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Soyoung Lee, Han Wool Kim, Kyung-Hyo Kim
BACKGROUND: Intravenous immunoglobulin G (IVIG) replacement therapy is used to prevent invasive infections in patients with primary antibody deficiency (PAD). However, few studies have functionally evaluated specific antibodies against encapsulated bacteria that cause invasive infection in patients with PAD. In this study, functional antibodies against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococci), and Neisseria meningitidis (meningococci) in IVIG therapy were evaluated...
October 23, 2016: Transfusion
Marrit N Habets, Saskia van Selm, Fred J van Opzeeland, Elles Simonetti, Peter W M Hermans, Marien I de Jonge, Dimitri A Diavatopoulos
Widespread vaccination against Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) has significantly reduced pneumococcal disease caused by vaccine serotypes. Despite vaccination, overall pneumococcal colonization rates in children have not reduced and otitis media (OM) by non-vaccine serotypes remains one of the most common childhood infections. Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) has been shown to be a promising protein antigen to induce broad protection against pneumococcal colonization. However, its ability to protect against OM remains unclear...
October 19, 2016: Vaccine
A Bonhomme, E Fréling, M Reigneau, C Poreaux, A Valois, F Truchetet, A Barbaud, J-L Schmutz
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the vaccine coverage of psoriasis patients prior to initiating or changing immunosuppressant therapy, and to verify that the prescribed vaccines have been administered. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a bi-centre, observational, cross-sectional study over 9 months. Psoriasis patients in whom immunosuppressant therapy (comprising cyclosporine, methotrexate, etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab or ustekinumab) was indicated were included. Medical history, previous treatments, vaccination status, viral serology results (for hepatitis B, measles, and chickenpox), and reasons for non-vaccination were assessed via questionnaire...
October 19, 2016: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
Haley Echlin, Matthew W Frank, Amy Iverson, Ti-Cheng Chang, Michael D L Johnson, Charles O Rock, Jason W Rosch
The pneumococcus is one of the most prodigious producers of hydrogen peroxide amongst bacterial pathogens. Hydrogen peroxide production by the pneumococcus has been implicated in antibiotic synergism, competition between other bacterial colonizers of the nasopharynx, and damage to epithelial cells. However, the role during invasive disease has been less clear with mutants defective in hydrogen peroxide production demonstrating both attenuation and heightened invasive disease capacity depending upon strain and serotype background...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Brenda Anna Kwambana-Adams, Franklin Asiedu-Bekoe, Badu Sarkodie, Osei Kuffour Afreh, George Khumalo Kuma, Godfred Owusu-Okyere, Ebenezer Foster-Nyarko, Sally-Ann Ohene, Charles Okot, Archibald Kwame Worwui, Catherine Okoi, Madikay Senghore, Jacob Kweku Otu, Chinelo Ebruke, Richard Bannerman, Kwame Amponsa-Achiano, David Opare, Gemma Kay, Timothy Letsa, Owen Kaluwa, Ebenezer Appiah-Denkyira, Victor Bampoe, Syed M A Zaman, Mark J Pallen, Umberto D'Alessandro, Jason M Mwenda, Martin Antonio
BACKGROUND: An outbreak of pneumococcal meningitis among non-infant children and adults occurred in the Brong-Ahafo region of Ghana between December 2015 and April 2016 despite the recent nationwide implementation of a vaccination programme for infants with the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). METHODS: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens were collected from patients with suspected meningitis in the Brong-Ahafo region. CSF specimens were subjected to Gram staining, culture and rapid antigen testing...
October 18, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Stefan Flasche, Noga Givon-Lavi, Ron Dagan
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have substantially reduced the burden of pneumococcal disease, including the incidence of otitis media (OM). However, in most countries, no surveillance exists to monitor the change in pneumococcal OM incidence after the introduction of PCVs. We explored whether measuring pneumococcal carriage was a useful surrogate for monitoring postvaccination changes in the incidence of pneumococcal OM. The 7-valent PCV was introduced to Israel's national immunization program in July 2009 and gradually replaced by the 13-valent PCV starting in November 2010...
October 15, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
Rama Kandasamy, Merryn Voysey, Fiona McQuaid, Karlijn de Nie, Rebecca Ryan, Olivia Orr, Ulrike Uhlig, Charles Sande, Daniel O'Connor, Andrew J Pollard
OBJECTIVE:  To identify and characterise non-specific immunological effects after routine childhood vaccines against BCG, measles, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus. DESIGN:  Systematic review of randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, and case-control studies. DATA SOURCES:  Embase, PubMed, Cochrane library, and Trip searched between 1947 and January 2014. Publications submitted by a panel of experts in the specialty were also included...
October 13, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Luc Martinez, Fatoumata Fofana, François Raineri, Pascale Arnould, Khadra Benmedjahed, Guillaume Coindard, François Denis, Didier Duhot, Jean-Luc Gallais, Didier Seyler, Béatrice Tugaut, Benoit Arnould
BACKGROUND: Primary care physicians (PCPs) play a key role regarding vaccination in France. The aims of the present study were to define the scoring rules and to assess the measurement properties of the 'Determinants of Intentions to Vaccinate' (DIVA(©)) questionnaire that aims to assess PCPs' attitudes and beliefs toward vaccination. METHODS: The DIVA questionnaire was derived from a literature review and PCPs focus groups. Scoring and early validation of the DIVA questionnaire were determined during a cross-sectional study conducted in France...
October 10, 2016: BMC Family Practice
Charles Feldman, Ronald Anderson
Pneumococcal infections continue to cause significant morbidity and mortality in patients throughout the world. This microorganism remains the most common bacterial cause of community-acquired pneumonia and is associated with a considerable burden of disease and health-care costs in both developed and developing countries. Emerging antibiotic resistance has been a concern because of its potential negative impact on the outcome of patients who receive standard antibiotic therapy. However, there have been substantial changes in the epidemiology of this pathogen in recent years, not least of which has been due to the use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in children, with subsequent herd protection in unvaccinated adults and children...
2016: F1000Research
Misako Shigematsu, Tomoaki Koga, Ayako Ishimori, Kazuko Saeki, Yumiko Ishii, Yoshitaka Taketomi, Mai Ohba, Airi Jo-Watanabe, Toshiaki Okuno, Norihiro Harada, Takeshi Harayama, Hideo Shindou, Jian-Dong Li, Makoto Murakami, Sumio Hoka, Takehiko Yokomizo
Although pneumococcal infection is a serious problem worldwide and has a high mortality rate, the molecular mechanisms underlying the lethality caused by pneumococcus remain elusive. Here, we show that BLT2, a G protein-coupled receptor for leukotriene B4 and 12(S)-hydroxyheptadecatrienoic acid (12-HHT), protects mice from lung injury caused by a pneumococcal toxin, pneumolysin (PLY). Intratracheal injection of PLY caused lethal acute lung injury (ALI) in BLT2-deficient mice, with evident vascular leakage and bronchoconstriction...
October 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
Rieza Aprianto, Jelle Slager, Siger Holsappel, Jan-Willem Veening
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae, the pneumococcus, is the main etiological agent of pneumonia. Pneumococcal infection is initiated by bacterial adherence to lung epithelial cells. The exact transcriptional changes occurring in both host and microbe during infection are unknown. Here, we developed a time-resolved infection model of human lung alveolar epithelial cells by S. pneumoniae and assess the resulting transcriptome changes in both organisms simultaneously by using dual RNA-seq...
September 27, 2016: Genome Biology
Chrispin Chaguza, Cheryl P Andam, Simon R Harris, Jennifer E Cornick, Marie Yang, Laura Bricio-Moreno, Arox W Kamng'ona, Julian Parkhill, Neil French, Robert S Heyderman, Aras Kadioglu, Dean B Everett, Stephen D Bentley, William P Hanage
: Streptococcus pneumoniae causes a high burden of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) globally, especially in children from resource-poor settings. Like many bacteria, the pneumococcus can import DNA from other strains or even species by transformation and homologous recombination, which has allowed the pneumococcus to evade clinical interventions such as antibiotics and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). Pneumococci are enclosed in a complex polysaccharide capsule that determines the serotype; the capsule varies in size and is associated with properties including carriage prevalence and virulence...
September 27, 2016: MBio
Mahsa Hadidi, John J Buckley, Andrew L Zydney
Charged polysaccharides are used in the food industry, as cosmetics, and as vaccines. The viscosity, thermodynamics, and hydrodynamic properties of these charged polysaccharides are known to be strongly dependent on the solution ionic strength because of both inter- and intramolecular electrostatic interactions. The goal of this work was to quantitatively describe the effect of these electrostatic interactions on the ultrafiltration behavior of several charged capsular polysaccharides obtained from Streptococcus pneumoniae and used in the production of Pneumococcus vaccines...
September 27, 2016: Biotechnology Progress
Zeyu Chen, Rong Guo, Jianghong Xu, Chuangjun Qiu
This study evaluated the immunogenicity and protective immunity of a Hemophilus influenzae b (Hib) polysaccharide conjugate vaccine with the pneumococcal surface adhesin A (PsaA) protein carrier in young mice. The Hib polysaccharide was conjugated with the rPsaA protein carrier, which was produced using recombinant DNA technology. A total of 15 young mice aged 3 weeks to 5 weeks were immunized with the conjugate vaccine, and another 15 young mice of the same age were immunized with the licensed Hib-tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccine...
September 20, 2016: Frontiers of Medicine
María E Toledo, Maria F Casanova, Nivaldo Linares-Pérez, Dagmar García-Rivera, Gilda Toraño Peraza, Indira Barcos Pina, Martha Montes de Oca, Laura M Rodriguez-Noda, Mayelín Mirabal, Beatriz Paredes, Dunia M Chávez Amaro, Darielys Santana Mederos, Yury Valdés-Balbín, Vicente Verez-Bencomo
BACKGROUND: A new vaccine candidate against pneumococcus is being developed in Cuba, and it is a priority of the national health system. There is limited information on nasopharyngeal colonization burden, though it is essential for monitoring the impact of the vaccine. The study aims to estimate the prevalence of nasopharyngeal colonization in 2-18 month old toddlers, identify circulating serotypes, antimicrobial resistance, and its association with selected risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted between October and December 2013 in Cienfuegos municipality...
September 19, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
E Redondo, I Rivero, D A Vargas, E Mascarós, J L Díaz-Maroto, M Linares, J Valdepérez, A Gil, J Molina, I Jimeno, D Ocaña, F Martinón-Torres
INTRODUCTION: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in adults. The annual incidence of CAP in adults in Spain ranges from 3 to 14 cases per 1,000 inhabitants. Current clinical guidelines primarily focus on the therapeutic approach to CAP rather than its prevention. The aim of this study is to develop and propose a practical guide for CAP prevention through vaccination in Spain according to available vaccines and evidence. METHODS: A literature review and expert opinion...
October 2016: Semergen
Andrew I Rutherford, Sujith Subesinghe, Tehmina Bharucha, Fowzia Ibrahim, Alexander Kleymann, James B Galloway
OBJECTIVES: Septic arthritis is a life-threatening condition with mortality rates of 10-15%. Previous studies in other countries have shown the incidence of septic arthritis may be changing. Our aim was investigate the incidence and pattern of native joint septic arthritis in the UK. METHODS: We performed an analysis using Hospital Episode Statistics to investigate the reported incidence of septic arthritis in the UK between 1998 and 2013. RESULTS: A total of 54 532 cases of septic arthritis were reported via Hospital Episode Statistics during the timeframe studied...
September 16, 2016: Rheumatology
Anukul T Shenoy, Carlos J Orihuela
Streptococcus pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen globally associated with significant morbidity and mortality. It is capable of causing a wide range of diseases including sinusitis, conjunctivitis, otitis media, pneumonia, bacteraemia, sepsis, and meningitis. While its capsular polysaccharide is indispensible for invasive disease, and opsonising antibodies against the capsule are the basis for the current vaccines, a long history of biomedical research indicates that other components of this Gram-positive bacterium are also critical for virulence...
2016: Pneumonia
Song Gao, Lingbin Zeng, Xuemei Zhang, Yingying Wu, Jingjing Cui, Zhixin Song, Xiaoyu Sun, Hong Wang, Yibing Yin, Wenchun Xu
Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the causative agent of pneumonia, meningitis, otitis media and sepsis. Vaccination is an effective strategy to combat S.pneumoniae invasion. We previously reported that SPY1, a novel attenuated vaccine candidate against S.pneumoniae, induces a protective immune response against pneumococcal infection in mice. However, underlying mechanisms have yet to be fully illustrated. To explore the mechanism of innate and adaptive immunities induced by SPY1. In this study, bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) of mice were infected with SPY1 and its parental wild-type strain D39, SPY1-infected DCs were co-cultured with homologous CD4(+)T cells or adoptive transfer to C57BL/6 mice...
September 5, 2016: Immunology Letters
F A Traoré, F B Sako, D Sylla, D S Kader, M Bangoura, M Traoré, A Keita, A Sidibé, S Keita, M Barry, M Cisse, A Touré
A prospective study conducted from 1 January to 31 December 2013 described a meningitis epidemic in Republic of Guinea. The identification of the germs was based on Gram stain, latex agglutination and culture. During the study period, 480 suspected cases of meningitis were reported by 21 health districts. The average age was 18±8 years and 62.5% were men. The vaccination status was unknown in all patients. The largest attack rates were found in Siguiri (3.2 per 10,000), Kankan (2.6 per 10,000) and Dabola (3...
August 30, 2016: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
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