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Caudal block

Tianhong Su, Junbin Liao, Zihao Dai, Lixia Xu, Shuling Chen, Yifei Wang, Zhenwei Peng, Qiuyang Zhang, Sui Peng, Ming Kuang
Recent studies indicated that insufficient radiofrequency ablation (RFA) could endow hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with higher aggressive potential. Stress-induced phosphoprotein 1 (STIP1), which was found highly expressed in HCC, is a chaperone molecule mediating cell homeostasis under thermal stress. We aimed to explore the role of STIP1 on the metastasis of residual HCC after RFA. Mice model with orthotopic HCC implants or caudal vein injection were employed to assess potential of lung metastasis and/or intrahepatic metastasis (IHM) of HCC cells...
March 21, 2018: Oncogene
Caroline F Baldo, Daniel Almeida, Erin Wendt-Hornickle, Alonso Guedes
OBJECTIVE: To describe a single-site transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block technique in horses. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, descriptive, experimental anatomical study. ANIMALS: Four adult pony cadavers. METHODS: Freshly euthanized ponies were positioned in dorsal recumbency. A 6-13 MHz linear ultrasonic probe was used to scan the abdominal wall bilaterally midway between the last rib and iliac crest in search of the TAP location...
February 7, 2018: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
Yasmin Elkhashab, Andrew Ng
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Coccygodynia is pain within the coccyx area. The diagnosis is made clinically with symptoms of pain in the coccyx region and worsening pain in sitting position. The initial treatment is conservative therapy. For patients who do not respond to conservative therapies, there are further interventions available. This includes local injection of local anesthetics and steroids, neurolysis of sacral nerve roots, caudal epidural block, pulse radiofrequency (PRF), intra-rectal massage and manipulation, ganglion impar block, levator ani massage and stretching, coccyx manipulation, and coccygectomy...
March 19, 2018: Current Pain and Headache Reports
Sarah J Terrill, Calyn B Maske, Diana L Williams
Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) neurons of the caudal brainstem project to many brain areas, including the lateral septum (LS), which has a known role in stress responses. Previously, we showed that endogenous GLP-1 in the LS plays a physiologic role in the control of feeding under non-stressed conditions, however, central GLP-1 is also involved in behavioral and endocrine responses to stress. Here, we asked whether LS GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R) contribute to stress-induced hypophagia. Male rats were implanted with bilateral cannulas targeting the dorsal subregion of the LS (dLS)...
March 3, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Mehdi Trifa, Dmitry Tumin, Joseph D Tobias
BACKGROUND: The aim of this review was to evaluate the current evidence regarding the use of dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant to local anaesthetic agents (LAA) for caudal blockade anaesthesia and analgesia in children. METHODS: A literature search was performed of the Medline, Embase, and CINAHL databases using the keywords "dexmedetomidine" and "caudal". We included all studies that used caudal dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant to a LAA in children, excluding case reports, reviews, expert opinions, and animal studies...
February 22, 2018: Minerva Anestesiologica
Carlos Jared, Pedro Luiz Mailho-Fontana, Rafael Marques-Porto, Juliana Mozer Sciani, Daniel Carvalho Pimenta, Edmund D Brodie, Marta Maria Antoniazzi
Amphibian skin is rich in mucous glands and poison glands, secreting substances important for gas exchange and playing a fundamental role in chemical defense against predators and microorganisms. In the caecilian Siphonops annulatus (Mikan, 1920) we observed a concentration of enlarged mucous glands in the head region. In the posterior region of the body a similar concentration is made up of enlarged poison glands. These accumulations of glands structurally resemble the macroglands previously reported in anurans and salamanders...
February 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Csaba Tóth, Farkas Sükösd, Erzsébet Valicsek, Esther Herpel, Peter Schirmacher, László Tiszlavicz
Caudal type homeobox 2 (CDX2) has been well-established as a diagnostic marker for colorectal cancer (CRC); however, less is known about its regulation, particularly its potential interactions with the DNA repair proteins, adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and β-catenin, in a non-transcriptional manner. In the present study, the protein expression of CDX2 was analyzed, depending on the expression of the DNA repair proteins, mismatch repair (MMR), O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) and excision repair cross-complementing 1 (ERCC1), and its importance in Wnt signaling was also determined...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
Mark W Urban, Biswarup Ghosh, Laura R Strojny, Cole G Block, Sara M Blazejewski, Megan C Wright, George M Smith, Angelo C Lepore
Damage to respiratory neural circuitry and consequent loss of diaphragm function is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals suffering from traumatic cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Repair of CNS axons after SCI remains a therapeutic challenge, despite current efforts. SCI disrupts inspiratory signals originating in the rostral ventral respiratory group (rVRG) of the medulla from their phrenic motor neuron (PhMN) targets, resulting in loss of diaphragm function. Using a rat model of cervical hemisection SCI, we aimed to restore rVRG-PhMN-diaphragm circuitry by stimulating regeneration of injured rVRG axons via targeted induction of Rheb (ras homolog enriched in brain), a signaling molecule that regulates neuronal-intrinsic axon growth potential...
February 14, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Change Zhu, Saiji Zhang, Zhiqing Gu, Yiru Tong, Rong Wei
BACKGROUND: Dexamethasone has become a popular additive for regional anesthesia. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the effectiveness of this additive on the duration of postoperative analgesia, postoperative vomiting, and possible adverse events in pediatrics. METHODS: We searched databases, conference records, and registered trials for randomized controlled trials. The databases included the Cochrane Library, JBI Database of Systematic Reviews, PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, Science-Direct, and Embase...
March 2018: Paediatric Anaesthesia
An-Qi Zeng, Yan Yu, Yu-Qin Yao, Fang-Fang Yang, Mengya Liao, Lin-Jiang Song, Ya-Li Li, Yang Yu, Yu-Jue Li, Yuan-Le Deng, Shu-Ping Yang, Chen-Juan Zeng, Ping Liu, Yong-Mei Xie, Jin-Liang Yang, Yi-Wen Zhang, Ting-Hong Ye, Yu-Quan Wei
Breast cancer is the most common female cancer with considerable metastatic potential, explaining the need for new candidates that inhibit tumor metastasis. In our study, betulinic acid (BA), a kind of pentacyclic triterpenoid compound derived from birch trees, was evaluated for its anti-metastasis activity in vitro and in vivo. BA decreased the viability of three breast cancer cell lines and markedly impaired cell migration and invasion. In addition, BA could inhibit the activation of stat3 and FAK which resulted in a reduction of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and increase of the MMPs inhibitor (TIMP-2) expression...
January 9, 2018: Oncotarget
Aruna Parameswari, Bhavya Krishna, Akilandeswari Manickam, Mahesh Vakamudi
Background and Aims: Provision of adequate perioperative analgesia in children is important to attenuate the stress response to surgery. Caudal analgesia using local anesthetics is a traditionally used technique but provides a limited duration of analgesia. Several adjuvants can be added to local anesthetics to increase the duration of action. This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of dexamethasone added to bupivacaine for caudal block in children. Material and Methods: This was a prospective, double-blinded trial on 130 children aged between 6 months and 6 years of age allocated randomly into one of two groups for elective subumbilical surgeries...
October 2017: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
Manish B Kotwani, Anila D Malde
Background and Aims: Increasing number of pediatric ambulatory surgeries are being carried out in general anesthesia using supraglottic airways (SGAs). Literature comparing sevoflurane and desflurane for the maintenance of SGA-based anesthesia is limited. Hence, we planned this prospective randomized study to compare the maintenance, emergence and recovery characteristics of sevoflurane and desflurane for pediatric ambulatory surgery. Material and Methods: Sixty children aged 6 months to 6 years posted for short surgical procedures were enrolled into the study...
October 2017: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
Paolo Monticelli, Ella Fitzgerald, Jaime Viscasillas
OBJECTIVE: To describe a novel in-plane ultrasound (US)-guided approach to the sixth (C6), seventh (C7), eighth (C8) cervical and to the first thoracic (T1) spinal nerves. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, descriptive, experimental anatomic study. ANIMALS: A total of seven canine Beagle cadavers. METHODS: Phase 1: One cadaver was used to define bony landmarks for the C6-T1 spinal nerves using computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging...
September 15, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
Alicia Skelding, Alexander Valverde, Melissa Sinclair, Jeffrey Thomason, Noel Moens
OBJECTIVES: To describe the ventral spinal nerve rami contribution to the formation of the brachial plexus (BP), and to compare ease of performing and nerve staining between three blind techniques for BP blockade in dogs. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, blind study. ANIMALS: A total of 18 dog cadavers weighing 28.2 ± 9.7 kg (mean ± standard deviation). METHODS: Dogs were randomly assigned to two of three BP treatments: traditional approach (TA), perpendicular approach (PA), and axillary approach (AA)...
December 12, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
Ji Young Jeon, Yu Mi Jeong, Sheen-Woo Lee, Jeong Ho Kim, Hye-Young Choi, Yong Ahn
BACKGROUND: Lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LSTV) are a relatively common variant and have been considered as one of the reasons for back pain. It is not unusual for clinicians to encounter patients with LSTV who require caudal epidural block (CEB) for pain management. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the termination level of the dural sac (DS) and anatomical features of the lumbosacral region relevant to CEB in patients with LSTV and compared these findings between sacralization and lumbarization groups...
January 2018: Pain Physician
Zhaohui Lan, Jinling Xu, Youji Wang, Weiqun Lu
A neuromodulatory role for glutamate has been reported for magnocellular neuroendocrine cells in mammalian hypothalamus. We examined the potential role of glutamate as a local intercellular messenger in the neuroendocrine Dahlgren cell population of the caudal neurosecretory system (CNSS) in the euryhaline flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. In pharmacological experiments in vitro, glutamate (Glu) caused an increase in electrical activity of Dahlgren cells, recruitment of previously silent cells, together with a greater proportion of cells showing phasic (irregular) activity...
January 17, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Omotayo Felicia Salami, Simbo Daisy Amanor-Boadu, Olayinka Ranti Eyelade, Simeon Olugbade Olateju
BACKGROUND: Caudal analgesia for postoperative pain relief in paediatric day-case surgery has been found to be of short duration, hence the need for addition of adjuncts to prolong the analgesia. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to compare the analgesic effects of caudal block with or without low-dose intravenous dexamethasone in children undergoing day-case herniotomy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a prospective randomised controlled study conducted in male patients, aged between 1 and 7 years scheduled for herniotomy...
October 2017: Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal
Eralp Çevikkalp, Koray Erbüyün, Serpil Erbüyün, Gülay Ok
Pediatric regional anesthesia is widely used to relieve postoperative pain after abdominal surgery. Commonly used techniques of regional anesthesia include lumbar epidural and caudal block. However, the use of central neuraxial blockade has limitations. It is contraindicated in patients with clotting abnormalities, spinal dysraphism with tethered cord syndrome, meningomyelocele, and following spinal surgery with instrumentation. Ultrasound guided transversus abdominis plane block is a new method of regional anesthesia that can be used in settings where central neuraxial blockade is contraindicated...
January 2018: Saudi Medical Journal
Frederick Campbell, Frank L Bos, Sandro Sieber, Gabriela Arias-Alpizar, Bjørn E Koch, Jörg Huwyler, Alexander Kros, Jeroen Bussmann
Up to 99% of systemically administered nanoparticles are cleared through the liver. Within the liver, most nanoparticles are thought to be sequestered by macrophages (Kupffer cells), although significant nanoparticle interactions with other hepatic cells have also been observed. To achieve effective cell-specific targeting of drugs through nanoparticle encapsulation, improved mechanistic understanding of nanoparticle-liver interactions is required. Here, we show the caudal vein of the embryonic zebrafish (Danio rerio) can be used as a model for assessing nanoparticle interactions with mammalian liver sinusoidal (or scavenger) endothelial cells (SECs) and macrophages...
January 10, 2018: ACS Nano
Dhanashree H Dongare, Seema S Karhade
Context: Caudal block is one of the most common regional anesthetic techniques employed in pediatric urogenital surgeries. Adjuvants play an important role to improve postoperative analgesia. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the analgesic effect of dexamethasone when given systemically as against caudally as an adjuvant to caudal block. Subjects and Methods: In this randomized controlled study, sixty American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status I and II patients aged 3-6 years were randomly allocated into two groups of thirty each...
October 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
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