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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087242/brains-for-birds-and-babies-neural-parallels-between-birdsong-and-speech-acquisition
#1
REVIEW
Jonathan Prather, Kazuo Okanoya, Johan J Bolhuis
Language as a computational cognitive mechanism appears to be unique to the human species. However, there are remarkable behavioral similarities between song learning in songbirds and speech acquisition in human infants that are absent in non-human primates. Here we review important neural parallels between birdsong and speech. In both cases there are separate but continually interacting neural networks that underlie vocal production, sensorimotor learning, and auditory perception and memory. As in the case of human speech, neural activity related to birdsong learning is lateralized, and mirror neurons linking perception and performance may contribute to sensorimotor learning...
January 10, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064230/high-dose-parenteral-thiamine-in-treatment-of-wernicke-s-encephalopathy-case-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#2
Andrew Nishimoto, Justin Usery, John C Winton, Jennifer Twilla
BACKGROUND: Thiamine deficiency can lead to Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE), an acute and potentially life-threatening neurological disorder. Even though the main treatment modality for WE consists of thiamine replacement, evidence supporting an optimal dosing strategy and duration is unclear. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We present a single-center case series of eleven patients that were admitted with possible WE and treated with high-dose parenteral thiamine. RESULTS: Patients with suspected WE were treated with ≥500 mg intravenous thiamine for a median of 3 days with 73% of patients (eight out of eleven) displaying symptom resolution or improvement after treatment...
January 2017: In Vivo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046810/su-f-t-615-comparison-of-plan-quality-for-linac-based-stereotactic-radiosurgery-srs-using-single-and-multi-isocenter-techniques
#3
J Chang, A Wernicke, S Pannullo
PURPOSE: To compare the plan quality of linear accelerator (linac)-based stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) using single-isocenter volumetric arc therapy (SI-VMAT), restricted single-isocenter dynamic-arc (RSI-DARC), and multi-isocenter DARC (MI-DARC) techniques. METHODS: Fifteen SRS cases were randomly selected and re-planned using the SI-VMAT (Pinnacle), RSI-DARC (iPlanNet) and MI-DARC (iPlanNet). The number of planning target volumes (PTVs) for each plan ranged from 1 to 6...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042371/wernicke-like-encephalopathy-associated-with-ifosfamide
#4
John Kent Lin, Daniel S Chow, Leslie Sheu, Bhavya Rehani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Neurohospitalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032196/air-mass-origin-signals-in-%C3%AE-18-o-of-tree-ring-cellulose-revealed-by-back-trajectory-modeling-at-the-monsoonal-tibetan-plateau
#5
Jakob Wernicke, Philipp Hochreuther, Jussi Grießinger, Haifeng Zhu, Lily Wang, Achim Bräuning
A profound consideration of stable oxygen isotope source water origins is a precondition for an unambiguous palaeoenvironmental interpretation of terrestrial δ (18)O archives. To stress the influence of air mass origins on widely used δ (18)O tree-ring chronologies, we conducted correlation analyses between six annually resolved δ (18)O tree-ring cellulose ([Formula: see text]) chronologies and mean annual air package origins obtained from backward trajectory modeling. This novel approach has been tested for a transect at the southeastern Tibetan plateau (TP), where air masses with different isotopic composition overlap...
December 28, 2016: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027558/cognitive-evoked-potentials-p300-after-radiation-exposure
#6
K M Loganovsky, K V Kuts
OBJECTIVE: The study was aimed at evaluating features of brain information processes and cognitive functioning in the remote period after irradiation due to the Chornobyl accident by using cognitive evoked potentials P300. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 128 people, 112 male Chornobyl clean up workers in 1986-1987 with the records of radiation doses available in Clinical and Epidemiological Registry (CER) of State Institution «National Research Center for Radiation Medicine of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine» (NRCRM) (study group) and 16 unexposed persons due to the Chornobyl disaster (control group)...
December 2016: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005160/a-contemporary-framework-of-language-processing-in-the-human-brain-in-the-context-of-preoperative-and-intraoperative-language-mapping
#7
Erik H Middlebrooks, Kaan Yagmurlu, Jerzey P Szaflarski, Maryam Rahman, Baran Bozkurt
INTRODUCTION: The emergence of advanced in vivo neuroimaging methods has redefined the understanding of brain function with a shift from traditional localizationist models to more complex and widely distributed neural networks. In human language processing, the traditional localizationist models of Wernicke and Broca have fallen out of favor for a dual-stream processing system involving complex networks organized over vast areas of the dominant hemisphere. The current review explores the cortical function and white matter connections of human language processing, as well as their relevance to surgical planning...
December 22, 2016: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003159/both-anodal-and-cathodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-improves-semantic-processing
#8
Sabrina Brückner, Thomas Kammer
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a common method to modulate cortical activity. Anodal tDCS is usually associated with an enhancement of the stimulated brain area, whereas cathodal tDCS is often described as inhibitory brain stimulation method. Our aim was to investigate whether this canonical assumption derived from the motor system could be transferred to the semantic system. Three groups with 20 healthy subjects each were stimulated at Wernicke's area with either anodal, cathodal or sham tDCS...
December 18, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998546/wernicke-s-encephalopathy-after-conversion-from-sleeve-gastrectomy-to-gastric-bypass
#9
Tony Alias, Pamela Hoof, Mike Lee, Daniel Davis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988455/delayed-diagnosis-of-wernicke-encephalopathy-with-irreversible-neural-damage-after-subtotal-gastrectomy-for-gastric-cancer-a-case-of-medical-liability
#10
Pamela Tozzo, Luciana Caenazzo, Daniele Rodriguez, Matteo Bolcato
INTRODUCTION: Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is a neurological syndrome caused by thiamine deficiency, and clinically characterized by ophthalmoplegia, ataxia and acute confusion. In developed countries, most cases of WE have been seen in alcohol misusers. Other reported causes are gastrointestinal tract surgery, hyperemesis gravidarum, chronic malnutrition, prolonged total parenteral nutrition without thiamine supplementation, and increased nutrient requirements as in trauma or septic shock...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987266/neuroimaging-of-chronic-alcohol-misuse
#11
REVIEW
Caitriona Logan, Hamed Asadi, Hong Kuan Kok, Seamus T Looby, Paul Brennan, Alan O'Hare, John Thornton
Alcohol is one of the most commonly abused substances worldwide. It results in a wide range of diseases and disorders affecting many organ systems. Alcohol-related nutritional deficiencies and electrolyte disturbance leave chronic abusers at risk of a range of demyelinating conditions to which the radiologist and clinician should always be alert. These include Wernicke's encephalopathy, Korsakoff's syndrome, Marchiafava-Bignami disease and osmotic demyelination. Cerebral volume loss is also a commonly encountered neuroimaging phenomenon in chronic alcohol abusers...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984051/brain-endothelial-dysfunction-following-pyrithiamine-induced-thiamine-deficiency-in-the-rat
#12
Sumit Sarkar, Serguei Liachenko, Merle G Paule, John Bowyer, Joseph P Hanig
Prolonged vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency can lead to neurological disorders such as Wernicke's encephalopathy and Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome (WKS) in humans. These thiamine deficiency disorders have been attributed to vascular leakage, blood-brain barrier breakdown and neuronal loss in the diencephalon and brain stem. However, endothelial dysfunction following thiamine deficiency and its relationship to the phenomenon of neurodegeneration has not been clearly elucidated. The present study sought to begin to address this issue by evaluating vascular morphology and integrity in a pyrithiamine (PT)-induced rat model of thiamine deficiency...
October 28, 2016: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940680/wernicke-encephalopathy-in-adolescents-after-bariatric-surgery-case-report-and-review
#13
Amy Armstrong-Javors, Janey Pratt, Sigmund Kharasch
Roughly 1% of all weight loss surgery is performed in adolescents. There is strong evidence demonstrating significant postsurgical weight loss, improvement in quality of life, and reduction in comorbidities such as hypertension and diabetes. Reports of postoperative complications in adolescents are few because of the small sample size in most series. Despite vitamin supplementation, nutritional deficiencies requiring hospitalization occur occasionally after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Wernicke encephalopathy, a triad of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and altered mental status, is a serious consequence of thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency...
December 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900341/subventricular-zone-associated-glioblastoma-a-call-for-translational-research-to-guide-clinical-decision-making
#14
Andrew W Smith, Bhupesh Parashar, A Gabriella Wernicke
Glioblastoma (GBM) is both the most common and the most devastating primary cancer of the central nervous system, with an expected overall survival in most patients of about 14 months. Despite extensive research, outcomes for GBM have been largely unchanged since the introduction of temozolomide in 2005. We believe that in order to achieve a breakthrough in therapeutic management, we must begin to identify subtypes of GBM, and tailor treatment to best target a particular tumor's vulnerabilities. Our group has recently produced an examination of the clinical outcomes of radiation therapy directed at tumors that contact the subventricular zone (SVZ), the 3-5 mm lateral border of the lateral ventricles that contains the largest collection of neural stem cells in the adult brain...
2016: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896752/parameterized-algorithmics-for-finding-exact-solutions-of-np-hard-biological-problems
#15
Falk Hüffner, Christian Komusiewicz, Rolf Niedermeier, Sebastian Wernicke
Fixed-parameter algorithms are designed to efficiently find optimal solutions to some computationally hard (NP-hard) problems by identifying and exploiting "small" problem-specific parameters. We survey practical techniques to develop such algorithms. Each technique is introduced and supported by case studies of applications to biological problems, with additional pointers to experimental results.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888341/efficacy-of-the-transtemporal-approach-with-awake-brain-mapping-to-reach-the-dominant-posteromedial-temporal-lesions
#16
Kentaro Iijima, Kazuya Motomura, Lushun Chalise, Masaki Hirano, Atsushi Natsume, Toshihiko Wakabayashi
BACKGROUND: Surgeries for lesions in the dominant hippocampal and parahippocampal gyrus involving the posteromedial temporal regions are challenging to perform because they are located close to Wernicke's area; white matter fibers related with language; the optic radiations; and critical neurovascular structures. We performed a transtemporal approach with awake functional mapping for lesions affecting the dominant posteromedial temporal regions. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of awake craniotomy for these lesions...
January 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871453/chasing-dizzy-chimera-diagnosis-of-combined-peripheral-and-central-vestibulopathy
#17
Seo-Young Choi, Hyo-Jung Kim, Ji-Soo Kim
Diagnosis of combined peripheral and central vestibulopathy remains a challenge since the findings from peripheral vestibular involvements may overshadow those from central vestibular disorders or vice versa. The aim of this study was to enhance detection of these intriguing disorders by characterizing the clinical features and underlying etiologies. We had recruited 55 patients with combined peripheral and central vestibulopathy at the Dizziness Clinic of Seoul National University Bundang Hospital from 2003 to 2013...
December 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851315/1680-wernicke-encephalopathy-as-a-cause-of-prolonged-vasodilatory-shock-and-bradycardia
#18
Akira Kuriyama, Hirokazu Maeda, Jun Fujinaga
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847708/the-prognosis-and-recovery-of-aphasia-related-to-stroke-lesion
#19
Bomi Sul, Joon Sung Kim, Bo Young Hong, Kyoung Bo Lee, Woo Seop Hwang, Young Kook Kim, Seong Hoon Lim
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of specific brain lesions on prognosis and recovery of post-stroke aphasia, and to assess the characteristic pattern of recovery. METHODS: Total of 15 subjects with first-ever, left hemisphere stroke, who were right handed, and who completed language assessment using the Korean version of the Western Aphasia Battery (K-WAB) at least twice during the subacute and chronic stages of stroke, were included. The brain lesions of the participants were evaluated using MRI-cron, SPM8, and Talairach Daemon software...
October 2016: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845881/morning-sickness-of-pregnancy-more-than-meets-the-eye
#20
Noorazizah Arsad, Kah Teik Chew, Nur Azurah Abdul Ghani, Hui Jan Tan, Norasyikin A Wahab, Nor Azlin Mohd Ismail
Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is a rare life-threatening complication following severe hyperemesis gravidarum. Early recognition of this condition and prompt thiamine administration is the key to preventing devastating sequelae. We report a successful delivery of a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) baby by a patient with WE and thyrotoxicosis in pregnancy.
November 15, 2016: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
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