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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319858/identifying-adverse-effects-of-area-based-health-policy-an-ethnographic-study-of-a-deprived-neighbourhood-in-england
#1
Oli Williams
Health interventions commonly have adverse effects. Addressing these could significantly improve health outcomes. This paper addresses an adverse effect common in the promotion of health behaviours: exacerbation of health inequalities between low- and high-socioeconomic groups. Health behaviours - particularly, physical activity - are positioned within the context of social inequality and the inequitable spatial distribution of resources. Area-based health policy that targets deprived areas is assessed for its capacity to promote health behaviours without exacerbating inequality...
March 17, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315179/decrements-in-health-related-quality-of-life-associated-with-gender-nonconformity-among-u-s-adolescents-and-young-adults
#2
Allegra R Gordon, Nancy Krieger, Cassandra A Okechukwu, Sebastien Haneuse, Mihail Samnaliev, Brittany M Charlton, S Bryn Austin
PURPOSE: Gender nonconformity, that is, transgressing conventionally "masculine" vs. "feminine" characteristics, is often stigmatized. Stigmatization and discrimination are social stressors that raise risk of adverse mental and physical health outcomes and may drive health inequities. However, little is known about the relationship between such social stressors and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). This paper aimed to examine associations between perceived gender nonconformity and HRQOL in a cohort of U...
March 17, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314498/exploring-social-justice-in-mixed-divided-cities-from-local-to-global-learning
#3
Corey Shdaimah, Jane Lipscomb, Roni Strier, Dassi Postan-Aizik, Susan Leviton, Jody Olsen
BACKGROUND: University of Haifa and the University of Maryland, Baltimore faculty developed a parallel binational, interprofessional American-Israeli course which explores social justice in the context of increasing urban, local, and global inequities. OBJECTIVES: This article describes the course's innovative approach to critically examine how social justice is framed in mixed/divided cities from different professional perspectives (social work, health, law). Participatory methods such as photo-voice, experiential learning, and theatre of the oppressed provide students with a shared language and multiple media to express and problematize their own and others' understanding of social (in)justice and to imagine social change...
November 2016: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303533/urban-health-in-tanzania-questioning-the-urban-advantage
#4
Francis Levira, Gemma Todd
How are health inequalities articulated across urban and rural spaces in Tanzania? This research paper explores the variations, differences, and inequalities, in Tanzania's health outcomes-to question both the idea of an urban advantage in health and the extent of urban-rural inequalities in health. The three research objectives aim to understand: what are the health differences (morbidity and mortality) between Tanzania's urban and rural areas; how are health inequalities articulated within Tanzania's urban and rural areas; and how are health inequalities articulated across age groups for rural-urban Tanzania? By analyzing four national datasets of Tanzania (National Census, Household Budget Survey, Demographic Health Survey, and Health Demographic Surveillance System), this paper reflects on the outcomes of key health indicators across these spaces...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303431/gender-inequalities-in-remote-settings-analysis-of-105-025-medical-records-of-a-rural-hospital-in-ethiopia-2005-2015
#5
Sandro Accorsi, Edgardo Somigliana, Pasquale Farese, Tsegaye Ademe, Yonas Desta, Giovanni Putoto, Fabio Manenti
Gender inequalities in Sub-Saharan Africa are deemed relevant but data to support this view are scanty. Retrospective analysis of a large dataset of 105,025 patients admitted to an Ethiopian rural private, non-for-profit hospital over a 11 years period (2005-2015). Since 2001, the hospital and the local community are involved in a long-term, comprehensive and externally-supported health care intervention. The total number of admissions was higher for females (61.9% of the total) mainly because of the high frequency of admissions for obstetrics conditions...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302918/the-heterogeneous-impact-of-a-successful-tobacco-control-campaign-a-case-study-of-mauritius
#6
Hana Ross, Leelmanee Moussa, Tom Harris, Rajive Ajodhea
BACKGROUND: Mauritius has one of the highest smoking prevalences in Africa, contributing to its high burden of non-communicable diseases. Mauritius implemented a series of tobacco control measures from 2009 to 2012, including tobacco tax increases. There is evidence that these policies reduced tobacco consumption, but it is not clear what impact they had across different socioeconomic groups. METHOD: The impact of tobacco control measures on different income groups was analysed by contrasting household tobacco expenditures reported in 2006-2007 and 2012 household expenditure surveys...
March 15, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302153/students-as-effective-harm-reductionists-and-needle-exchange-organizers
#7
EDITORIAL
Kyle Barbour, Miriam McQuade, Brandon Brown
BACKGROUND: Needle exchange programs are safe, highly effective programs for promoting health among people who inject drugs. However, they remain poorly funded, and often illegal, in many places worldwide due to fear and stigma surrounding drug use. Continued advocacy, education, and implementation of new needle exchanges are thus essential to improve public health and reduce structural inequality. COMMENTARY: We argue that students, and especially professional and graduate students, have the potential to play an important role in advancing harm reduction...
March 17, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301539/identifying-inequities-in-maternal-and-child-health-through-risk-stratification-to-inform-health-systems-strengthening-in-northern-togo
#8
Katharine J McCarthy, Sandra Braganza, Kevin Fiori, Christophe Gbeleou, Vivien Kpakpo, Andrew Lopez, Jennifer Schechter, Alicia Singham Goodwin, Heidi E Jones
OBJECTIVE: In Togo, substantial progress in maternal and child health is needed to reach global development goals. To better inform clinic and community-based health services, this study identifies factors associated with maternal and child health care utilization in the Kara region of Northern Togo. METHODS: We conducted a population-representative household survey of four health clinic catchment areas of 1,075 women of reproductive age in 2015. Multivariable logistic regression was used to model individual and structural factors associated with utilization of four maternal and child health services...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301002/brazilian-municipalities-and-their-own-expenditures-on-health-some-associations
#9
Carmem Emmanuely Leitão Araújo, Guilherme Quaresma Gonçalves, José Angelo Machado
In a context that combines decentralization and underfunding of public health policy, Brazilian municipalities expressively extend their spending in this sector, allocating a proportion of their own revenues (direct taxation added to the mandatory intergovernmental transfers from the Union and the states) at levels above the ones that are constitutionally determined. However, there have been incipient studies investigating the expenditure composition on health in these federative units, in order to describe its main characteristics and explanations...
March 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300995/health-care-of-people-in-homelessness-a-comparative-study-of-mobile-units-in-portugal-united-states-and-brazil
#10
Igor da Costa Borysow, Eleonor Minho Conill, Juarez Pereira Furtado
This paper describes and analyzes the legal and normative framework guiding the use of mobile units in Portugal, United States and Brazil, which seek to improve access and continuity of care for people in homelessness. We used a comparative analysis through literature and documentary review relating three categories: context (demographic, socio-economic and epidemiological), services system (access, coverage, organization, management and financing) and, specifically, mobile units (design, care and financing model)...
March 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299821/baby-boomers-in-the-united-states-factors-associated-with-working-longer-and-delaying-retirement
#11
Xiuwen Sue Dong, Xuanwen Wang, Knut Ringen, Rosemary Sokas
OBJECTIVES: This study estimated the self-reported probability of working full-time past age 62 (P62) or age 65 (P65) among four cohorts of Americans born between 1931 and 1959. METHODS: Data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) were analyzed. Respondents in four age cohorts were selected for comparison. Multivariable linear regression models were used to assess cohort differences in P62 and P65 while adjusting for covariates. RESULTS: P62 and P65 increased among boomers despite worsened self-rated health compared to the two preceding cohorts, with 37% and 80% increases among mid-boomers in construction trades...
April 2017: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299492/do-healthcare-tax-credits-help-poor-health-individuals-on-low-incomes
#12
Cinzia Di Novi, Anna Marenzi, Dino Rizzi
In several countries, personal income tax permits tax credits for out-of-pocket healthcare expenditure. Tax credits benefit taxpayers at all income levels by reducing their net tax liability and modify the price of out-of-pocket expenditure. To the extent that consumer demand is price elastic, they may influence the amount of eligible healthcare expenditure for which taxpayers may claim a credit. These effects influence, in turn, income distributions and taxpayers' health status and therefore income-related inequality in health...
March 15, 2017: European Journal of Health Economics: HEPAC: Health Economics in Prevention and Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299257/cleft-lip-and-palate-parental-experiences-of-stigma-discrimination-and-social-structural-inequalities
#13
Wasiu Lanre Adeyemo, Olutayo James, Azeez Butali
BACKGROUND: Cleft lip and palate (CLP) are the most common craniofacial birth impairment and one of the most common congenital impairments in humans. Anecdotal evidence suggests that stigmatization, discrimination, and sociocultural inequalities are common "phenomenon" experienced by families of children with CLP in Nigeria. This study aimed to explore the stigmatization, discrimination, and sociocultural inequalities experiences of families with children born with CLP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was carried out at the surgical outpatient cleft clinic of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria...
July 2016: Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298368/building-a-new-life-in-australia-an-analysis-of-the-first-wave-of-the-longitudinal-study-of-humanitarian-migrants-in-australia-to-assess-the-association-between-social-integration-and-self-rated-health
#14
Wen Chen, Li Ling, Andre M N Renzaho
OBJECTIVES: To assess the relationship between social integration and physical and mental health among humanitarian migrants (HMs) in Australia. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We used the recently released first wave of data from the 2013 'Building a New Life in Australia' survey, which is an ongoing nationwide longitudinal study. A total of 2399 HMs participated in the survey. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-rated physical health was measured using four items selected from the SF-36 which is a generic measure of health status...
March 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298223/migration-to-middle-income-countries-and-tuberculosis-global-policies-for-global-economies
#15
Julia Moreira Pescarini, Laura Cunha Rodrigues, M Gabriela M Gomes, Eliseu Alves Waldman
BACKGROUND: International migration to middle-income countries is increasing and its health consequences, in particular increasing transmission rates of tuberculosis (TB), deserve consideration. Migration and TB are a matter of concern in high-income countries and targeted screening of migrants for active and latent TB infection is a main strategy to manage risk and minimize transmission. In this paper, we discuss some aspects of TB control and migration in the context of middle-income countries, together with the prospect of responding with equitable and comprehensive policies...
March 15, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298198/maternal-and-neonatal-service-usage-and-determinants-in-fragile-and-conflict-affected-situations-a-systematic-review-of-asia-and-the-middle-east
#16
Saji S Gopalan, Ashis Das, Natasha Howard
BACKGROUND: Fragile and conflict-affected situations (FCS) in Asia and the Middle-East contribute significantly to global maternal and neonatal deaths. This systematic review explored maternal and neonatal health (MNH) services usage and determinants in FCS in Asia and the Middle-East to inform policy on health service provision in these challenging settings. METHODS: This systematic review was conducted using a standardised protocol. Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, and selected development agency websites were searched for studies meeting inclusion criteria...
March 15, 2017: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296975/socioeconomic-inequalities-in-health-in-the-context-of-multimorbidity-a-korean-panel-study
#17
Myung Ki, Yo Han Lee, Yong-Soo Kim, Ji-Yeon Shin, Jiseun Lim, James Nazroo
Socioeconomic inequalities in health are commonly known to decrease at late age. Yet, it remains unclear whether socioeconomic inequalities in health at late age appear in relation to multimorbidity, particularly in Korea where social support remains unsatisfactory for older people. Using three waves of Korea Health Panel, data of 19,942 observations with repeated measure were constructed to ensure a temporal sequence between three socioeconomic measures (i.e., poverty, employment status, and education) and multimorbidity with a t to t+1 year transition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295883/social-and-material-aspects-of-life-and-their-impact-on-the-physical-health-of-people-diagnosed-with-mental-illness
#18
Stephanie B Ewart, Brenda Happell, Julia Bocking, Chris Platania-Phung, Robert Stanton, Brett Scholz
BACKGROUND: People diagnosed with mental illness have shorter lives and poorer physical health, compared to the general population. These health inequities are usually viewed at an individual and clinical level, yet there is little research on the views of mental health consumers on clinical factors in broader contexts. OBJECTIVE: To elicit the views of consumers of mental health services regarding their physical health and experiences of accessing physical health-care services...
March 15, 2017: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295602/child-survival-revolutions-revisited-lessons-learned-from-bangladesh-nicaragua-rwanda-and-vietnam
#19
REVIEW
Lars Åke Persson, Anisur Rahman, Rodolfo Peña, Wilton Perez, Aimable Musafili, Dinh Phuong Hoa
Analysing child mortality may enhance our perspective on global achievements in child survival. We used data from surveillance sites in Bangladesh, Nicaragua and Vietnam and Demographic Health Surveys in Rwanda to explore the development of neonatal and under-five mortality. The mortality curves showed dramatic reductions over time, but child mortality in the four countries peaked during wars and catastrophes and was rapidly reduced by targeted interventions, multi-sectorial development efforts and community engagement CONCLUSION: Lessons learned from these countries may be useful when tackling future challenges, including persistent neonatal deaths, survival inequalities and the consequences of climate change and migration...
March 12, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295167/poorer-detection-rates-of-severe-fetal-growth-restriction-in-women-of-likely-refugee-background-a%C3%A2-case-for-re-focusing-pregnancy-care
#20
Mary Anne Biro, Christine East
BACKGROUND: Severe fetal growth restriction (FGR) (< third centile) in a singleton pregnancy undelivered by 40 weeks is one of a number of Victorian Perinatal Services Performance Indicators, which aim to provide a measure of the quality and safety of maternity care. Women of refugee background have been found to have poorer perinatal outcomes compared to others and these outcomes can in part be explained by previous history. However, less access to and engagement with pregnancy care may also be contributing factors...
March 13, 2017: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
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