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Caudal block

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506780/a-novel-approach-for-regional-anaesthesia-of-the-auricular-region-in-horses-an-anatomic-and-imaging-study
#1
Ilaria Cerasoli, Pieter Cornillie, Frank Gasthuys, Ingrid Gielen, Stijn Schauvliege
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the anatomy of the ear innervation in horses and develop a new approach for the block of the internal and external pinna and acoustic meatus. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, descriptive, cadaveric study. ANIMALS: A total of 25 heads and necks from horse cadavers. METHODS: Phase I: anatomical dissection and dye deposition on 19 heads. With the head positioned in lateral recumbency, 10 mL methylene blue (1:1 sterile water) for the internal auricular and 2 mL for the great auricular nerve block were injected in 21 ears (seven left, 10 right and two bilaterally)...
January 11, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486629/effect-of-caudal-block-using-different-volumes-of-local-anaesthetic-on-optic-nerve-sheath-diameter-in-children-a-prospective-randomized-trial
#2
B Lee, B-N Koo, Y S Choi, H K Kil, M-S Kim, J H Lee
Background: Caudal block is commonly administered for postoperative analgesia in children. Although caudal block with 1.5 ml kg -1 local anaesthetic has been reported to reduce cerebral oxygenation in infants, the effect of caudal block on intracranial pressure (ICP) in children has not been well investigated. Optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) correlates with degree of ICP. This study aimed to estimate the effects of caudal block on ICP according to volume of local anaesthetic using ultrasonographic measurement of ONSD in children...
May 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471973/a-randomized-comparison-of-volume-and-pressure-controlled-ventilation-in-children-with-the-i-gel-effects-on-peak-inspiratory-pressure-oropharyngeal-leak-pressure-and-gastric-insufflation
#3
Jin Ha Park, Ji Young Kim, Kyoungun Park, Hae Keum Kil
BACKGROUND: The i-gel provides good airway sealing but gastric insufflation may occur when peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) exceeds the sealing pressure of the i-gel without a gastric tube. Pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) provides lower PIP compared with volume-controlled ventilation (VCV) and low PIP may reduce the incidence of gastric insufflation in children during positive pressure ventilation. This study was designed to evaluate PIP, oropharyngeal leak pressure, and gastric insufflation during VCV or PCV in children undergoing general anesthesia with i-gel without a gastric tube in situ...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469003/regulation-of-axonal-regeneration-following-spinal-cord-injury-in-the-lamrpey
#4
Jessica A Benes, Kylie N House, Frank N Burks, Kris P Conaway, Donald P Julien, Jeffrey P Donley, Michael A Iyamu, Andrew D McClellan
Following rostral spinal cord injury (SCI) in larval lampreys, injured descending brain neurons, particularly reticulospinal (RS) neurons, regenerate their axons, and locomotor behavior recovers in a few weeks. However, axonal regeneration of descending brain neurons is mostly limited to relatively short distances, but the mechanisms for incomplete axonal regeneration are unclear. First, lampreys with rostral SCI exhibited greater axonal regeneration of descending brain neurons, including RS neurons, as well as more rapid recovery of locomotor muscle activity right below the lesion site compared to animals with caudal SCI...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450396/heat-shock-protein-90-hsp90-promotes-opioid-induced-anti-nociception-by-an-erk-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-mapk-mechanism-in-mouse-brain
#5
Wei Lei, Nathan Mullen, Sarah McCarthy, Courtney Brann, Philomena Richard, James Cormier, Katie Edwards, Edward J Bilsky, John M Streicher
Recent advances in developing opioid treatments for pain with reduced side effects have focused on the signaling cascades of the mu opioid receptor (MOR). However, few such signaling targets have been identified for exploitation. To address this need, we explored the role of Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) in opioid-induced MOR signaling and pain, which has only been studied in 4 previous papers. First, in 4 cell models of MOR signaling, we found that Hsp90 inhibition for 24 hours with the inhibitor 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) had different effects on protein expression and opioid signaling in each line, suggesting that cell models may not be reliable for predicting pharmacology with this protein...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444433/boundaries-of-the-thoracic-paravertebral-space-potential-risks-and-benefits-of-the-thoracic-paravertebral-block-from-an-anatomical-perspective
#6
Esther A C Bouman, Judith M Sieben, Andrea J R Balthasar, Elbert A Joosten, Hans-Fritz Gramke, Maarten van Kleef, Arno Lataster
PURPOSE: Thoracic paravertebral block (TPVB) may be an alternative to thoracic epidural analgesia. A detailed knowledge of the anatomy of the TPV-space (TPVS), content and adnexa is essential in understanding the clinical consequences of TPVB. The exploration of the posterior TPVS accessibility in this study allows (1) determination of the anatomical boundaries, content and adnexa, (2) description of an ultrasound-guided spread of low and high viscous liquid. METHODS: In two formalin-fixed specimens, stratification of the several layers and the 3D-architecture of the TPVS were dissected, observed and photographed...
April 25, 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443752/prospective-comparison-of-the-efficacy-of-caudal-versus-periprostatic-nerve-block-both-with-intrarectal-local-anesthesia-during-transrectal-ultrasonography-guided-prostatic-needle-biopsy
#7
Fumihiko Urabe, Takahiro Kimura, Tatsuya Shimomura, Hajime Onuma, Toshihiro Yamamoto, Hiroshi Sasaki, Jun Miki, Hidetoshi Kuruma, Kenta Miki, Shin Egawa
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of caudal block (CB) versus periprostatic nerve block (PPNB), both with intrarectal local anesthesia (IRLA), in reducing pain during transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided prostatic biopsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 532 patients: 266 patients received CB with IRLA and 266 patients PPNB with IRLA. A visual analogue scale (VAS) was applied to prospectively evaluate pain (1) at induction of anesthesia, (2) at insertion of the TRUS probe, (3) at needle penetration to the prostate, and (4) throughout the biopsy procedure...
April 26, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442495/aspirin-prevents-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-and-cdx2-expression-stimulated-by-acid-and-bile-salts-in-oesophageal-squamous-cells-of-patients-with-barrett-s-oesophagus
#8
Xiaofang Huo, Xi Zhang, Chunhua Yu, Edaire Cheng, Qiuyang Zhang, Kerry B Dunbar, Thai H Pham, John P Lynch, David H Wang, Robert S Bresalier, Stuart J Spechler, Rhonda F Souza
OBJECTIVE: In previous studies using oesophageal squamous cells from patients with Barrett's oesophagus (normal oesophageal squamous (NES)-B cells) and from patients without Barrett's oesophagus (NES-G cells), we showed that acid and bile salts induced caudal-related homeobox transcription factor 2 (CDX2) expression only in NES-B cells. CDX2, a transcription factor required to form intestinal epithelium, is a target of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) signalling, which can be inhibited by aspirin...
April 25, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437787/a-comparison-of-three-different-volumes-of-levobupivacaine-for-caudal-block-in-children-undergoing-orchidopexy-and-inguinal-hernia-repair
#9
Vesna Marjanovic, Ivana Budic, Marija Stevic, Dusica Simic
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of three different volumes of 0.25% levobupivacaine caudally administered on the effect of intra- and post-operative analgesia in children undergoing orchidopexy and inguinal hernia repair. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Forty children, aged 1 to 7 years, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I and II, were randomized into 3 different groups according to the applied volumes of 0.25% levobupivacaine: group 1 (n=13): 0...
April 23, 2017: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421316/comparison-of-the-coracoid-and-retroclavicular-approaches-for-ultrasound-guided-infraclavicular-brachial-plexus-block
#10
Nilgun Kavrut Ozturk, Ali Sait Kavakli
PURPOSE: This prospective randomized study compared the coracoid and retroclavicular approaches to ultrasound-guided infraclavicular brachial plexus block (IBPB) in terms of needle tip and shaft visibility and quality of block. We hypothesized that the retroclavicular approach would increase needle tip and shaft visibility and decrease the number of needle passes compared to the coracoid approach. METHODS: A total of 100 adult patients who received IBPB block for upper limb surgery were randomized into two groups: a coracoid approach group (group C) and a retroclavicular approach group (group R)...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416284/distinct-roles-for-matrix-metalloproteinases-2-and-9-in-embryonic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-emergence-migration-and-niche-colonization
#11
Lindsay N Theodore, Elliott J Hagedorn, Mauricio Cortes, Kelsey Natsuhara, Sarah Y Liu, Julie R Perlin, Song Yang, Madeleine L Daily, Leonard I Zon, Trista E North
Hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) are formed during ontogeny from hemogenic endothelium in the ventral wall of the dorsal aorta (VDA). Critically, the cellular mechanism(s) allowing HSPC egress and migration to secondary niches are incompletely understood. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are inflammation-responsive proteins that regulate extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, cellular interactions, and signaling. Here, inhibition of vascular-associated Mmp2 function caused accumulation of fibronectin-rich ECM, retention of runx1/cmyb(+) HSPCs in the VDA, and delayed caudal hematopoietic tissue (CHT) colonization; these defects were absent in fibronectin mutants, indicating that Mmp2 facilitates endothelial-to-hematopoietic transition via ECM remodeling...
May 9, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393509/-an-unexpected-complication-glans-ischemia-after-circumcision-review-of-the-literature
#12
M Á Cárdenas Elías, F Vázquez Rueda, V Jiménez Crespo, A Siu Uribe, F J Murcia Pascual, J E Betancourth Alvarenga, R M Paredes Esteban
INTRODUCTION: Circumcision is a frequent and common surgical procedure in children; nevertheless it is not completely hassle-free. Post circumcision ischemic complications are even rare and they are generally due to administration of local vasoconstrictor anesthetics. There are few cases reported in the literature. We report the management and treatment of post- circumcision penile ischemia (PCI). CASE REPORT: A 10 years old patient who underwent circumcision and a dorsal penile nerve block DPNB presents signs of penile ischemia two hours after surgery without any other symptoms...
July 10, 2016: Cirugía Pediátrica: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364969/-gastroschisis-repair-under-caudal-anesthesia-a-series-of-three-cases
#13
Neha Kasat, Nandini Dave, Harick Shah, Swapnil Mahajan
Gastroschisis is a congenital anomaly characterized by a defect in the anterior abdominal wall with protrusion of abdominal viscera. Perioperative mortality is very high in these patients. Traditionally gastroschisis repair has been performed under general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation, requiring postoperative intensive care admission and mechanical ventilation. Caudal block is an attractive alternative to general anesthesia. We present a series of three neonates with gastroschisis, repaired solely under caudal anesthesia...
March 29, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345802/the-association-between-caudal-anesthesia-and-increased-risk-of-postoperative-surgical-complications-in-boys-undergoing-hypospadias-repair
#14
Brad M Taicher, Jonathan C Routh, John B Eck, Sherry S Ross, John S Wiener, Allison K Ross
INTRODUCTION: Recent reports have suggested that caudal anesthesia may be associated with an increased risk of postoperative surgical complications. We examined our experience with caudal anesthesia in hypospadias repair to evaluate for increased risk of urethrocutaneous fistula or glanular dehiscence. METHODS: All hypospadias repairs performed by a single surgeon in 2001-2014 were reviewed. Staged or revision surgeries were excluded. Patient age, weight, hypospadias severity, surgery duration, month and year of surgery, caudal anesthesia use, and postoperative complications were recorded...
March 27, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345418/a-coaxial-dual-element-focused-ultrasound-probe-for-guidance-of-epidural-catheterization
#15
Guo-Chung Dong, Li-Chen Chiu, Chien-Kun Ting, Jia-Ruei Hsu, Chih-Chung Huang, Yin Chang, Gin-Shin Chen
Ultrasound guidance for epidural block has improved clinical blind-trial problems but the design of present ultrasonic probes poses operating difficulty of ultrasound-guided catheterization, increasing the failure rate. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel ultrasonic probe to avoid needle contact with vertebral bone during epidural catheterization. The probe has a central circular passage for needle insertion. Two focused annular transducers are deployed around the passage for on-axis guidance. A 17-gauge insulated Tuohy needle containing the self-developed fiber-optic-modified stylet was inserted into the back of the anesthetized pig, in the lumbar region under the guidance of our ultrasonic probe...
March 1, 2017: Ultrasonic Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337460/caudal-epidural-block-an-updated-review-of-anatomy-and-techniques
#16
REVIEW
Sheng-Chin Kao, Chia-Shiang Lin
Caudal epidural block is a commonly used technique for surgical anesthesia in children and chronic pain management in adults. It is performed by inserting a needle through the sacral hiatus to gain entrance into the sacral epidural space. Using conventional blind technique, the failure rate of caudal epidural block in adults is high even in experienced hands. This high failure rate could be attributed to anatomic variations that make locating sacral hiatus difficult. With the advent of fluoroscopy and ultrasound in guiding needle placement, the success rate of caudal epidural block has been markedly improved...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332251/measuring-the-depth-of-the-caudal-epidural-space-to-prevent-dural-sac-puncture-during-caudal-block-in-children
#17
Hyun Jeong Lee, Ji Young Min, Hyun Il Kim, Hyo-Jin Byon
BACKGROUND: Caudal blocks are performed through the sacral hiatus in order to provide pain control in children undergoing lower abdominal surgery. During the block, it is important to avoid advancing the needle beyond the sacrococcygeal ligament too much to prevent unintended dural puncture. This study used demographic data to establish simple guidelines for predicting a safe needle depth in the caudal epidural space in children. METHODS: A total of 141 children under 12 years old who had undergone lumbar-sacral magnetic resonance imaging were included...
March 23, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306195/influence-of-caudal-block-on-postoperative-oliguria-in-infants-undergoing-bilateral-ureteroneocystostomy-a-retrospective-analysis
#18
Hyun Jeong Lee, Yong Seon Choi, Bon-Nyeo Koo, Sang Won Han, Young Eun Cho, Young Jae Im, Jae Hoon Lee
BACKGROUND: Caudal block has been widely used in children undergoing genitourinary surgery. However, the influence of caudal block on postoperative oliguria is unclear. AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of caudal block on urinary flow through the reimplanted ureter after ureteroneocystostomy and the incidence of postoperative oliguria in infants. METHODS: This retrospective study analyzed the medical records of 121 infants aged less than 12 months who underwent bilateral ureteroneocystostomy for vesicoureteral reflux at a tertiary medical center...
March 17, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298789/caudal-epidural-analgesia-in-pediatric-patients-comparison-of-0-25-levobupivacaine-and-0-25-ropivacaine-in-terms-of-motor-blockade-and-postoperative-analgesia
#19
P Praveen, R Remadevi, N Pratheeba
CONTEXT: Ropivacaine and Levo-Bupivacaine have been safely used for caudal anaesthesia in children, but there are limited studies comparing the efficacy of 0.25% Ropivacaine and 0.25% Levo-Bupivacaine for caudal anaesthesia in infraumbilical surgeries. AIMS: The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of motor blockade and postoperative analgesia with 0.25% ropivacaine and 0.25% levobupivacaine for the caudal block in children receiving infraumbilical surgery...
January 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298787/caudal-levobupivacaine-supplemented-with-caudal-or-intravenous-clonidine-in-children-undergoing-infraumbilical-surgery-a-randomized-prospective-double-blind-study
#20
Laxmi Ramya Potti, Yatish Bevinaguddaiah, S Archana, Vinayak Seenappa Pujari, C Manjunath Abloodu
BACKGROUND: Caudal analgesia is the most popular regional anesthesia technique in pediatric population for intraoperative and postoperative analgesia. Clonidine, an α2 agonist, prolongs analgesia without causing significant respiratory depression after systemic or neuraxial administration. However, the most beneficial route of its administration is still controversial. Thus, we compared the effects of caudal and intravenous (i.v) clonidine on postoperative analgesia produced by caudal levobupivacaine in children undergoing infraumbilical surgery...
January 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
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