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Pei-Tseng Lee, Jonathan Zirin, Oguz Kanca, Wen-Wen Lin, Karen L Schulze, David Li-Kroeger, Rong Tao, Colby Devereaux, Yanhui Hu, Verena Chung, Ying Fang, Yuchun He, Hongling Pan, Ming Ge, Zhongyuan Zuo, Benjamin E Housden, Stephanie E Mohr, Shinya Yamamoto, Robert W Levis, Allan C Spradling, Norbert Perrimon, Hugo J Bellen
We generated a library of ~1,000 Drosophila stocks in which we inserted a construct in the intron of genes allowing expression of GAL4 under control of endogenous promoters while arresting transcription with a polyadenylation signal 3' of the GAL4. This allows numerous applications. First, ~90% of insertions in essential genes cause a severe loss-of-function phenotype, an effective way to mutagenize genes. Interestingly, 12/14 chromosomes engineered through CRISPR do not carry second-site lethal mutations. Second, 26/36(70%) of lethal insertions tested are rescued with a single UAS- cDNA construct...
March 22, 2018: ELife
Oliver Edenharter, Stephan Schneuwly, Juan A Navarro
Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is the most important recessive ataxia in the Caucasian population. It is caused by a deficit of the mitochondrial protein frataxin. Despite its pivotal effect on biosynthesis of iron-sulfur clusters and mitochondrial energy production, little is known about the influence of frataxin depletion on homeostasis of the cellular mitochondrial network. We have carried out a forward genetic screen to analyze genetic interactions between genes controlling mitochondrial homeostasis and Drosophila frataxin...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Syeda Nayab Fatima Abidi, Rachel K Smith-Bolton
The imaginal discs of the genetically tractable model organism Drosophila melanogaster have been used to study cell-fate specification and plasticity, including homeotic changes and regeneration-induced transdetermination. The identity of the reprogramming mechanisms that induce plasticity has been of great interest in the field. Here we identify a change from antennal fate to eye fate induced by a Distal-less-GAL4 (DllGAL4) P-element insertion that is a mutant allele of Dll and expresses GAL4 in the antennal imaginal disc...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Toshiyuki Harumoto, Takema Fukatsu, Bruno Lemaitre
Male killing is a selfish reproductive manipulation caused by symbiotic bacteria, where male offspring of infected hosts are selectively killed. The underlying mechanisms and the process of their evolution are of great interest not only in terms of fundamental biology, but also their potential applications. The two bacterial Drosophila symbionts, Wolbachia and Spiroplasma , have independently evolved male-killing ability. This raises the question whether the underlying mechanisms share some similarities or are specific to each bacterial species...
March 28, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Meredith M Course, Anna I Scott, Carmen Schoor, Chung-Han Hsieh, Amanda M Papakyrikos, Dominic Winter, Tina M Cowan, Xinnan Wang
PINK1 is a mitochondria-targeted kinase, whose mutations are a cause of Parkinson's disease. We set out to better understand PINK1's effects on mitochondrial proteins in vivo Using an unbiased phosphoproteomic screen in Drosophila , we found that PINK1 mediates the phosphorylation of MCAD, a mitochondrial matrix protein critical to fatty acid metabolism. By mimicking phosphorylation of this protein in a PINK1 null background, we restored PINK1 null's climbing, flight, thorax, and wing deficiencies. Due to MCAD's role in fatty acid metabolism, we examined the metabolic profile of PINK1 null flies, where we uncovered significant disruptions in both acylcarnitines and amino acids...
March 21, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Laura DeVault, Tun Li, Sarah Izabel, Katherine L Thompson-Peer, Lily Yeh Jan, Yuh Nung Jan
Dendrites possess distinct structural and functional properties that enable neurons to receive information from the environment as well as other neurons. Despite their key role in neuronal function, current understanding of the ability of neurons to regenerate dendrites is lacking. This study characterizes the structural and functional capacity for dendrite regeneration in vivo in adult animals and examines the effect of neuronal maturation on dendrite regeneration. We focused on the class IV dendritic arborization (c4da) neuron of the Drosophila sensory system, which has a dendritic arbor that undergoes dramatic remodeling during the first 3 d of adult life and then maintains a relatively stable morphology thereafter...
March 21, 2018: Genes & Development
Ryan A York
Although most animal behaviors are associated with some form of heritable genetic variation, we do not yet understand how genes sculpt behavior across evolution, either directly or indirectly. To address this, I here compile a dataset comprised of over 1,000 genomic loci representing a spectrum of behavioral variation across animal taxa. Comparative analyses reveal that courtship and feeding behaviors are associated with genomic regions of significantly greater effect than other traits, on average three fold greater than other behaviors...
March 21, 2018: Genetics
Evelyn Rogerson, Julien Pelletier, Alvaro Acosta-Serrano, Clair Rose, Sarah Taylor, Scott Guimond, Marcelo Lima, Mark Skidmore, Edwin Yates
Tsetse flies are the principal insect vectors of African trypanosomes -sleeping sickness in humans and Nagana in cattle. One of the tsetse fly species, Glossina morsitans morsitans , is host to the parasite, Trypanosoma brucei , a major cause of African trypanosomiasis. Precise details of the life cycle have yet to be established, but the parasite life cycle involves crossing the insect peritrophic matrix (PM). The PM consists of the polysaccharide chitin, several hundred proteins, and both glycosamino- and galactosaminoglycan (GAG) polysaccharides...
March 19, 2018: Pathogens
Jan Zitzmann, Tobias Weidner, Gerrit Eichner, Denise Salzig, Peter Czermak
The production of recombinant proteins in bioreactors requires real-time process monitoring and control to increase process efficiency and to meet the requirements for a comprehensive audit trail. The combination of optical near-infrared turbidity sensors and dielectric spectroscopy provides diverse system information because different measurement principles are exploited. We used this combination of techniques to monitor and control the growth and protein production of stably transformed Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells expressing antimicrobial proteins...
March 18, 2018: Sensors
Emily G Kaye, Matthew Booker, Jesse V Kurland, Alexander E Conicella, Nicolas L Fawzi, Martha L Bulyk, Michael Y Tolstorukov, Erica Larschan
Little is known about how variation in sequence composition alters transcription factor occupancy to precisely recruit large transcription complexes. A key model for understanding how transcription complexes are targeted is the Drosophila dosage compensation system in which the male-specific lethal (MSL) transcription complex specifically identifies and regulates the male X chromosome. The chromatin-linked adaptor for MSL proteins (CLAMP) zinc-finger protein targets MSL to the X chromosome but also binds to GA-rich sequence elements throughout the genome...
March 20, 2018: Cell Reports
Joana Torres, Remo Monti, Ariane L Moore, Makiko Seimiya, Yanrui Jiang, Niko Beerenwinkel, Christian Beisel, Jorge V Beira, Renato Paro
Tumor initiation is often linked to a loss of cellular identity. Transcriptional programs determining cellular identity are preserved by epigenetically-acting chromatin factors. Although such regulators are among the most frequently mutated genes in cancer, it is not well understood how an abnormal epigenetic condition contributes to tumor onset. In this work, we investigated the gene signature of tumors caused by disruption of the Drosophila epigenetic regulator, polyhomeotic (ph). In larval tissue ph mutant cells show a shift towards an embryonic-like signature...
March 21, 2018: ELife
XiaoLi Bing, Joseph Gerlach, Gregory Loeb, Nicolas Buchon
Drosophila suzukii Matsumura is an invasive species of vinegar fly that has become a prominent pest of berries and other soft-skinned fruits. Unlike most other Drosophila species, female D. suzukii flies lay their eggs in ripening and ripe fruits and larvae develop within the fruit. To understand how D. suzukii larvae utilize ripe and ripening fruits, which usually have low levels of protein, we investigated the microbiota of field-captured and laboratory-reared D. suzukii flies and further examined the combined influence of diet and microbes on host fitness...
March 20, 2018: MBio
Florent Masson, Sandra Calderon Copete, Fanny Schüpfer, Gonzalo Garcia-Arraez, Bruno Lemaitre
Endosymbiotic bacteria associated with eukaryotic hosts are omnipresent in nature, particularly in insects. Studying the bacterial side of host-symbiont interactions is, however, often limited by the unculturability and genetic intractability of the symbionts. Spiroplasma poulsonii is a maternally transmitted bacterial endosymbiont that is naturally associated with several Drosophila species. S. poulsonii strongly affects its host's physiology, for example by causing male killing or by protecting it against various parasites...
March 20, 2018: MBio
T H Wang, S Y Wang, X D Wang, H Q Jiang, Y Q Yang, Y Wang, J L Cheng, C T Zhang, W W Liang, H L Feng
Oxidative stress exhibits a central role in the course of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a progressive neurodegenerative disease commonly found to include a copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene mutation. Fisetin, a natural antioxidant, has shown benefits in varied neurodegenerative diseases. The possible effect of fisetin in ALS has not been clarified as of yet. We investigated whether fisetin affected mutant hSOD1 ALS models. Three different hSOD1-related mutant models were used: Drosophila expressing mutant hSOD1G85R , hSOD1G93A NSC34 cells, and transgenic mice...
March 17, 2018: Neuroscience
Monica Sharma, Isabel Castro-Piedras, Glenn E Simmons, Kevin Pruitt
The Dishevelled gene was first identified in Drosophila mutants with disoriented hair and bristle polarity [1-3]. The Dsh gene (Dsh/Dvl, in Drosophila and vertebrates respectively) gained popularity when it was discovered that it plays a key role in segment polarity during early embryonic development in Drosophila [4]. Subsequently, the vertebrate homolog of Dishevelled genes were identified in Xenopus (Xdsh), mice (Dvl1, Dvl2, Dvl3), and in humans (DVL1, DVL2, DVL3) [5-10]. Dishevelled functions as a principal component of Wnt signaling pathway and governs several cellular processes including cell proliferation, survival, migration, differentiation, polarity and stem cell renewal...
March 17, 2018: Cellular Signalling
Marilena Ignesti, Rosalba Ferrara, Patrizia Romani, Luca Valzania, Giulia Serafini, Francesco Pennacchio, Valeria Cavaliere, Giuseppe Gargiulo
Polydnaviruses (PDV) are viral symbionts associated with ichneumonid and braconid wasps parasitizing moth larvae, which are able to disrupt the host immune response and development, as well as a number of other physiological pathways. The immunosuppressive role of PDV has been more intensely investigated, while very little is known about the PDV-encoded factors disrupting host development. Here we address this research issue by further expanding the functional analysis of ankyrin genes encoded by the bracovirus associated with Toxoneuron nigriceps (Hymenoptera, Braconidae)...
March 17, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Hina Kosakamoto, Yuya Fujisawa, Fumiaki Obata, Masayuki Miura
Tissue closure involves the coordinated unidirectional movement of a group of cells without loss of cell-cell contact. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling the tissue closure are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that Lamin C, the sole A-type lamin in Drosophila, contributes to the process of thorax closure in pupa. High expression of Lamin C was observed at the leading front of the migrating wing imaginal discs. Live imaging analysis revealed that knockdown of Lamin C in the thorax region affected the coordinated movement of the leading front, resulting in incomplete tissue fusion required for formation of the adult thorax...
March 17, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Hirono Ohashi, Takaomi Sakai
In the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster, hunger has a significant impact on its sensory systems and brain functions, and consequently modifies related behaviors. However, it remains unclarified whether hunger affects nociceptive behavioral responses to heat stimuli. In this study, we show that food deprivation reduces responses to noxious heat in wild-type flies. We further identified that the neuropeptide Leucokinin (Lk) and its receptor (Lkr) are essential for the reduction of responses to noxious heat. Temporal silencing of Lk-expressing neurons and a knockout mutation of Lkr generated using the CRISPR/Cas9 system inhibited the reduction of responses to noxious heat...
March 17, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Ryusuke Koshida, Saki Tome, Yosuke Takei
Dendritic spines, the postsynaptic compartments at excitatory synapses, are capable of changing their shape and size to modulate synaptic transmission. The actin cytoskeleton and a variety of actin-binding proteins play a critical role in the dynamics of dendritic spines. Class I myosins are monomeric motor proteins that move along actin filaments using the energy of ATP hydrolysis. Of these class I myosins, myosin Id, the mammalian homolog of Drosophila Myo31DF, has been reported to be expressed in neurons, whereas its subcellular localization in neurons remained unknown...
March 17, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
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2018: PloS One
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