Read by QxMD icon Read

Noninvasive brain

J Wu, S Dehkharghani, F Nahab, J Allen, D Qiu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Measuring cerebrovascular reactivity with the use of vasodilatory stimuli, such as acetazolamide, is useful for chronic cerebrovascular steno-occlusive disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of acetazolamide on the assessment of hemodynamic impairment and functional connectivity by using noninvasive resting-state blood oxygen level-dependent MR imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 20-minute resting-state blood oxygen level-dependent MR imaging scan was acquired with infusion of acetazolamide starting at 5 minutes after scan initiation...
October 6, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Victoria A McCredie, Simone Piva, Marlene Santos, Wei Xiong, Airton Leonardo de Oliveira Manoel, Andrea Rigamonti, Gregory M T Hare, Martin G Chapman, Andrew J Baker
BACKGROUND: There are a range of opinions on the benefits and thresholds for the transfusion of red blood cells in critically ill patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and an urgent need to understand the neurophysiologic effects. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of red blood cell transfusions on cerebral tissue oxygenation (SctO2) in critically ill TBI patients. METHODS: This prospective observational study enrolled consecutive TBI patients with anemia requiring transfusion...
October 18, 2016: Neurocritical Care
Sven Haller, Greg Zaharchuk, David L Thomas, Karl-Olof Lovblad, Frederik Barkhof, Xavier Golay
Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technique used to assess cerebral blood flow noninvasively by magnetically labeling inflowing blood. In this article, the main labeling techniques, notably pulsed and pseudocontinuous ASL, as well as emerging clinical applications will be reviewed. In dementia, the pattern of hypoperfusion on ASL images closely matches the established patterns of hypometabolism on fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) images due to the close coupling of perfusion and metabolism in the brain...
November 2016: Radiology
Natália de Almeida Carvalho Duarte, Luanda André Collange Grecco, Nelci Zanon, Manuela Galli, Felipe Fregni, Claudia Santos Oliveira
A review of the literature was performed to answer the following questions: Does motor cortex excitability correlate with motor function? Do motor cortex excitability and cortex activation change after a rehabilitation program that results in improvements in motor outcomes? Can the 10-20 electroencephalography (EEG) system be used to locate the primary motor cortex when employing transcranial direct current stimulation? Is there a bihemispheric imbalance in individuals with cerebral palsy similar to what is observed in stroke survivors? the authors found there is an adaptation in the geometry of motor areas and the cortical representation of movement is variable following a brain lesion...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Chloé Najac, Sabrina M Ronen
Metabolic reprogramming is an important hallmark of cancer. Alterations in many metabolic pathways support the requirement for cellular building blocks that are essential for cancer cell proliferation. This metabolic reprogramming can be imaged using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). H MRS can inform on alterations in the steady-state levels of cellular metabolites, but the emergence of hyperpolarized C MRS has now also enabled imaging of metabolic fluxes in real-time, providing a new method for tumor detection and monitoring of therapeutic response...
October 2016: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
D P Devanand
Several recently developed biomarkers of Alzheimer disease (AD) are invasive, expensive, and difficult to obtain in most clinical settings. Olfactory identification test performance represents a noninvasive, inexpensive biomarker of AD that may have predictive accuracy comparable with neuroimaging measures and biomarkers assessed in cerebrospinal fluid. Neurofibrillary tangles in the olfactory bulb are among the earliest pathologic features of AD and are also seen in the projection pathways from the olfactory bulb to secondary olfactory brain regions, including the piriform and medial temporal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, and other limbic regions...
August 17, 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
F Thomas, V Moulier, A Valéro-Cabré, D Januel
Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are among the most characteristic symptoms of schizophrenia and have been linked to likely disturbances of structural and functional connectivity within frontal, temporal, parietal and subcortical networks involved in language and auditory functions. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has shown that alterations in the functional connectivity activity of the default-mode network (DMN) may also subtend hallucinations. Noninvasive neurostimulation techniques such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) have the ability to modulate activity of targeted cortical sites and their associated networks, showing a high potential for modulating altered connectivity subtending schizophrenia...
October 11, 2016: Revue Neurologique
Arnav Mehta, Ketan Ghaghada, Srinivasan Mukundan
The first generation of cross-sectional brain imaging using computed tomography (CT), ultrasonography, and eventually MR imaging focused on determining structural or anatomic changes associated with brain disorders. The current state-of-the-art imaging, functional imaging, uses techniques such as CT and MR perfusion that allow determination of physiologic parameters in vivo. In parallel, tissue-based genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic profiling of brain tumors has created several novel and exciting possibilities for molecular targeting of brain tumors...
November 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America
O Rapalino, E M Ratai
Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a magnetic resonance-based imaging modality that allows noninvasive sampling of metabolic changes in normal and abnormal brain parenchyma. MRS is particularly useful in the differentiation of developmental or non-neoplastic disorders from neoplastic processes. MRS is also useful during routine imaging follow-up after radiation treatment or during antiangiogenic treatment and for predicting outcomes and treatment response. The objective of this article is to provide a concise but thorough review of the basic physical principles, important applications of MRS in brain tumor imaging, and future directions...
November 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America
Mirza A Baig, Joshua P Klein, Laszlo L Mechtler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neuroimaging is an essential tool for the diagnosis and management of brain tumors. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in neuroimaging have allowed for noninvasive visualization of tumors and have changed how brain tumors are diagnosed and treated. Presurgical planning with the use of functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion tensor MRI helps to preserve eloquent regions of the brain and fiber tracts, thereby decreasing patients' postsurgical morbidity. With the use of susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) filtered phase images, diffusion-weighted studies, and perfusion imaging techniques, deciphering posttreatment effects versus tumor progression can be facilitated...
October 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
Abbas Sohrabpour, Shuai Ye, Gregory A Worrell, Wenbo Zhang, Bin He
: Combined source imaging techniques and directional connectivity analysis can provide useful information about the underlying brain networks in a noninvasive fashion. Source imaging techniques have been used successfully to either determine the source of activity or to extract source time-courses for Granger causality analysis, previously. In this work, we utilize source imaging algorithms to both find the network nodes (regions of interest) and then extract the activation time series for further Granger causality analysis...
October 11, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Nicholas J Kelley, Brandon J Schmeichel
Self-control involves the inhibition of dominant response tendencies. Most research on self-control has examined the inhibition of appetitive tendencies, and recent evidence suggests that stimulation to increase right frontal cortical activity helps to inhibit approach-motivated responses. The current experiment paired an approach-avoidance joystick task with transcranial DC stimulation to test the effects of brain stimulation on the inhibition of both approach and avoidance response tendencies. Anodal stimulation over the right/cathodal stimulation over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (compared to the opposite pattern of stimulation or sham stimulation) caused participants to initiate motive-incongruent movements more quickly, thereby suggesting a shared neural mechanism for the self-control of both approach- and avoidance-motivated impulses...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Benita Tamrazi, Melike Pekmezci, Mariam Aboian, Tarik Tihan, Christine M Glastonbury
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Pituitary macroadenomas are predominantly benign intracranial neoplasms that can be locally aggressive with invasion of adjacent structures. Biomarkers of aggressive behavior have been identified in the pathology literature, including the proliferative marker MIB-1. In the radiology literature, diffusion weighted imaging and low ADC values provide similar markers of aggressive behavior in brain tumors. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a correlation between ADC and MIB-1 in pituitary macroadenomas...
October 12, 2016: Pituitary
Vikram G Shakkottai, Amit Batla, Kailash Bhatia, William T Dauer, Christian Dresel, Martin Niethammer, David Eidelberg, Robert S Raike, Yoland Smith, H A Jinnah, Ellen J Hess, Sabine Meunier, Mark Hallett, Rachel Fremont, Kamran Khodakhah, Mark S LeDoux, Traian Popa, Cécile Gallea, Stéphane Lehericy, Andreea C Bostan, Peter L Strick
A role for the cerebellum in causing ataxia, a disorder characterized by uncoordinated movement, is widely accepted. Recent work has suggested that alterations in activity, connectivity, and structure of the cerebellum are also associated with dystonia, a neurological disorder characterized by abnormal and sustained muscle contractions often leading to abnormal maintained postures. In this manuscript, the authors discuss their views on how the cerebellum may play a role in dystonia. The following topics are discussed: The relationships between neuronal/network dysfunctions and motor abnormalities in rodent models of dystonia...
October 12, 2016: Cerebellum
Laura D Lewis, Kawin Setsompop, Bruce R Rosen, Jonathan R Polimeni
Oscillatory neural dynamics play an important role in the coordination of large-scale brain networks. High-level cognitive processes depend on dynamics evolving over hundreds of milliseconds, so measuring neural activity in this frequency range is important for cognitive neuroscience. However, current noninvasive neuroimaging methods are not able to precisely localize oscillatory neural activity above 0.2 Hz. Electroencephalography and magnetoencephalography have limited spatial resolution, whereas fMRI has limited temporal resolution because it measures vascular responses rather than directly recording neural activity...
October 11, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Sven Gottschalk, Thomas Felix Fehm, Xose Luís Deán-Ben, Vassiliy Tsytsarev, Daniel Razansky
Visualization of whole brain activity during epileptic seizures is essential for both fundamental research into the disease mechanisms and the development of efficient treatment strategies. It has been previously discussed that pathological synchronization originating from cortical areas may reinforce backpropagating signaling from the thalamic neurons, leading to massive seizures through enhancement of high frequency neural activity in the thalamocortical loop. However, the study of deep brain neural activity is challenging with the existing functional neuroimaging methods due to lack of adequate spatiotemporal resolution or otherwise insufficient penetration into subcortical areas...
January 2017: Neurophotonics
Anning Li, Yue Wu, Jenny Linnoila, Benjamin Pulli, Cuihua Wang, Matthias Zeller, Muhammad Ali, Grant K Lewandrowski, Jinghui Li, Benoit Tricot, Edmund Keliher, Gregory R Wojtkiewicz, Giulia Fulci, Xiaoyuan Feng, Bakhos A Tannous, Zhenwei Yao, John W Chen
Currently, there is no stable and flexible method to label and track cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in vivo in CTL immunotherapy. We aimed to evaluate whether the sulfo-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)-biotin-streptavidin (SA) platform could chemically modify the cell surface of CTLs for in vivo tracking. CD8+ T lymphocytes were labeled with sulfo-NHS-biotin under different conditions and then incubated with SA-Alexa647. Labeling efficiency was proportional to sulfo-NHS-biotin concentration. CD8+ T lymphocytes could be labeled with higher efficiency with sulfo-NHS-biotin in DPBS than in RPMI (P < 0...
October 8, 2016: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Shunsuke Uetake, Mitsunori Maruyama, Teppei Yamamoto, Katsuhito Kato, Yasushi Miyauchi, Yoshihiko Seino, Wataru Shimizu
BACKGROUND: Left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction depends on an impaired relaxation and stiffness. Abnormal LV relaxation contributes to the development of atrial fibrillation (AF), but the role of LV stiffness in AF remains unclear. HYPOTHESIS: Diastolic wall strain (DWS), a load-independent, noninvasive direct measure of LV stiffness, correlates with prevalent AF. METHODS: This study included 328 consecutive subjects with structurally normal hearts: 164 paroxysmal AF patients and 164 age- and sex-matched (1:1) controls...
October 7, 2016: Clinical Cardiology
Gustavo José Luvizutto, Gabriela Rizzo Soares Rizzati, Marcelo Ortolani Fogaroli, Rodrigo Thomazi Rodrigues, Priscila Watson Ribeiro, Hélio Rubens de Carvalho Nunes, Gabriel Pereira Braga, Rafael Dalle Molle da Costa, Silméia Garcia Zanati Bazan, Luiz Antônio de Lima Resende, Adriana Bastos Conforto, Rodrigo Bazan
BACKGROUND: Unilateral spatial neglect (USN) is characterized by the inability to report or respond to people or objects that are presented in the spatial hemisphere that is contralateral to the lesioned hemisphere of the brain. USN has been associated with poor functional outcomes and long stays in hospitals and rehabilitation centers. Noninvasive brain stimulation, such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), has been used in people who have been affected by USN after stroke...
October 3, 2016: Trials
Katrina Ducis, Jian Guan, Michael Karsy, Robert J Bollo
Epilepsy is a common disease in the pediatric population, and the majority of cases are controlled with medications and lifestyle modification. For the children whose seizures are pharmacoresistant, continued epileptic activity can have a severely detrimental impact on cognitive development. Early referral of children with drug-resistant seizures to a pediatric epilepsy surgery center for evaluation is critical to achieving optimal patient outcomes. There are several components to a thorough presurgical evaluation, including a detailed medical history and physical examination, noninvasive testing including electroencephalogram, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain, and often metabolic imaging...
July 2016: Translational pediatrics
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"