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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817418/neuromodulation-and-neurofeedback-treatments-in-eating-disorders-and-obesity
#1
Bethan Dalton, Iain C Campbell, Ulrike Schmidt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Psychological interventions are the treatment of choice for most eating disorders; however, significant proportions of patients do not recover with these. Advances in understanding of the neurobiology of eating disorders have led to the development of targeted treatments, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS), noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS), and neurofeedback. We review the emerging clinical evidence for the use of these interventions in eating disorders and obesity, together with their theoretical rationale...
August 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814675/retinal-amyloid-pathology-and-proof-of-concept-imaging-trial-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Yosef Koronyo, David Biggs, Ernesto Barron, David S Boyer, Joel A Pearlman, William J Au, Shawn J Kile, Austin Blanco, Dieu-Trang Fuchs, Adeel Ashfaq, Sally Frautschy, Gregory M Cole, Carol A Miller, David R Hinton, Steven R Verdooner, Keith L Black, Maya Koronyo-Hamaoui
BACKGROUND: Noninvasive detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with high specificity and sensitivity can greatly facilitate identification of at-risk populations for earlier, more effective intervention. AD patients exhibit a myriad of retinal pathologies, including hallmark amyloid β-protein (Aβ) deposits. METHODS: Burden, distribution, cellular layer, and structure of retinal Aβ plaques were analyzed in flat mounts and cross sections of definite AD patients and controls (n = 37)...
August 17, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810002/retinal-oximetry-discovers-novel-biomarkers-in-retinal-and-brain-diseases
#3
Einar Stefánsson, Olof Birna Olafsdottir, Anna Bryndis Einarsdottir, Thorunn Scheving Eliasdottir, Thor Eysteinsson, Wouter Vehmeijer, Evelien Vandewalle, Toke Bek, Sveinn Hakon Hardarson
Purpose: Biomarkers for several eye and brain diseases are reviewed, where retinal oximetry may help confirm diagnosis or measure severity of disease. These include diabetic retinopathy, central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO), retinitis pigmentosa, glaucoma, and Alzheimer's disease. Methods: Retinal oximetry is based on spectrophotometric fundus imaging and measures oxygen saturation in retinal arterioles and venules in a noninvasive, quick, safe manner. Retinal oximetry detects changes in oxygen metabolism, including those that result from ischemia or atrophy...
May 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808014/adaptive-benefit-of-cross-modal-plasticity-following-cochlear-implantation-in-deaf-adults
#4
Carly A Anderson, Ian M Wiggins, Pádraig T Kitterick, Douglas E H Hartley
It has been suggested that visual language is maladaptive for hearing restoration with a cochlear implant (CI) due to cross-modal recruitment of auditory brain regions. Rehabilitative guidelines therefore discourage the use of visual language. However, neuroscientific understanding of cross-modal plasticity following cochlear implantation has been restricted due to incompatibility between established neuroimaging techniques and the surgically implanted electronic and magnetic components of the CI. As a solution to this problem, here we used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), a noninvasive optical neuroimaging method that is fully compatible with a CI and safe for repeated testing...
August 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805565/noninvasive-brain-stimulation-and-implications-for-nonmotor-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Irena Rektorová, Ľubomíra Anderková
Transcranial noninvasive brain stimulation includes both repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). TMS uses a rapidly changing magnetic field to induce currents and action potentials in underlying brain tissue, whereas tDCS involves the application of weak electrical currents to modulate neuronal membrane potential. In this chapter, we provide a literature review with a focus on the therapeutic potential of both techniques in the treatment of nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD)...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802926/nonmotor-symptoms-and-natural-history-of-parkinson-s-disease-evidence-from-cognitive-dysfunction-and-role-of-noninvasive-interventions
#6
Roberta Biundo, Eleonora Fiorenzato, Angelo Antonini
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by motor and nonmotor symptoms (NMS). Several subsequent studies substantiate the great functional burden related to NMS, their progression, and negative effect on quality of life in PD. Additional evidence indicates interesting relationships between striatal dopaminergic function and NMS. The basal ganglia are implicated in the modulation and integration of sensory information and pain, bladder function is under control of both inhibitory (D1) and facilitatory (D2) dopaminergic inputs, finally reduced dopaminergic activity in the mesocortical and mesolimbic pathways is involved in the development of several NMS including mood, motivational, and cognitive alterations...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802812/noninvasive-brain-stimulation-improves-hemispatial-neglect-after-stroke-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Ana Paula S Salazar, Patrícia G Vaz, Ritchele R Marchese, Cinara Stein, Camila Pinto, Aline S Pagnussat
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) - repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) - on hemispatial neglect and performance in activities of daily living (ADL) after stroke. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE (Pubmed), Embase, Cochrane CENTRAL, SCOPUS, Scielo and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) were searched from database inception to December 2016. DATA SELECTION: Randomized controlled trials or crossover trials focused on determining the effects of tDCS or rTMS combined or not combined with other therapies for hemispatial neglect after stroke...
August 9, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783638/cmos-ultralow-power-brain-signal-acquisition-front-ends-design-and-human-testing
#8
Alireza Karimi-Bidhendi, Omid Malekzadeh-Arasteh, Mao-Cheng Lee, Colin M McCrimmon, Po T Wang, Akshay Mahajan, Charles Yu Liu, Zoran Nenadic, An H Do, Payam Heydari
Two brain signal acquisition (BSA) front-ends incorporating two CMOS ultralow power, low-noise amplifier arrays and serializers operating in mosfet weak inversion region are presented. To boost the amplifier's gain for a given current budget, cross-coupled-pair active load topology is used in the first stages of these two amplifiers. These two BSA front-ends are fabricated in 130 and 180 nm CMOS processes, occupying 5.45 mm (2) and 0.352 mm (2) of die areas, respectively (excluding pad rings). The CMOS 130-nm amplifier array is comprised of 64 elements, where each amplifier element consumes 0...
August 1, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781414/test-suite-for-image-based-motion-estimation-of-the-brain-and-tongue
#9
Jordan Ramsey, Jerry L Prince, Arnold D Gomez
Noninvasive analysis of motion has important uses as qualitative markers for organ function and to validate biomechanical computer simulations relative to experimental observations. Tagged MRI is considered the gold standard for noninvasive tissue motion estimation in the heart, and this has inspired multiple studies focusing on other organs, including the brain under mild acceleration and the tongue during speech. As with other motion estimation approaches, using tagged MRI to measure 3D motion includes several preprocessing steps that affect the quality and accuracy of estimation...
February 11, 2017: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777178/sleep-disordered-breathing
#10
Nancy R Foldvary-Schaefer, Tina E Waters
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sleep-disordered breathing encompasses a broad spectrum of sleep-related breathing disorders, including obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), central sleep apnea, as well as sleep-related hypoventilation and hypoxemia. Diagnostic criteria have been updated in the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Third Edition and the American Academy of Sleep Medicine Manual for Scoring Sleep and Associated Events. Neurologic providers should have basic knowledge and skills to identify at-risk patients, as these disorders are associated with substantial morbidity, the treatment of which is largely reversible...
August 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775050/risk-assessment-prognosis-and-guideline-implementation-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#11
Athénaïs Boucly, Jason Weatherald, Laurent Savale, Xavier Jaïs, Vincent Cottin, Grégoire Prevot, François Picard, Pascal de Groote, Mitja Jevnikar, Emmanuel Bergot, Ari Chaouat, Céline Chabanne, Arnaud Bourdin, Florence Parent, David Montani, Gérald Simonneau, Marc Humbert, Olivier Sitbon
Current European guidelines recommend periodic risk assessment for patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The aim of our study was to determine the association between the number of low-risk criteria achieved within 1 year of diagnosis and long-term prognosis.Incident patients with idiopathic, heritable and drug-induced PAH between 2006 and 2016 were analysed. The number of low-risk criteria present at diagnosis and at first re-evaluation were assessed: World Health Organization (WHO)/New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class I or II, 6-min walking distance (6MWD) >440 m, right atrial pressure <8 mmHg and cardiac index ≥2...
August 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770549/therapy-related-longitudinal-brain-perfusion-changes-in-patients-with-chronic-pelvic-pain-syndrome
#12
Christian Weisstanner, Livio Mordasini, George N Thalmann, Rajeev K Verma, Christian Rummel, Andrea Federspiel, Thomas M Kessler, Roland Wiest
BACKGROUND: The imaging method most frequently employed to identify brain areas involved in neuronal processing of nociception and brain pain perception is blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Arterial spin labelling (ASL), in contrast, offers advantages when slow varying changes in brain function are investigated. Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) is a disorder of, mostly, young males that leads to altered pain perceptions in structures related to the pelvis...
August 3, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764821/investigating-the-role-of-near-infrared-spectroscopy-in-neonatal-medicine
#13
Kaylee M Evans, Lori B Rubarth
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a clinical tool that provides a bedside method of noninvasively measuring continuous, "real-time" oxygen consumption and monitoring for potential ischemia of somatic tissues, particularly the brain, kidneys, and intestine in neonates. Although the concept of NIRS seems promising, its implementation into clinical practice has been inconsistent for various reasons, including difficulty in interpreting regional oxygen saturation (rSO2), the wide variation in types of NIRS monitors and probes, the cost of new equipment, different monitoring modalities, large discrepancies in both intra- and interindividual use, a lack of defined universal normative values, and little to no data on outcomes or potentially harmful interventions made based on rSO2 readings...
July 1, 2017: Neonatal Network: NN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756927/the-relationship-between-fractional-anisotropy-value-and-tumor-microarchitecture-in-late-stage-rat-glioma
#14
Xiang-Ying Li, Jian-Qiang Chen, Yi-Kai Xu, Xiang-Jun Han
OBJECTIVE: To explore the magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (MR-DTI) features of in the late stage of Wistar rat C6 brain glioma, and the relationship between fractional anisotropy value and tumor microarchitecture. METHODS: The concentration of more than 1.0 × 10(6)/10 μL glioma cells and complete medium were injected stereotactically into the right caudate nucleus of the experimental group (n = 35) and control group (n = 10), respectively. Conventional MRI, DTI, and enhanced T1WI scans were Performed using the GE Signa HD × 3...
June 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756093/noninvasive-nanoparticle-strategies-for-brain-tumor-targeting
#15
REVIEW
Chunmeng Sun, Yang Ding, Li Zhou, Di Shi, Linlin Sun, Thomas J Webster, Yan Shen
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) maintains the integrity and homeostasis of the central nervous system (CNS) yet represents an intimidating hurdle for efficient drug delivery to brain tumors. This up-to-date review summarizes strategies that have been employed to cross the BBB with a focus on non-invasive nanoparticles that could pass the BBB after systemic administration. Recent advances in liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, micelles, and inorganic nanoparticles are scrutinized mechanistically with an emphasis on design principles...
July 27, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755877/multiple-retinal-anomalies-in-schizophrenia
#16
REVIEW
Selin A Adams, Henry A Nasrallah
INTRODUCTION: In addition to being a critical component of the visual system, the retina provides the opportunity for an accessible and noninvasive probe of brain pathology in neuropsychiatric disorders. Several studies have reported various retinal abnormalities in schizophrenia, some primary and others iatrogenic. There is now increasing evidence supporting the existence of retinal anomalies in schizophrenia across structural, neurochemical and physiological parameters. Here, we review the types of retinal pathology in schizophrenia and discuss how these findings may provide novel insights for future research into the neurodevelopmental neurobiology of this syndrome, and possibly as useful biomarkers...
July 26, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753639/self-regulation-strategy-feedback-timing-and-hemodynamic-properties-modulate-learning-in-a-simulated-fmri-neurofeedback-environment
#17
Ethan F Oblak, Jarrod A Lewis-Peacock, James S Sulzer
Direct manipulation of brain activity can be used to investigate causal brain-behavior relationships. Current noninvasive neural stimulation techniques are too coarse to manipulate behaviors that correlate with fine-grained spatial patterns recorded by fMRI. However, these activity patterns can be manipulated by having people learn to self-regulate their own recorded neural activity. This technique, known as fMRI neurofeedback, faces challenges as many participants are unable to self-regulate. The causes of this non-responder effect are not well understood due to the cost and complexity of such investigation in the MRI scanner...
July 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747063/dpp4-inhibitors-can-be-a-drug-of-choice-for-type-3-diabetes-a-mini-review
#18
Nehru Sai Suresh Chalichem, Chaitanya Gonugunta, Praveen Thaggikuppe Krishnamurthy, Basavan Duraiswamy
As well known to the scientific community, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an irreversible neurodegenerative disease that ends up with impairment of memory and cognition due to neuronal and synapse loss. Patient's quality of life can be enhanced by targeting neurogenesis as a therapeutic paradigm. Moreover, several research evidences support the concept that AD is a type of metabolic disorder mediated by impairment in brain insulin responsiveness and energy metabolism. Growing evidence suggests that endogenous peptides such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and stromal-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) provide neuroprotection across a range of experimental models of AD...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744475/mapping-effective-connectivity-within-cortical-networks-with-diffuse-optical-tomography
#19
Mahlega S Hassanpour, Adam T Eggebrecht, Jonathan E Peelle, Joseph P Culver
Understanding how cortical networks interact in response to task demands is important both for providing insight into the brain's processing architecture and for managing neurological diseases and mental disorders. High-density diffuse optical tomography (HD-DOT) is a neuroimaging technique that offers the significant advantages of having a naturalistic, acoustically controllable environment and being compatible with metal implants, neither of which is possible with functional magnetic resonance imaging. We used HD-DOT to study the effective connectivity and assess the modulatory effects of speech intelligibility and syntactic complexity on functional connections within the cortical speech network...
October 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743465/nanomaterial-applications-for-neurological-diseases-and-central-nervous-system-injury
#20
REVIEW
Lijie Huang, Jiangnan Hu, Shengwei Huang, Brian Wang, Felix Siaw-Debrah, Mark Nyanzu, Yu Zhang, Qichuan Zhuge
The effectiveness of noninvasive treatment for neurological disease is generally limited by the poor entry of therapeutic agents into the central nervous system (CNS). Most CNS drugs cannot permeate into the brain parenchyma because of the blood-brain barrier thus, overcoming this problem has become one of the most significant challenges in the development of neurological therapeutics. Nanotechnology has emerged as an innovative alternative for treating neurological diseases. In fact, rapid advances in nanotechnology have provided promising solutions to this challenge...
July 22, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
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