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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213104/musical-imagery-involves-wernicke-s-area-in-bilateral-and-anti-correlated-network-interactions-in-musicians
#1
Yizhen Zhang, Gang Chen, Haiguang Wen, Kun-Han Lu, Zhongming Liu
Musical imagery is the human experience of imagining music without actually hearing it. The neural basis of this mental ability is unclear, especially for musicians capable of engaging in accurate and vivid musical imagery. Here, we created a visualization of an 8-minute symphony as a silent movie and used it as real-time cue for musicians to continuously imagine the music for repeated and synchronized sessions during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The activations and networks evoked by musical imagery were compared with those elicited by the subjects directly listening to the same music...
December 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198286/what-do-language-disorders-reveal-about-brain-language-relationships-from-classic-models-to-network-approaches
#2
Nina F Dronkers, Maria V Ivanova, Juliana V Baldo
Studies of language disorders have shaped our understanding of brain-language relationships over the last two centuries. This article provides a review of this research and how our thinking has changed over the years regarding how the brain processes language. In the 19th century, a series of famous case studies linked distinct speech and language functions to specific portions of the left hemisphere of the brain, regions that later came to be known as Broca's and Wernicke's areas. One hundred years later, the emergence of new brain imaging tools allowed for the visualization of brain injuries in vivo that ushered in a new era of brain-behavior research and greatly expanded our understanding of the neural processes of language...
October 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197559/disruption-of-semantic-network-in-mild-alzheimer-s-disease-revealed-by-resting-state-fmri
#3
Daniele Mascali, Mauro DiNuzzo, Laura Serra, Silvia Mangia, Bruno Maraviglia, Marco Bozzali, Federico Giove
Subtle semantic deficits can be observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients even in the early stages of the illness. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that the semantic control network is deregulated in mild AD patients. We assessed the integrity of the semantic control system using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in a cohort of patients with mild AD (n = 38; mean Mini-Mental State Examination=20.5) and in a group of age-matched healthy controls (n = 19). Voxel-wise analysis spatially constrained in the left fronto-temporal semantic control network identified two regions with altered functional connectivity in AD patients, specifically in the pars opercularis (POp, BA44) and in the posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG, BA21)...
November 29, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188542/wet-beriberi-associated-with-hikikomori-syndrome
#4
Natsumi Tanabe, Eiji Hiraoka, Jun Kataoka, Takaki Naito, Ko Matsumoto, Junya Arai, Yasuhiro Norisue
Wet beriberi, characterized by high cardiac output with predominantly right-sided heart failure and lactic acidosis, is a disease caused by thiamine deficiency, and is rarely seen in modern society. However, patients with social withdrawal syndrome, also known as hikikomori syndrome, may be a new population at risk of thiamine deficiency. Hikikomori syndrome, first recognized in Japan, is becoming a worldwide issue. A 39-year-old Japanese patient was brought to our hospital, with a 3-week history of progressive shortness of breath and generalized edema...
November 29, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176478/vitamin-b1-deficiency-related-to-excessive-soft-drink-consumption-in-japan
#5
Akihisa Okumura, Shinobu Ida, Masaaki Mori, Toshiaki Shimizu
The aim of this study was to clarify the picture of vitamin B1 deficiency (VB1D) caused by excessive soft drink consumption in Japan. A nationwide survey of children with soft drink-induced VB1D was conducted using a structured research form. Patient information was obtained from two sources: training hospitals for board-certified pediatricians and those identified by a database search. We obtained data from 33 children. Twenty-one children had a non-nurturing home environment. The median duration of excessive soft drink intake was 3...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170174/wernicke-s-encephalopathy-secondary-to-gestational-hyperthyroidism
#6
Vishnu Vardhan Garla, Licy Yanes-Cardozo, Tauqeer Yousuf, Shema Ahmad
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 23, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167457/the-genetic-basis-for-the-adaptation-of-e-coli-to-sugar-synthesis-from-co2
#7
Elad Herz, Niv Antonovsky, Yinon Bar-On, Dan Davidi, Shmuel Gleizer, Noam Prywes, Lianet Noda-Garcia, Keren Lyn Frisch, Yehudit Zohar, David G Wernick, Alon Savidor, Uri Barenholz, Ron Milo
Understanding the evolution of a new metabolic capability in full mechanistic detail is challenging, as causative mutations may be masked by non-essential "hitchhiking" mutations accumulated during the evolutionary trajectory. We have previously used adaptive laboratory evolution of a rationally engineered ancestor to generate an Escherichia coli strain able to utilize CO2 fixation for sugar synthesis. Here, we reveal the genetic basis underlying this metabolic transition. Five mutations are sufficient to enable robust growth when a non-native Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle provides all the sugar-derived metabolic building blocks...
November 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158884/a-mitochondrial-disorder-in-a-middle-age-iranian-patient-report-of-a-rare-case
#8
Mostafa Almasi, Mohammad Reza Motamed, Masoud Mehrpour, Bahram Haghi-Ashtiani, Fahimeh Haji Akhondi, Yalda Nilipour, Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad
Introduction: Mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) can involve multiple systems and cause stroke-like episodes and status epilepticus. Case Presentation: A 48-year-old female with history of early fatigability, migraine-type headaches, and bilateral sensory-neural hearing loss presented 3 episodes of serial seizures. On admission she was affected by Wernicke aphasia and, then, right hemiparesis. Investigations showed elevated arterial lactate and ragged red fibers on muscle biopsy...
July 2017: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157937/pure-word-deafness-following-left-temporal-damage-behavioral-and-neuroanatomical-evidence-from-a-new-case
#9
Chiara Maffei, Rita Capasso, Giulia Cazzolli, Cesare Colosimo, Flavio Dell'Acqua, Francesca Piludu, Marco Catani, Gabriele Miceli
Pure Word Deafness (PWD) is a rare disorder, characterized by selective loss of speech input processing. Its most common cause is temporal damage to the primary auditory cortex of both hemispheres, but it has been reported also following unilateral lesions. In unilateral cases, PWD has been attributed to the disconnection of Wernicke's area from both right and left primary auditory cortex. Here we report behavioral and neuroimaging evidence from a new case of left unilateral PWD with both cortical and white matter damage due to a relatively small stroke lesion in the left temporal gyrus...
December 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143209/the-medial-vestibular-nuclei-a-vulnerable-target-in-thiamine-deficiency
#10
Jorge C Kattah, Cindy Guede, Bahareh Hassanzadeh
BACKGROUND: Bilateral medial vestibular nuclei (MVN) is a common target in thiamine depletion and results in acute vestibular failure. Involvement of the MVN was present in 27 out of 38 brainstem sections reported in the largest thiamine deficiency autopsy cohort with Wernicke's encephalopathy. METHOD: Serial clinical, imaging and vestibulo-ocular reflex gain measured with the video head impulse (vHIT) in one patient with acute thiamine deficiency. RESULTS: Low horizontal VOR gain correlated with an abnormal manual head impulse and with MRI evidence of MVN in an alcohol-dependent patient with low thiamine levels...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138746/a-novel-encephalopathy-in-a-thiamine-deficient-dog-resembling-human-wernicke-s-disease-with-atypical-mri-pattern
#11
Floriana Gernone, Mario Ricciardi
Thiamine is a water-soluble vitamin, which participates in several vital metabolic pathways involved in energy metabolism and neurotransmitter synthesis of mammals. In companion animals thiamine deficiency is classically associated with signs of diffuse encephalopathy and lesions on brainstem nuclei and mesencephalic colliculi evident on magnetic resonance imaging. This paper describes a novel clinical presentation in a thiamine-deficient dog showing multifocal, central and peripheral nervous and cardiovascular system alterations...
2017: Open Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133769/wernicke-encephalopathy-in-a-patient-with-pulmonary-and-abdominal-tuberculosis
#12
Yun-Cui Gan, Jing Jin, Zhi-Xin Qiu, Xue-Rong Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128903/impairment-of-thiamine-transport-at-the-gut-bbb-axis-contributes-to-wernicke-s-encephalopathy
#13
P M Abdul-Muneer, Saleena Alikunju, Heather Schuetz, Adam M Szlachetka, Xiaotang Ma, James Haorah
Wernicke's encephalopathy, a common neurological disease, is caused by thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency. Neuropathy resulting from thiamine deficiency is a hallmark of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome in chronic alcohol users. The underlying mechanisms of this deficiency and progression of neuropathy remain to be understood. To uncover the unknown mechanisms of thiamine deficiency in alcohol abuse, we used chronic alcohol consumption or thiamine deficiency diet ingestion in animal models. Observations from animal models were validated in primary human neuronal culture for neurodegenerative process...
November 11, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128624/wernicke-korsakoff-syndrome-complicated-by-subacute-beriberi-neuropathy-in-an-alcoholic-patient
#14
Salvatore Di Marco, Laura Pilati, Filippo Brighina, Brigida Fierro, Giuseppe Cosentino
Thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency is a common condition in alcohol abusers, which can lead to damage of both the peripheral and the central nervous systems. Here we describe the case of an alcoholic patient who presented with acute onset of ataxia, severe weakness of the four limbs, and hypoesthesia and dysesthesia of the distal portion of the upper and lower extremities. The clinical picture also included mental confusion and amnesia. A diagnosis of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome was made based on clinical symptoms and brain RMI findings...
November 8, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069345/adaptive-evolution-under-extreme-genetic-drift-in-oxidatively-stressed-caenorhabditis-elegans
#15
Stephen F Christy, Riana I Wernick, Michael J Lue, Griselda Velasco, Dana K Howe, Dee R Denver, Suzanne Estes
A mutation-accumulation (MA) experiment with Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes was conducted in which replicate, independently evolving lines were initiated from a low-fitness mitochondrial electron transport chain mutant, gas-1. The original intent of the study was to assess the effect of electron transport chain dysfunction involving elevated reactive oxygen species production on patterns of spontaneous germline mutation. In contrast to results of standard MA experiments, gas-1 MA lines evolved slightly higher mean fitness alongside reduced among-line genetic variance compared with their ancestor...
November 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064136/pyridoxamine-a-novel-treatment-for-schizophrenia-with-enhanced-carbonyl-stress
#16
Masanari Itokawa, Mitsuhiro Miyashita, Makoto Arai, Takashi Dan, Katsuyoshi Takahashi, Taro Tokunaga, Kayo Ishimoto, Kazuya Toriumi, Tomoe Ichikawa, Yasue Horiuchi, Akiko Kobori, Satoshi Usami, Takeo Yoshikawa, Naoji Amano, Shinsuke Washizuka, Yuji Okazaki, Toshio Miyata
AIM: The aim of this clinical trial was to obtain proof of concept for high-dose pyridoxamine as a novel treatment for schizophrenia with enhanced carbonyl stress. METHODS: Ten Japanese schizophrenia patients with high plasma pentosidine, which is a representative biomarker of enhanced carbonyl stress, were recruited in a 24 week, open trial in which high-dose pyridoxamine (ranging from 1200 to 2400 mg/day) was administered using a conventional anti-psychotic regimen...
October 24, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052074/correction-to-non-alcoholic-wernicke-s-encephalopathy-with-cortical-involvement-and-polyneuropathy-following-gastrectomy
#17
Wei-Chia Tsao, Long-Sun Ro, Chiung-Mei Chen, Hong-Shiu Chang, Hung-Chou Kuo
In the original publication of the article, author name Hong-Shiu Chang was incorrectly written as Hong-Chiu Chang.
December 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051682/rapid-recovery-from-aphasia-after-infarction-of-wernicke-s-area
#18
Stephanie A Yagata, Melodie Yen, Angelica McCarron, Alexa Bautista, Genevieve Lamair-Orosco, Stephen M Wilson
BACKGROUND: Aphasia following infarction of Wernicke's area typically resolves to some extent over time. The nature of this recovery process and its time course have not been characterized in detail, especially in the acute/subacute period. AIMS: The goal of this study was to document recovery after infarction of Wernicke's area in detail in the first 3 months after stroke. Specifically, we aimed to address two questions about language recovery. First, which impaired language domains improve over time, and which do not? Second, what is the time course of recovery? METHODS & PROCEDURES: We used quantitative analysis of connected speech and a brief aphasia battery to document language recovery in two individuals with aphasia following infarction of the posterior superior temporal gyrus...
2017: Aphasiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049970/sexual-interest-and-sexual-self-control-in-men-with-self-reported-sexual-interest-in-children-a-first-eye-tracking-study
#19
Kirsten Jordan, Peter Fromberger, Isabel Müller, Martina Wernicke, Georg Stolpmann, Jürgen L Müller
Sexual child abuse is one of the most destructive events for child development. One possible approach to avert it is the preventive treatment of individuals with a sexual interest in children. The aim of the current eye tracking study was to compare people with a self-reported sexual interest in children who participate in the outpatient preventive treatment project "PsM", pedophilic forensic inpatients, and a non-pedophilic control group. Groups were compared with respect to sexual interest and attentional control in the presence of sexual stimuli, both assessed independently of self-report...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043155/catatonia-as-a-putative-nosological-entity-a-historical-sketch
#20
REVIEW
Gábor Gazdag, Rozalia Takács, Gabor S Ungvari
Kahlbaum was the first to propose catatonia as a separate disease following the example of general paresis of the insane, which served as a model for establishing a nosological entity. However, Kahlbaum was uncertain about the nosological position of catatonia and considered it a syndrome, or "a temporary stage or a part of a complex picture of various disease forms". Until recently, the issue of catatonia as a separate diagnostic category was not entertained, mainly due to a misinterpretation of Kraepelin's influential views on catatonia as a subtype of schizophrenia...
September 22, 2017: World Journal of Psychiatry
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