of pneumococci in the nasopharynx dramatically impact the incidence of acute and complex otitis media...
April 2, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608212/glycan-metabolizing-enzymes-in-microbe-host-interactions-the-streptococcus-pneumoniae-paradigm
#3
REVIEW
Joanne K Hobbs, Benjamin Pluvinage, Alisdair B Boraston
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a frequent colonizer of the upper airways; however, it is also an accomplished pathogen capable of causing life-threatening diseases. To colonize and cause invasive disease, this bacterium relies upon a complex array of factors to mediate the host-bacterium interaction. The respiratory tract is rich in functionally important glycoconjugates that display a vast range of glycans and, thus, a key component of the pneumococcus-host interaction involves an arsenal of bacterial carbohydrate-active enzymes to depolymerize these glycans and carbohydrate transporters to import the products...
April 2, 2018: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605214/burden-of-pneumococcal-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-adults-across-europe-a-literature-review
#4
REVIEW
Antoni Torres, Catia Cillóniz, Francesco Blasi, James D Chalmers, Jacques Gaillat, Nathalie Dartois, Heinz-Josef Schmitt, Tobias Welte
BACKGROUND: The burden of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) among adults in Europe is poorly defined. METHODS: Structured searches of PubMed were conducted to identify the incidence of pneumococcal CAP among adults across Europe. RESULTS: The overall incidence rates for CAP was 68-7000 per 100,000 and the incidence in hospitalised CAP cases of all causes was 16-3581 per 100,000. In general the incidence of CAP increased consistently with age...
April 2018: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599457/streptococcus-pneumoniae-transmission-colonization-and-invasion
#5
REVIEW
Jeffrey N Weiser, Daniela M Ferreira, James C Paton
Streptococcus pneumoniae has a complex relationship with its obligate human host. On the one hand, the pneumococci are highly adapted commensals, and their main reservoir on the mucosal surface of the upper airways of carriers enables transmission. On the other hand, they can cause severe disease when bacterial and host factors allow them to invade essentially sterile sites, such as the middle ear spaces, lungs, bloodstream and meninges. Transmission, colonization and invasion depend on the remarkable ability of S...
March 29, 2018: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588455/proteomic-and-bioinformatic-pipeline-to-screen-the-ligands-of-s-pneumoniae-interacting-with-human-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cells
#6
Irene Jiménez-Munguía, Lucia Pulzova, Evelina Kanova, Zuzana Tomeckova, Petra Majerova, Katarina Bhide, Lubos Comor, Ivana Sirochmanova, Andrej Kovac, Mangesh Bhide
The mechanisms by which Streptococcus pneumoniae penetrates the blood-brain barrier (BBB), reach the CNS and causes meningitis are not fully understood. Adhesion of bacterial cells on the brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs), mediated through protein-protein interactions, is one of the crucial steps in translocation of bacteria across BBB. In this work, we proposed a systematic workflow for identification of cell wall associated ligands of pneumococcus that might adhere to the human BMECs. The proteome of S...
March 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581408/the-opp-amiacdef-oligopeptide-transporter-mediates-resistance-of-serotype-2-streptococcus-pneumoniae-d39-to-killing-by-chemokine-cxcl10-and-other-antimicrobial-peptides
#7
Kevin E Bruce, Britta E Rued, Ho-Ching Tiffany Tsui, Malcolm E Winkler
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), including chemokines, are produced during infections to kill pathogenic bacteria. To fill in gaps about the sensitivities of Streptococcus pneumoniae and related Streptococcus species to chemokines and AMPs, we performed a systematic, quantitative study of inhibition by chemokine CXCL10 and the AMPs, LL-37 and nisin. In a standard Tris-glucose buffer (TGS), all strains assayed lacked metabolic activity, as determined by resazurin (AlamarBlue®) reduction, and were extremely sensitive to CXCL10 and AMPs (IC50 ≈0...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576305/a-bibliometric-analysis-of-systematic-reviews-on-vaccines-and-immunisation
#8
REVIEW
Silke Fernandes, Mark Jit, Fiammetta Bozzani, Ulla K Griffiths, J Anthony G Scott, Helen E D Burchett
INTRODUCTION: SYSVAC is an online bibliographic database of systematic reviews and systematic review protocols on vaccines and immunisation compiled by the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine and hosted by the World Health Organization (WHO) through their National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups (NITAG) resource centre (www.nitag-resource.org). Here the development of the database and a bibliometric review of its content is presented, describing trends in the publication of policy-relevant systematic reviews on vaccines and immunisation from 2008 to 2016...
March 22, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557769/immunization-with-pneumococcal-neuraminidases-nana-nanb-and-nanc-to-generate-neutralizing-antibodies-and-to-increase-survival-in-mice
#9
Rajendra-Prasad Janapatla, Chyi-Liang Chen, Mei-Hua Hsu, Wan-Ting Liao, Cheng-Hsun Chiu
PURPOSE: Pneumococcal virulence protein-based vaccines can provide serotype-independent protection against pneumococcal infections. Many studies, including clinical observational studies on Thomsen-Friedenrich antigen exposure and haemolytic uremic syndrome, defined the role of neuraminidases NanA, NanB and NanC in host-pneumococcus interaction. Since neuraminidases are major virulence proteins, they are potential targets for both vaccines and small molecule inhibitors. Here we explored the utility of three neuraminidases as protein vaccine antigens to generate neutralizing antibodies and to increase survival following pneumococcal infections...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547971/potential-targets-for-next-generation-anti-microbial-glycoconjugate-vaccines
#10
Francesca Micoli, Paolo Costantino, Roberto Adamo
Cell surface carbohydrates have been proven optimal targets for vaccine development. Conjugation of polysaccharides to a carrier protein triggers a T-cell dependent immune response to the glycan moiety. Licensed glycoconjugate vaccines are produced by chemical conjugation of capsular polysaccharides to prevent meningitis caused by meningococcus, pneumococcus and Haemophilus influenzae type b. However, other classes of carbohydrates (O-antigens, exopolysaccharides, wall/teichoic acids) represent attractive targets for developing vaccines...
March 14, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546928/-streptococcus-pneumoniae-endocarditis-in-a-child-a-case-report
#11
Florencia Escarrá, Ana G Fedullo, Natalia Veliz, Julián Rosa, Rodrigo Oribe, Marisa Di Santo, Bqca Vanesa Reijtman, Lic Alejandra Mastroianni, Guadalupe Pérez
INTRODUCTION: the incidence of invasive infections caused by pneumococcus (Streptococcus pneumoniae) has declined since generalized vaccination with pneumococcal conjugated vaccine, but it is still a prevalent pathogen in children. Amongst pneumococcal invasive infections, IE (infectious endocarditis) is rare, with an incidence between 1 and 7%. CASE REPORT: We describe the case of a previously healthy 4 year old boy, who had received one dose of 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine who presents with fever, a new heart murmur and heart failure...
December 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543979/colonization-induced-protection-against-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-mice-is-independent-of-cd103-driven-adaptive-immune-responses
#12
Anne Dommaschk, Lara F Lang, Regina Maus, Jennifer Stolper, Tobias Welte, Ulrich A Maus
Nasopharyngeal colonization with Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is known to mount protective adaptive immune responses in rodents and humans. However, the cellular response of the nasopharyngeal compartment to pneumococcal colonization and its importance for the ensuing adaptive immune response is only partially defined. Here we show that nasopharyngeal colonization with S. pneumoniae triggered substantial expansion of both integrin αE (CD103) positive dendritic cells (DC) and T lymphocytes in nasopharynx, nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) and cervical lymph nodes (CLN) of WT mice...
March 15, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525571/vaccination-coverage-among-children-and-adolescents-below-18-years-of-age-in-french-guiana-inventory-and-determinant-factors
#13
A Koïvogui, A Carbunar, L-M Imounga, C Laruade, S Laube
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to estimate the vaccination coverage (VC) rate in persons aged from 9 months to 18 years and to describe it according to the predictive factors of good vaccination status. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive and etiological study. METHODS: The study involved 1332 persons aged below 18 years and members of 521 representative households in French Guiana. VC was estimated by the proportion of people with complete immunization for 13 vaccines (four mandatory, seven recommended, and two specific)...
March 8, 2018: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511602/infectious-disease-risk-and-vaccination-in-northern-syria-after-5-years-of-civil-war-the-msf-experience
#14
Alan de Lima Pereira, Rosamund Southgate, Hikmet Ahmed, Penelope O'Connor, Vanessa Cramond, Annick Lenglet
Introduction: In 2015, following an influx of population into Kobanê in northern Syria, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in collaboration with the Kobanê Health Administration (KHA) initiated primary healthcare activities. A vaccination coverage survey and vaccine-preventable disease (VPD) risk analysis were undertaken to clarify the VPD risk and vaccination needs. This was followed by a measles Supplementary Immunization Activity (SIA). We describe the methods and results used for this prioritisation activity around vaccination in Kobanê in 2015...
February 2, 2018: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496408/proteomic-response-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-to-iron-limitation
#15
Juliane Hoyer, Jürgen Bartel, Alejandro Gómez-Mejia, Manfred Rohde, Claudia Hirschfeld, Nathalie Heß, Thomas Sura, Sandra Maaß, Sven Hammerschmidt, Dörte Becher
Iron is an essential trace element and involved in various key metabolic pathways in bacterial lifestyle. Within the human host, iron is extremely limited. Hence, the ability of bacteria to acquire iron from the environment is critical for a successful infection. Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is a human pathobiont colonizing symptomless the human respiratory tract, but can also cause various local and invasive infections. To survive and proliferate pneumococci have therefore to adapt their metabolism and virulence factor repertoire to different host compartments...
February 13, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487244/microbial-etiology-in-hospitalized-north-indian-adults-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#16
Reyaz A Para, Bashir A Fomda, Rafi A Jan, Sonaullah Shah, Parvaiz A Koul
Background: There is a paucity of literature regarding the microbial etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in India. The current study was aimed to study the microbial etiology of hospitalized adults with CAP. Methods: The study was conducted in a 700-bedded North Indian hospital. Consecutive adults admitted with CAP over a period of 2 years from 2013 to 2015 were recruited for the study, and apart from clinical evaluation underwent various microbiological studies in the form of blood culture, sputum culture, urinary antigen for pneumococcus and Legionella, serology for Mycoplasma and Chlamydia and real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for influenza viruses...
March 2018: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485030/in-vitro-characterization-and-identification-of-potential-substrates-of-a-low-molecular-weight-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-in-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#17
Zuleeza Ahmad, Renato Morona, Alistair J Standish
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major human pathogen responsible for significant mortality and morbidity worldwide. Within the annotated genome of the pneumococcus lies a previously uncharacterized protein tyrosine phosphatase which shows homology to low molecular weight protein tyrosine phosphatases (LMWPTPs). LMWPTPs modulate many processes critical for the pathogenicity of a number of bacteria including capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis, stress response and persistence in host macrophages. Here, we demonstrate that Spd1837 is indeed a LMWPTP, by purifying the protein, and characterizing its phosphatase activity...
February 26, 2018: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472635/nasopharyngeal-pneumococcal-carriage-in-nigeria-a-two-site-population-based-survey
#18
Ifedayo M O Adetifa, Aishatu L Adamu, Angela Karani, Michael Waithaka, Kofo A Odeyemi, Christy A N Okoromah, Mohammed M Bello, Isa S Abubakar, Victor Inem, J Anthony G Scott
Changes in nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage of vaccine-type (VT) Streptococcus pneumoniae can be used to assess the effectiveness of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10). We conducted a baseline carriage survey in rural (Kumbotso, Kano) and urban (Pakoto, Ogun) Nigeria. In this cross-sectional study, we obtained data on demography, clinical history, risk factors, and took NP swabs for pneumococcal culture. We calculated crude and age-standardised carriage prevalence and used log-binomial regression to assess risk factors for carriage...
February 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463618/evaluation-of-the-role-of-stat3-in-antibody-and-t-h-17-mediated-responses-to-pneumococcal-immunization-and-infection-using-a-mouse-model-of-autosomal-dominant-hyper-ige-syndrome
#19
Kristin Moffitt, Elaine Cheung, John Manis, Richard Malley
Loss-of-function mutations in Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 gene ( stat3 ) result in Autosomal Dominant Hyper IgE Syndrome (AD-HIES), a condition in which patients have recurrent debilitating infections, including frequent pneumococcal and staphylococcal pneumonias. Stat3 mutations cause defective adaptive TH 17-cellular responses, an immune mechanism believed to be critical for clearance of pneumococcal colonization, and diminished antibody responses. Here we wished to evaluate the role of stat3 in clearance of pneumococcal carriage and immunity using mice with a stat3 mutation recapitulating AD-HIES...
February 20, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449834/peptidoglycan-recognition-protein-3-does-not-alter-the-outcome-of-pneumococcal-pneumonia-in-mice
#20
Anshu Shrivastav, Alexander N Dabrowski, Claudia Conrad, Nelli Baal, Holger Hackstein, Stephanie Plog, Kristina Dietert, Achim D Gruber, Philippe D N'Guessan, Sahar Aly, Norbert Suttorp, Janine Zahlten
Pneumococci frequently cause community-acquired pneumonia, a disease with high mortality rates, particularly in young children and in the elderly. Endogenous antimicrobial peptides and proteins such as PGLYRP3 may contribute to the progression and outcome of this disease. Since increasing antibiotic resistant strains occur all over the world, these endogenous antimicrobial molecules are interesting new targets for future therapies. In this study, the expression pattern of PGLYRP3 was analyzed in alveolar epithelial cells, alveolar macrophages and neutrophils...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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