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Rhiannon R Penkert, Amy Iverson, Jason W Rosch, Julia L Hurwitz
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is responsible for serious pediatric respiratory infections, and kills close to one million children under the age of five each year. Unfortunately, the Prevnar-13 vaccine (PCV-13) that is used to protect children from the serious consequences of pneumococcus infections is not always successful. Given that vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is known to affect children in both developed and developing countries, we asked if VAD could be responsible, at least in part, for PCV-13 vaccine failures...
October 9, 2017: Vaccine
Daniel M Musher, Michael S Abers, John G Bartlett
Before 1945, Streptococcus pneumoniae caused more than 90% of cases of pneumonia in adults. After 1950, the proportion of pneumonia caused by pneumococcus began to decline. Pneumococcus has continued to decline; at present, this organism is identified in fewer than fewer10%-15% of cases. This proportion is higher in Europe, a finding likely related to differences in vaccination practices and smoking. Gram-negative bacilli, Staphylococcus aureus, Chlamydia, Mycoplasma, and Legionella are each identified in 2%-5% of patients with pneumonia who require hospitalization...
September 27, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
John Ojal, David Goldblatt, Caroline Tigoi, J Anthony G Scott
Background: In developing countries, introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has not eliminated circulation of vaccine serotypes. Vaccinating pregnant mothers to increase antibody concentrations in their newborn infants may reduce the acquisition of pneumococcal carriage and subsequent risk of disease. We explored the efficacy of passive immunity, attributable to anti-protein and anti-capsular pneumococcal antibodies, against acquisition of carriage. Methods: We examined the rate of nasopharyngeal acquisition of pneumococci in the first 90 days of life associated with varying anti-capsular and anti-protein antibody concentrations in infant cord/maternal venous blood in Kilifi, Kenya...
August 17, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Joseph A Lewnard, Noga Givon-Lavi, Daniel M Weinberger, Marc Lipsitch, Ron Dagan
Background: Reductions in otitis media (OM) burden following rollout of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have exceeded predictions of vaccine impact. In settings with active surveillance, reductions in OM caused by vaccine-targeted pneumococcal serotypes have co-occurred with reductions in OM caused by other pathogens carried in the upper-respiratory tract of children. To understand these changes, we investigated the progression of vaccine-targeted and non-vaccine pneumococcal serotypes from carriage to OM before and after vaccine rollout...
July 29, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Angela E Rankine-Mullings, Shirley Owusu-Ofori
BACKGROUND: Persons with sickle cell disease (SCD) are particularly susceptible to infection. Infants and very young children are especially vulnerable. The 'Co-operative Study of Sickle Cell Disease' observed an incidence rate for pneumococcal septicaemia of 10 per 100 person years in children under the age of three years. Vaccines, including customary pneumococcal vaccines, may be of limited use in this age group. Therefore, prophylactic penicillin regimens may be advisable for this population...
October 10, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Simone Culurgioni, Minzhe Tang, David R Hall, Martin A Walsh
Development of new antimicrobials and vaccines for Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) are necessary to halt the rapid rise in multiple resistant strains. Carbohydrate substrate binding proteins (SBPs) represent viable targets for the development of protein-based vaccines and new antimicrobials because of their extracellular localization and the centrality of carbohydrate import for pneumococcal metabolism, respectively. Described here is a rationalized integrated protocol to carry out a comprehensive characterization of SP0092, which can be extended to other carbohydrate SBPs from the pneumococcus and other bacteria...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Bikas K Arya, Sangeeta Das Bhattacharya, Catherine G Sutcliffe, Feroze Ganaie, Arun Bhaskar, Subhasish Bhattacharyya, Swapan Kumar Niyogi, William J Moss, Samiran Panda, K L Ravikumar, Ranjan Saurav Das, Sutapa Mandal
BACKGROUND: HIV infection increases risk of invasive disease from Streptococcus pneumoniae. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) prevent invasive disease and acquisition of vaccine type (VT) pneumococcus in the nasopharynx. OBJECTIVE: To look at the safety and impact of one dose of PCV13 on acquisition of VT pneumococcal carriage in Indian children with HIV. METHOD: We conducted a cohort study in families of HIV-infected children (CLH) and families of HIV-uninfected children (HUC) in West Bengal...
September 27, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
J Bonnet, C Durmort, M Jacq, I Mortier-Barrière, N Campo, M S VanNieuwenhze, Y V Brun, C Arthaud, B Gallet, C Moriscot, C Morlot, T Vernet, A M Di Guilmi
The peptidoglycan is a rigid matrix required to resist turgor pressure and to maintain the cellular shape. It is formed by linear glycan chains composed of N-acetylmuramic acid-(β-1,4)-N-acetylglucosamine (MurNAc-GlcNAc) disaccharides associated through cross-linked peptide stems. The peptidoglycan is continually remodeled by synthetic and hydrolytic enzymes and by chemical modifications, including O-acetylation of MurNAc residues that occurs in most Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. This modification is a powerful strategy developed by pathogens to resist to lysozyme degradation and thus to escape from the host innate immune system but little is known about its physiological function...
September 28, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
Ronald Anderson, Charles Feldman
There is increasing recognition of the involvement of platelets in orchestrating inflammatory responses, driving the activation of neutrophils, monocytes and vascular endothelium, which, if poorly controlled, may lead to microvascular dysfunction. Importantly, hyperreactivity of platelets has been implicated in the pathogenesis of myocardial injury and the associated particularly high prevalence of acute cardiovascular events in patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), of which Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is the most commonly encountered aetiologic agent...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Infection
Merryn Voysey, Andrew J Pollard, Manish Sadarangani, Thomas R Fanshawe
BACKGROUND: At the time of an infant's initial vaccination at age ∼2 to 3months, some infants already have maternal antibodies against vaccine antigens and these can suppress the immune response to vaccination. Modelling the effects of maternal antibody and the timing of infant doses on the antibody response to vaccination, requires estimates of the rate of maternal antibody decay. Decay rates are not well characterised in the medical literature. We investigated variation in the prevalence of maternal anti-capsular pneumococcal and meningococcal antibodies in infants in 14 countries, and estimated type-specific half-lives...
October 13, 2017: Vaccine
Erik A Karlsson, Victoria A Meliopoulos, Nicholas C van de Velde, Lee-Ann van de Velde, Beth Mann, Geli Gao, Jason Rosch, Elaine Tuomanen, Jon McCullers, Peter Vogel, Stacey Schultz-Cherry
Obesity is a risk factor for developing severe disease following influenza virus infection; however, the comorbidity of obesity and secondary bacterial infection, a serious complication of influenza virus infections, is unknown. To fill this gap in knowledge, lean and obese C57BL/6 mice were infected with a nonlethal dose of influenza virus followed by a nonlethal dose of Streptococcus pneumoniae Strikingly, not only did significantly enhanced death occur in obese coinfected mice compared to lean controls, but also high mortality was seen irrespective of influenza virus strain, bacterial strain, or timing of coinfection...
September 19, 2017: MBio
Kim M Hare, Amanda J Leach, Heidi C Smith-Vaughan, Anne B Chang, Keith Grimwood
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is the main cause of bacterial pneumonia worldwide and has been studied extensively in this context. However, its role in chronic endobronchial infections and accompanying lower airway neutrophilic infiltration has received little attention. Severe and recurrent pneumonia are risk factors for chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD) and bronchiectasis; the latter causes considerable morbidity and, in some populations, premature death in children and adults. Protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB) is another chronic endobronchial infection associated with substantial morbidity...
September 18, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
Fuminori Sakai, Griffin Sonaty, David Watson, Keith P Klugman, Jorge E Vidal
Identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae and its more than 90 serotypes is routinely conducted by culture and Quellung reactions. Quantitative polymerase chain reactions (qPCRs) have been developed for molecular detection, including a pan-pneumococcus lytA assay, and assays targeting 79 serotypes. Reactions require genomic DNA from every target to prepare standards, which can be time consuming. In this study, we have developed a synthetic DNA molecule as a surrogate for genomic DNA and present new single-plex qPCR reactions to increase molecular detection to 94 pneumococcal serotypes...
September 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
A M Di Guilmi, J Bonnet, S Peiβert, C Durmort, B Gallet, T Vernet, N Gisch, Y-S Wong
Propargyl-choline was efficiently incorporated into teichoic acid (TA) polymers on the surface of Streptococcus pneumoniae. The introduction of a fluorophore by click chemistry enabled sufficient labeling of the pneumococcus, as well as its specific detection when mixed with other bacterial species. The labeling is localized at the septal site, suggesting a similar location of the TA and peptidoglycan (PG) synthetic machineries. This method is a unique opportunity to improve our understanding of the spatial location of pneumococcal TA biosynthesis...
September 21, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Hannah Pyo, Cho Yeon Lee, Daehee Kim, Gyuhee Kim, Sangho Lee, Wan Soo Yun
A simple method of nanoparticle decoration can be used in the detection of pneumococcus. After the pneumococcal bacteria were captured by an antibody (pneumococcal C-polysaccharide (PnC) antibody) between the interdigitated electrodes, the gold nanoparticles conjugated with the PnC antibodies were let to bind onto an outer membrane of the bacteria. Upon successfully dense decoration, the bacteria surface will become conductive owing to the metal nanoparticles, and a distinctive conductance change between the electrodes can be observed...
September 2, 2017: Sensors
Seo Hyun Koh, Seul Gi Shin, Maria Jose Andrade, Ryun-Hee Go, Seonghee Park, Chang-Hoon Woo, Jae Hyang Lim
Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important human pathogen responsible for more than 2 million deaths annually worldwide. The airway epithelium acts as the first-line of defense against pneumococcal infections by regulating acute inflammation against invading pneumococcus. Despite the intact adaptive immunity, failure in early defense due to loss of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and/or acute phase proteins (APPs) results in detrimental damage and death. C-reactive protein (CRP), the first found APP, is a member of the pentraxin family of proteins and an important soluble PRR for pneumococcus...
November 4, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Sibongile Walaza, Stefano Tempia, Andries Dreyer, Halima Dawood, Ebrahim Variava, Neil A Martinson, Jocelyn Moyes, Adam L Cohen, Nicole Wolter, Claire von Mollendorf, Anne von Gottberg, Sumayya Haffejee, Florette Treurnicht, Orienka Hellferscee, Nazir Ismail, Cheryl Cohen
BACKGROUND: Understanding the burden and clinical presentation of tuberculosis in patients with severe respiratory illness (SRI) has important implications for anticipating treatment requirements. METHODS: Hospitalized patients aged ≥15 years with SRI at 2 public teaching hospitals in periurban areas in 2 provinces (Edendale Hospital in Pietermaritzburg, KwaZulu-Natal Province and Tshepong Hospital in Klerksdorp, North West Province) were enrolled prospectively from 2012 to 2014...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Adam S Adler, Rena A Mizrahi, Matthew J Spindler, Matthew S Adams, Michael A Asensio, Robert C Edgar, Jackson Leong, Renee Leong, Lucy Roalfe, Rebecca White, David Goldblatt, David S Johnson
Affinity-matured, functional anti-pathogen antibodies are present at low frequencies in natural human repertoires. These antibodies are often excellent candidates for therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. However, mining natural human antibody repertoires is a challenge. In this study, we demonstrate a new method that uses microfluidics, yeast display, and deep sequencing to identify 247 natively paired anti-pathogen single-chain variable fragments (scFvs), which were initially as rare as 1 in 100,000 in the human repertoires...
August 28, 2017: MAbs
Hung-Viet Pham, Imran Hasan, Natalia Udaltsova, Kathy Pham, Oren Abramson, Mary Anne Armstrong, Debbie Postlethwaite, Dan Li
BACKGROUND: As an important quality measure, the rates of recommended immunizations among immunocompromised inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients in community practice have not been well studied. AIMS: This study sought to investigate the rates and predictors of recommended immunizations and screening tests among IBD patients receiving anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy in a large integrated healthcare organization. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 1401 IBD patients on anti-TNF therapy between 2010 and 2013 within the Kaiser Permanente Northern California healthcare system...
August 23, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Rose Bosire, Carey Farquhar, Ruth Nduati, Kristina Broliden, Stanley Luchters, Philippe Van de Perre, Isabelle De Vincenzi, Michele Merkel, Veronicah Wachuka, Dorothy Mbori-Ngacha, Grace John-Stewart, Barbara Lohman-Payne, Marie Reilly
BACKGROUND: HIV-1 infection may impair transplacental antibody transfer to infants. The impact of highly active antiretroviral treatment (ART) given during pregnancy on transplacental antibody transport is unknown. METHODS: HIV-1 infected pregnant women with CD4 counts between 200 - 500 were randomized to short-course zidovudine (ZDV) or triple ART at 32 weeks gestation for prevention of mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission. Levels of maternal antibody against measles, pneumococcus and rotavirus at delivery, and antibody transfer to the baby through cord blood, were compared between trial arms...
August 19, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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