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ZhenLong Ye, Qiming Qian, HuaJun Jin, QiJun Qian
Cancer vaccines have been exclusively studied all through the past decades, and have made exceptional achievements in cancer treatment. Few cancer vaccines have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), for instance, Provenge, which was approved for the treatment of prostate carcinoma in 2012. Moreover, more recently, T-VEC got approval for the treatment of melanoma. While, the overall therapeutic effects of cancer vaccines have been taken into consideration as below expectations, low antigenicity of targeting antigen and tumor heterogeneity are the two key limiting barriers encountered by the cancer vaccines...
2018: Journal of Cancer
Pawel Kalinski, James E Talmadge
The approvals of Provenge (Sipuleucel-T), Ipilimumab (Yervoy/anti-CTLA-4) and blockers of the PD-1 - PD-L1/PD-L2 pathway, such as nivolumab (Opdivo), pembrolizumab (Keytruda), or atezolizumab (Tecentriq), have established immunotherapy as a key component of comprehensive cancer care. Further, murine mechanistic studies and studies in immunocompromised patients have documented the critical role of immunity in effectiveness of radio- and chemotherapy. However, in addition to the ability of the immune system to control cancer progression, it can also promote tumor growth, via regulatory T cells (Tregs), myeloid-derived dendritic cells (MDSCs) and tumor associated macrophages (TAM), which can enhance survival of cancer cells directly or via the regulation of the tumor stroma...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Soheila Rahmani, Mohammad Abdollahi
Sulfur mustard (SM), also known as mustard gas, is a chemical weapon which by now has been used in many wars. The most concerning SM toxic effect is probable carcinogenicity. In this study, the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms of SM carcinogenicity, by focusing on treatment of SM-associated malignancies, particularly gene therapeutics, cancer vaccines, and epigenetic medications, have been criticized. The required data were collected through an organized search on valid scientific databases. For SM carcinogenicity due to acute or chronic exposure, the entire original and review articles were evaluated...
December 2017: Archives of Toxicology
Dawn Driscoll, Stephanie Farnia, Panos Kefalas, Richard T Maziarz
Cellular therapies and other regenerative medicines are emerging as potentially transformative additions to modern medicine, but likely at a staggering financial cost. Public health care systems' budgets are already strained by growing and aging populations, and many private insurer's budgets are equally stretched. The current systems that most payers employ to manage their cash flow are not structured to absorb a sudden onslaught of very expensive prescriptions for a large portion of their covered population...
August 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Rong-Fu Wang, Helen Y Wang
Harnessing the immune system to eradicate malignant cells is becoming a most powerful new approach to cancer therapy. FDA approval of the immunotherapy-based drugs, sipuleucel-T (Provenge), ipilimumab (Yervoy, anti-CTLA-4), and more recently, the programmed cell death (PD)-1 antibody (pembrolizumab, Keytruda), for the treatment of multiple types of cancer has greatly advanced research and clinical studies in the field of cancer immunotherapy. Furthermore, recent clinical trials, using NY-ESO-1-specific T cell receptor (TCR) or CD19-chimeric antigen receptor (CAR), have shown promising clinical results for patients with metastatic cancer...
January 2017: Cell Research
Sunil Thomas, George C Prendergast
Vaccine approaches for cancer differ from traditional vaccine approaches for infectious disease in tending to focus on clearing active disease rather than preventing disease. In this review, we provide a brief overview of different types of vaccines and adjuvants that have been investigated for the purpose of controlling cancer burdens in patients, some of which are approved for clinical use or in late-stage clinical trials, such as the personalized dendritic cell vaccine sipuleucel-T (Provenge) and the recombinant viral prostate cancer vaccine PSA-TRICOM (Prostvac-VF)...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Jonathan L Messerschmidt, George C Prendergast, Gerald L Messerschmidt
UNLABELLED: With the Food and Drug Administration and other worldwide regulatory authorities' approval of ipilimumab (Yervoy), sipuleucel-T (Provenge), nivolumab (Opdivo), and pembrolizumab (Keytruda), oncologic therapy has now moved into noncancer cell targets within the immune system. For many nonimmunologists, understanding how these vastly different therapies work to improve survival, like no other therapies have in the past, is a challenge. The present report reviews the normal function of the immune system, how cancers escape the normal immune system, and how these new therapies improve immune system reactions against cancers...
February 2016: Oncologist
Frank dela Rama, Caroline Pratz
BACKGROUND: Treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) has evolved rapidly. In particular, five new treatments that extend survival in mCRPC have been approved since 2010, including the chemotherapy cabazitaxel (Jevtana®), hormonal agents abiraterone (Zytiga®) and enzalutamide (Xtandi®), vaccine sipuleucel-T (Provenge®), and radiopharmaceutical radium-223 (Xofigo®); all have different indications and toxicity profiles. OBJECTIVES: This review discusses treatment advances in mCRPC, including considerations for side-effect management and treatment sequencing...
December 2015: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
Amabel Cl Tan, Anne Goubier, Holbrook E Kohrt
Despite the progress that has been made in other forms of cancer therapy, Provenge® (Sipuleucel-T) is the only FDA-approved vaccine for the treatment of cancer. To understand the current landscape of therapeutic oncology vaccines we performed a quantitative analysis of phase 2 and phase 3 therapeutic cancer vaccine trials. We highlight shifts in trends for the vaccine platforms examined, common adjuvant use, target indications, antibody or treatment combinations between past and recent trials as well as discuss the relationship between these trends and ratio between the number of phase 3: phase 2 for different vaccine platforms...
2015: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
S Jaroslawski, A Caban, M Toumi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2015: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
Xiao X Wei, Lawrence Fong, Eric J Small
The management of advanced prostate cancer, specifically metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), remains a therapeutic challenge. Sipuleucel-T (Provenge; APC8015) was approved by the FDA in 2010 for the treatment of asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic mCRPC patients, and it remains the only FDA-approved immunotherapy for prostate cancer of any indication to date. Given the continued need to improve therapeutics in patients with advanced prostate cancer, as well as recent enthusiasm for cancer immunotherapy, there is a wide range of ongoing trials evaluating combinations of sipuleucel-T with other therapeutics...
2015: Expert Review of Vaccines
Szymon Jarosławski, Mondher Toumi
Approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2010, sipuleucel-T (Provenge(®)) was the first 'personalized' cancer vaccine for the treatment of prostate cancer in a metastatic, non-symptomatic population of 30,000 men in the USA. Sipuleucel-T is prepared individually for each patient and infused in three sessions over a period of 1 month. However, in 2015, Dendreon, the owner of sipuleucel-T, filed for bankruptcy. This opinion paper reviews the probable reasons this innovative product failed to achieve commercial success...
October 2015: BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy
Samuel S K Lam, Feifan Zhou, Tomas Hode, Robert E Nordquist, Luciano Alleruzzo, Joseph Raker, Wei R Chen
Since the invention of Coley's toxin by William Coley in early 1900s, the path for cancer immunotherapy has been a convoluted one. Although still not considered standard of care, with the FDA approval of trastuzumab, Provenge and ipilimumab, the medical and scientific community has started to embrace the possibility that immunotherapy could be a new hope for cancer patients with otherwise untreatable metastatic diseases. This review aims to summarize the development of some major strategies in cancer immunotherapy, from the earliest peptide vaccine and transfer of tumor specific antibodies/T cells to the more recent dendritic cell (DC) vaccines, whole cell tumor vaccines, and checkpoint blockade therapy...
April 2015: Discovery Medicine
Norma Bloy, Jonathan Pol, Fernando Aranda, Alexander Eggermont, Isabelle Cremer, Wolf Hervé Fridman, Jitka Fučíková, Jérôme Galon, Eric Tartour, Radek Spisek, Madhav V Dhodapkar, Laurence Zitvogel, Guido Kroemer, Lorenzo Galluzzi
The use of patient-derived dendritic cells (DCs) as a means to elicit therapeutically relevant immune responses in cancer patients has been extensively investigated throughout the past decade. In this context, DCs are generally expanded, exposed to autologous tumor cell lysates or loaded with specific tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), and then reintroduced into patients, often in combination with one or more immunostimulatory agents. As an alternative, TAAs are targeted to DCs in vivo by means of monoclonal antibodies, carbohydrate moieties or viral vectors specific for DC receptors...
November 2014: Oncoimmunology
Rachael S Felberbaum
The baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) platform has become an established manufacturing platform for the production of viral vaccines and gene therapy vectors. Nine BEVS-derived products have been approved - four for human use (Cervarix(®), Provenge(®), Glybera(®) and Flublok(®)) and five for veterinary use (Porcilis(®) Pesti, BAYOVAC CSF E2(®), Circumvent(®) PCV, Ingelvac CircoFLEX(®) and Porcilis(®) PCV). The BEVS platform offers many advantages, including manufacturing speed, flexible product design, inherent safety and scalability...
May 2015: Biotechnology Journal
Junji Yatsuda, Masatoshi Eto
Surgery, radiation and chemotherapy are three major therapies for cancer. But now, hope is being gathered in immunotherapy as a treatment for fourth. Immunotherapy has been done than before, but they are non-specific immunotherapy. Those that have become hot topics are specific immunotherapies targeting certain molecules or antigens. In this chapter, current status and prospects of immunotherapy for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) are described. As concrete examples, Sipuleucel-T(Provenge), GVAX, PROSTVAC-VF, Ipilimumab (anti-CTLA-4 mAb), anti-PD-1 mAb and anti-PSMA mAb are cited...
December 2014: Nihon Rinsho. Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine
Rajesh K Sharma, Zinal S Chheda, Venkatakrishna R Jala, Bodduluri Haribabu
Cancer immunotherapy has recently emerged as an important treatment modality. FDA approval of provenge, ipilimumab and pembrolizumab has started to deliver on the long awaited promise of cancer immunotherapy. Many new modalities of immunotherapies targeting cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) responses, such as adoptive cell therapies and vaccines, are in advanced clinical trials. In all these immunotherapies, migration of CTLs to the tumor site is a critical step for achieving therapeutic efficacy. However, inefficient infiltration of activated CTLs into established tumors is increasingly being recognized as one of the major hurdles limiting efficacy...
April 2015: Expert Review of Vaccines
Abid H Banday, Salika Jeelani, Victor J Hruby
Despite recent breakthroughs in the prognosis, prevention and treatment, cancer still remains the leading cause of death and affects millions of people worldwide. With the US FDA approval of various preventive cancer vaccines such as Gardasil (Merck), Cervarix (Glaxosmithkline) and the therapeutic vaccine Sipulencel-T (Provenge), cancer vaccine development is gaining huge ground. Approval of these vaccines has encouraged the concept of cancer treatment through cellular immunotherapy. The FDA approval of the above vaccines has provided support for renewed interest and attention which the development of new therapeutic cancer vaccines deserves...
February 2015: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
Erica M Pimenta, Betsy J Barnes
Following the successes of monoclonal antibody immunotherapies (trastuzumab (Herceptin®) and rituximab (Rituxan®)) and the first approved cancer vaccine, Provenge® (sipuleucel-T), investigations into the immune system and how it can be modified by a tumor has become an exciting and promising new field of cancer research. Dozens of clinical trials for new antibodies, cancer and adjuvant vaccines, and autologous T and dendritic cell transfers are ongoing in hopes of identifying ways to re-awaken the immune system and force an anti-tumor response...
2014: Cancers
Hauke Winter, Bernard A Fox, Dominik Rüttinger
Extensive research in the area of active-specific immunotherapy has led to the approval of the first therapeutic cancer vaccine sipuleucel-T (Provenge™) in 2010. Even though a major milestone for the field of cancer immunotherapy, many obstacles towards successful integration of vaccination strategies into the oncologists' armamentarium remain. This chapter discusses possible future perspectives for cancer vaccines as a treatment modality in oncology with special focus on biomarkers (response prediction and patient selection), requirements for clinical trial design, and combination therapies (standard of care and new molecular entities)...
2014: Methods in Molecular Biology
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