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Caudal block

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739727/topographic-anatomy-of-the-subthalamic-nucleus-localized-by-high-resolution-human-brain-atlas-superimposing-digital-images-of-cross-sectioned-surfaces-and-histological-images-of-microscopic-sections-from-frozen-cadaveric-brains
#1
Takashi Kawasaki, Masahiro Shin, Yuiko Kimura, Yoshitomo Umitsu, George Matsumura, Fusako Yokochi, Ryoichi Okiyama, Makoto Taniguchi, Nobutaka Arai
Despite the recent advent of neuro-radiographic techniques, creating a 'perfect' human brain atlas providing precise and consistent images with minimal distortion is practically difficult. In this study, we created a new human brain atlas from cadaveric brains with serial sections of 50 μm thickness covering the entire basal ganglia. Human cerebral hemispheres were obtained from 10 donated cadavers and fixed in 10% formalin solution, cut in a block measuring 50 mm × 30 mm × 50 mm around the midpoint of the anterior and posterior commissures and frozen at -40 °C...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736375/the-effect-of-adjunct-caudal-block-on-postoperative-analgesia-in-robot-assisted-laparoscopic-radical-prostatectomy-a-prospective-randomized-controlled-single-blinded-pilot-study-in-a-tertiary-centre
#2
Kenneth Chen, Allen Sim, Alex Ford Kan
Objective: Caudal block provides satisfactory postoperative pain relief in lower abdominal operations. This pilot study explores its safety and effect on postoperative pain control in patients who underwent robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RARP). Methods: From 2013 to 2014, 40 consecutive patients were randomized into two groups - one received caudal block using ropivacaine immediately after operation, the other received standard analgesia. Primary outcome measure was pain score based on 11-point Likert scale (0-10) recorded at recovery room, and at 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after operation...
April 2018: Asian Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731674/electrophysiological-evidence-for-functional-astrocytic-p2x-3-receptors-in-the-mouse-trigeminal-caudal-nucleus
#3
Jaekwang Lee, Jin Young Bae, C Justin Lee, Yong Chul Bae
Recently, we reported that astrocytes in the trigeminal caudal nucleus (Vc) of the brain stem express a purinergic receptor P2X3 , which is involved in the craniofacial pathologic pain. Although we observed protein expression of P2X3 receptors (P2X3 Rs) in the astrocyte of the Vc, it is still unclear that astrocyte has functional P2X3 Rs in Vc. To address this issue, we recorded asrtocytic P2X3 Rs by using whole cell voltage-clamp recording in the Vc of the GFAP-GFP mice, which was used as a guide to astrocytes with green fluorescence...
April 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686811/preliminary-study-on-contrast-flow-analysis-of-thoracic-transforaminal-epidural-block
#4
Ji Hee Hong, Kyoung Min Noh, Ki Bum Park
Background: The thoracic transforaminal epidural block (TTFEB) is usually performed to treat herpes zoster or postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). Especially, multiple segmental involvements and approximate contrast medium spread range, according to volume, help to choose the proper drug volume in the transforaminal epidural block. This study investigated the contrast medium spread patterns of 1-ml to 3-ml TTFEBs. Methods: A total of 26 patients with herpes zoster or PHN were enrolled in this study...
April 2018: Korean Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678723/modulatory-effect-of-dopamine-receptor-5-on-the-neurosecretory-dahlgren-cells-of-the-olive-flounder-paralichthys-olivaceus
#5
Zhaohui Lan, Wei Zhang, Jinling Xu, Mo Zhou, Yingxin Chen, Huafeng Zou, Weiqun Lu
A neuromodulatory role for dopamine has been reported for magnocellular neuroendocrine cells in the mammalian hypothalamus. We examined its potential role as a local intercellular messenger in the neuroendocrine Dahlgren cell population of the caudal neurosecretory system (CNSS) of the euryhaline flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. In vitro application of dopamine (DA) caused an increase in electrical activity (firing frequency, recorded extracellularly) of Dahlgren cells, recruitment of previously silent cells, together with a greater proportion of cells showing phasic (irregular) activity...
April 17, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677030/a-cadaveric-study-of-ultrasound-guided-maxillary-nerve-block-via-the-pterygopalatine-fossa-a-novel-technique-using-the-lateral-pterygoid-plate-approach
#6
Wirinaree Kampitak, Tanvaa Tansatit, Yasuyuki Shibata
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to describe and assess the accuracy and feasibility of a novel technique for ultrasound-guided maxillary nerve block using the lateral pterygoid plate (LPP) approach via the pterygopalatine fossa (PPF) in a soft cadaveric model. METHODS: Ten soft cadavers were studied. The curved array ultrasound transducer probe was applied over 1 side of the face of the cadavers in the open-mouth posture. It was placed transversely below the zygomatic arch for identifying the border of the maxillary tuberosity and the LPP...
April 19, 2018: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675966/unilateral-cervical-plexus-block-for-prosthetic-laryngoplasty-in-the-standing-horse
#7
L Campoy, T Morris, N Ducharme, R Gleed, M Martin-Flores
BACKGROUND: Locoregional anaesthetic techniques can facilitate certain surgeries being performed under standing procedural sedation. The second and third spinal cervical nerves (C2, C3) are part of the cervical plexus and provide sensory innervation to the peri-laryngeal structures in people; block of these nerves might permit laryngeal lateralisation surgery in horses. OBJECTIVES: To describe the anatomical basis for an ultrasound-guided cervical plexus block in horses...
April 20, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659436/a-novel-technique-of-ultrasound-guided-selective-mandibular-nerve-block-with-a-lateral-pterygoid-plate-approach-a-cadaveric-study
#8
Wirinaree Kampitak, Tanvaa Tansatit, Yasuyuki Shibata
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We aimed to describe a novel technique of ultrasound-guided selective mandibular nerve block with a lateral pterygoid plate (LPP) approach and to assess its feasibility and accuracy in a soft cadaver model. METHODS: Ten soft cadavers were studied. A curved array ultrasound transducer was applied over 1 side of the face of the cadaver, in an open-mouth position. The transducer was placed transversely below the zygomatic arch and tilted in the caudal-to-cranial direction to identify the boundary of the LPP...
April 14, 2018: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656427/exercise-training-abrogates-age-dependent-loss-of-hypothalamic-oxytocinergic-circuitry-and-maintains-high-parasympathetic-activity
#9
Carla R Santos, Adriana Ruggeri, Alexandre Ceroni, Lisete C Michelini
Neuroanatomical studies associating neuronal tract tracing and immunohistochemistry identified reciprocal (ascending noradrenergic/descending oxytocinergic, OTergic) connections between brainstem cardiovascular nuclei and the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN). Previous functional studies indicated that exercise training (T) augmented the expression/activity of OTergic pathway and improve the autonomic control of the heart. Knowing that ageing is associated with autonomic dysfunction and sinoaortic denervation blocked T-induced beneficial effects, we hypothesized that T was able to reduce age-dependent impairment by improving the afferent signaling to PVN and augmenting OTergic modulation of cardiovascular control...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652687/ultrasound-guided-transversalis-fascia-plane-block-an-alternative-approach-for-anesthesia-in-inguinal-herniorrhaphy-a-case-report
#10
Paolo Scimia, Erika Basso Ricci, Emiliano Petrucci, Astrid Ursula Behr, Franco Marinangeli, Pierfrancesco Fusco
Ultrasound (US)-guided transversalis fascia plane block (TFPB) was first described by Hebbard as a technique for blockade of T12-L1 nerves. Although this technique appears similar to the quadratus lumborum 1 block, the point of injection is more caudal and anterior, specifically targeting ilioinguinal and iliohypogastric nerves. There are only few published data on US-guided TFPB demonstrating effective postoperative analgesia in iliac crest bone graft harvesting. We report the use of US-guided TFPB in a patient undergoing inguinal herniorrhaphy...
April 15, 2018: A&A practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628589/clonidine-as-an-adjuvant-to-caudal-epidural-ropivacaine-for-lumbosacral-spine-surgeries
#11
Saraswathi Nagappa, Sandhya Kalappa, Raghavendra Biligiri Sridhara
Background: Caudal epidural analgesia is a proven technique for providing analgesia for spinal surgeries. Prolonged pain relief with no motor blockade is desired for early mobilization. Objective: The objective of this study is to compare the effect of adding 1 μg/kg of clonidine to injection ropivacaine 0.2% with respect to duration of analgesia, hemodynamic effects, and associated side effects. Methodology: In this prospective double-blind study, a total of 60 patients undergoing lumbosacral spine surgery were randomized to receive 25 cc caudal epidural injection of either injection ropivacaine 0...
January 2018: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620988/a-simple-guide-to-regional-anaesthesia
#12
E M Valsamis, S Wade, C Thornhill, C Carey, D Ricketts
Regional anaesthesia is widely used in modern anaesthetic practice for perioperative and postoperative analgesia. In the operating theatre, regional anaesthesia is used both on its own and in combination with other techniques (general anaesthesia and sedation). Regional anaesthesia is now a core skill set in anaesthetic training. This article provides a basic outline of regional anaesthesia for surgeons and other non-anaesthetic staff working with anaesthetists, reviewing preparation, consent, basic and specialist equipment, central neuraxial blocks (spinal, epidural and caudal), trunk blocks, upper limb blocks (interscalene, supraclavicular, infraclavicular and axillary) and lower limb blocks (femoral, fascia iliaca, sciatic, popliteal and ankle)...
April 2, 2018: British Journal of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596095/dexamethasone-as-an-adjuvant-for-caudal-blockade-in-pediatric-surgical-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Matthew A Chong, Daniel J Szoke, Nicolas M Berbenetz, Cheng Lin
BACKGROUND: Caudal block is commonly used to provide postoperative analgesia after pediatric surgery in the lower abdomen. Typically administered as a single-shot technique, 1 limitation of this block is the short duration of analgesia. To overcome this, dexamethasone has been used as an adjuvant to prolong block duration. However, there are concerns about steroid-related morbidity and the optimal route of dexamethasone administration (eg, caudal or intravenous) is unknown. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and random-effects meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials recruiting pediatric surgical patients receiving a caudal block for surgical anesthesia or postoperative analgesia...
March 27, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593503/emergence-of-serotonergic-neurons-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-turtles
#14
Gabriela Fabbiani, María I Rehermann, Carina Aldecosea, Omar Trujillo-Cenóz, Raúl E Russo
Plasticity of neural circuits takes many forms and plays a fundamental role in regulating behavior to changing demands while maintaining stability. For example, during spinal cord development neurotransmitter identity in neurons is dynamically adjusted in response to changes in the activity of spinal networks. It is reasonable to speculate that this type of plasticity might occur also in mature spinal circuits in response to injury. Because serotonergic signaling has a central role in spinal cord functions, we hypothesized that spinal cord injury (SCI) in the fresh water turtle Trachemys scripta elegans may trigger homeostatic changes in serotonergic innervation...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559743/stress-induced-phosphoprotein-1-mediates-hepatocellular-carcinoma-metastasis-after-insufficient-radiofrequency-ablation
#15
Tianhong Su, Junbin Liao, Zihao Dai, Lixia Xu, Shuling Chen, Yifei Wang, Zhenwei Peng, Qiuyang Zhang, Sui Peng, Ming Kuang
Recent studies indicated that insufficient radiofrequency ablation (RFA) could endow hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with higher aggressive potential. Stress-induced phosphoprotein 1 (STIP1), which was found highly expressed in HCC, is a chaperone molecule mediating cell homeostasis under thermal stress. We aimed to explore the role of STIP1 on the metastasis of residual HCC after RFA. Mice model with orthotopic HCC implants or caudal vein injection were employed to assess potential of lung metastasis and/or intrahepatic metastasis (IHM) of HCC cells...
March 21, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559203/transversus-abdominis-plane-block-in-ponies-a-preliminary-anatomical-study
#16
Caroline F Baldo, Daniel Almeida, Erin Wendt-Hornickle, Alonso Guedes
OBJECTIVE: To describe a single-site transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block technique in horses. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, descriptive, experimental anatomical study. ANIMALS: Four adult pony cadavers. METHODS: Freshly euthanized ponies were positioned in dorsal recumbency. A 6-13 MHz linear ultrasonic probe was used to scan the abdominal wall bilaterally midway between the last rib and iliac crest in search of the TAP location...
February 7, 2018: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556817/a-review-of-current-treatment-options-for-coccygodynia
#17
REVIEW
Yasmin Elkhashab, Andrew Ng
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Coccygodynia is pain within the coccyx area. The diagnosis is made clinically with symptoms of pain in the coccyx region and worsening pain in sitting position. The initial treatment is conservative therapy. For patients who do not respond to conservative therapies, there are further interventions available. This includes local injection of local anesthetics and steroids, neurolysis of sacral nerve roots, caudal epidural block, pulse radiofrequency (PRF), intra-rectal massage and manipulation, ganglion impar block, levator ani massage and stretching, coccyx manipulation, and coccygectomy...
March 19, 2018: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510158/endogenous-glp-1-in-lateral-septum-contributes-to-stress-induced-hypophagia
#18
Sarah J Terrill, Calyn B Maske, Diana L Williams
Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) neurons of the caudal brainstem project to many brain areas, including the lateral septum (LS), which has a known role in stress responses. Previously, we showed that endogenous GLP-1 in the LS plays a physiologic role in the control of feeding under non-stressed conditions, however, central GLP-1 is also involved in behavioral and endocrine responses to stress. Here, we asked whether LS GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R) contribute to stress-induced hypophagia. Male rats were implanted with bilateral cannulas targeting the dorsal subregion of the LS (dLS)...
March 3, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479931/dexmedetomidine-as-an-adjunct-for-caudal-anaesthesia-and-analgesia-in-children-a-review
#19
Mehdi Trifa, Dmitry Tumin, Joseph D Tobias
BACKGROUND: The aim of this review was to evaluate the current evidence regarding the use of dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant to local anaesthetic agents (LAA) for caudal blockade anaesthesia and analgesia in children. METHODS: A literature search was performed of the Medline, Embase, and CINAHL databases using the keywords "dexmedetomidine" and "caudal". We included all studies that used caudal dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant to a LAA in children, excluding case reports, reviews, expert opinions, and animal studies...
February 22, 2018: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476100/skin-gland-concentrations-adapted-to-different-evolutionary-pressures-in-the-head-and-posterior-regions-of-the-caecilian-siphonops-annulatus
#20
Carlos Jared, Pedro Luiz Mailho-Fontana, Rafael Marques-Porto, Juliana Mozer Sciani, Daniel Carvalho Pimenta, Edmund D Brodie, Marta Maria Antoniazzi
Amphibian skin is rich in mucous glands and poison glands, secreting substances important for gas exchange and playing a fundamental role in chemical defense against predators and microorganisms. In the caecilian Siphonops annulatus (Mikan, 1920) we observed a concentration of enlarged mucous glands in the head region. In the posterior region of the body a similar concentration is made up of enlarged poison glands. These accumulations of glands structurally resemble the macroglands previously reported in anurans and salamanders...
February 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
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