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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333477/notch-ligand-binding-assay-using-flow-cytometry
#1
Shweta Varshney, Pamela Stanley
Notch signaling is an evolutionary conserved signaling pathway that plays an indispensable role during development, and in the maintenance of homeostatic processes, in a wide variety of tissues (Kopan, 2012; Hori et al., 2013). The multifaceted roles of Notch signaling are stringently regulated at different levels. One of the most important aspects of regulation is the binding of different Notch ligands to each Notch receptor (NOTCH1-NOTCH4). Canonical ligands Delta or Serrate (in Drosophila), and Delta-like (DLL1 and DLL4) or Jagged (JAG1 and JAG2) (in mammals), are transmembrane glycoproteins...
December 5, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333381/changes-in-drosophila-melanogaster-sleep-wake-behavior-due-to-lotus-nelumbo-nucifera-seed-and-hwang-jeong-polygonatum-sibiricum-extracts
#2
Kyungae Jo, SangDuk Jeon, Chang-Won Ahn, Sung Hee Han, Hyung Joo Suh
We evaluated the sleep enhancement activity of the medicinal herbs valerian (Valeriana officinalis), jujube (Ziziphus jujube), lotus seed (Nelumbo nucifera), Gastrodia elata, Polygonatum sibiricum, and baekbokryung (Poria cocos), which can relieve insomnia in a Drosophila model. Locomotor activity was measured in the Drosophila model to evaluate the sleep activity of Korean medicinal herbs traditionally used as sleep aids. The group treated with lotus seed extract showed less nocturnal activity. Treatment with 10 or 20 mg/mL of P...
December 2017: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330836/pathogenesis-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-mediated-by-yap
#3
Ping Chen, Qihui Luo, Chao Huang, Qi Gao, Like Li, Jingfei Chen, Bing Chen, Wentao Liu, Wen Zeng, Zhengli Chen
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of the interaction between Yes-associated protein (YAP) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/Smad signaling pathways in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: Serum samples of monkeys with biopsy-proven NAFLD and healthy normal monkeys were used to measure fasting plasma glucose (FPG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride (TG) and albumin (ALB) with the BECKMAN CX5 PRO...
January 12, 2018: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329646/effects-of-gardenia-jasminoides-extracts-on-cognition-and-innate-immune-response-in-an-adult-drosophila-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Wei-Wei Ma, Ye Tao, Yan-Ying Wang, I-Feng Peng
Herbal extracts have been extensively used worldwide for their application on memory improvement, especially among aged and memory-deficit populations. In the present study, the memory loss induced by human Abeta protein over-expression in fruitfly Alzheimer's disease (AD) model was rescued by multiple extracts from Gardenia jasminoides. Three extracts that rich with gardenia yellow, geniposide, and gardenoside components showed distinct rescue effect on memory loss. Further investigation on adding gardenoside into a formula of Ganoderma lucidum, Panax notoginseng and Panax ginseng (GPP) also support its therapeutic effects on memory improvement...
December 2017: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329398/lenup-learning-nucleosome-positioning-from-dna-sequences-with-improved-convolutional-neural-networks
#5
Juhua Zhang, Wenbo Peng, Lei Wang
Motivation: Nucleosome positioning plays significant roles in proper genome packing and its accessibility to execute transcription regulation. Despite a multitude of nucleosome positioning resources available on line including experimental datasets of genome-wide nucleosome occupancy profiles and computational tools to the analysis on these data, the complex language of eukaryotic Nucleosome positioning remains incompletely understood. Results: Here, we address this challenge using an approach based on a state-of-the-art machine learning method...
January 10, 2018: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329306/lifespan-extension-without-fertility-reduction-following-dietary-addition-of-the-autophagy-activator-torin1-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#6
Janet S Mason, Tom Wileman, Tracey Chapman
Autophagy is a highly conserved mechanism for cellular repair that becomes progressively down-regulated during normal ageing. Hence, manipulations that activate autophagy could increase lifespan. Previous reports show that manipulations to the autophagy pathway can result in longevity extension in yeast, flies, worms and mammals. Under standard nutrition, autophagy is inhibited by the nutrient sensing kinase Target of Rapamycin (TOR). Therefore, manipulations of TOR that increase autophagy may offer a mechanism for extending lifespan...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328919/color-processing-in-the-early-visual-system-of-drosophila
#7
Christopher Schnaitmann, Väinö Haikala, Eva Abraham, Vitus Oberhauser, Thomas Thestrup, Oliver Griesbeck, Dierk F Reiff
Color vision extracts spectral information by comparing signals from photoreceptors with different visual pigments. Such comparisons are encoded by color-opponent neurons that are excited at one wavelength and inhibited at another. Here, we examine the circuit implementation of color-opponent processing in the Drosophila visual system by combining two-photon calcium imaging with genetic dissection of visual circuits. We report that color-opponent processing of UVshort/blue and UVlong/green is already implemented in R7/R8 inner photoreceptor terminals of "pale" and "yellow" ommatidia, respectively...
January 11, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328915/retrovirus-like-gag-protein-arc1-binds-rna-and-traffics-across-synaptic-boutons
#8
James Ashley, Benjamin Cordy, Diandra Lucia, Lee G Fradkin, Vivian Budnik, Travis Thomson
Arc/Arg3.1 is required for synaptic plasticity and cognition, and mutations in this gene are linked to autism and schizophrenia. Arc bears a domain resembling retroviral/retrotransposon Gag-like proteins, which multimerize into a capsid that packages viral RNA. The significance of such a domain in a plasticity molecule is uncertain. Here, we report that the Drosophila Arc1 protein forms capsid-like structures that bind darc1 mRNA in neurons and is loaded into extracellular vesicles that are transferred from motorneurons to muscles...
January 11, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326288/drosophila-big-bang-regulates-the-apical-cytocortex-and-wing-growth-through-junctional-tension
#9
Giorgos Tsoumpekos, Linda Nemetschke, Elisabeth Knust
Growth of epithelial tissues is regulated by a plethora of components, including signaling and scaffolding proteins, but also by junctional tension, mediated by the actomyosin cytoskeleton. However, how these players are spatially organized and functionally coordinated is not well understood. Here, we identify the Drosophila melanogaster scaffolding protein Big bang as a novel regulator of growth in epithelial cells of the wing disc by ensuring proper junctional tension. Loss of big bang results in the reduction of the regulatory light chain of nonmuscle myosin, Spaghetti squash...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326287/the-apical-scaffold-big-bang-binds-to-spectrins-and-regulates-the-growth-of-drosophila-melanogaster-wing-discs
#10
Elodie Forest, Rémi Logeay, Charles Géminard, Diala Kantar, Florence Frayssinoux, Lisa Heron-Milhavet, Alexandre Djiane
During development, cell numbers are tightly regulated, ensuring that tissues and organs reach their correct size and shape. Recent evidence has highlighted the intricate connections between the cytoskeleton and the regulation of the key growth control Hippo pathway. Looking for apical scaffolds regulating tissue growth, we describe that Drosophila melanogaster big bang (Bbg), a poorly characterized multi-PDZ scaffold, controls epithelial tissue growth without affecting epithelial polarity and architecture...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326167/the-protein-kinase-ck2-substrate-jabba-modulates-lipid-metabolism-during-drosophila-oogenesis
#11
Emily A McMillan, Sheila M Longo, Michael D Smith, Sarah Broskin, Baicheng Lin, Nisha K Singh, Todd I Strochlic
Lipid metabolism plays a critical role in female reproduction. During oogenesis, maturing oocytes accumulate high levels of neutral lipids that are essential for both energy production and for the synthesis of other lipid molecules. Metabolic pathways within the ovary are partially regulated by protein kinases that link metabolic status to oocyte development. While the functions of several kinases in this process are well established, the roles that many other kinases play in coordinating metabolic state with female germ cell development are unknown...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325104/eukaryotic-translational-termination-efficiency-is-influenced-by-the-3-nucleotides-within-the-ribosomal-mrna-channel
#12
Andrew G Cridge, Caillan Crowe-McAuliffe, Suneeth F Mathew, Warren P Tate
When a stop codon is at the 80S ribosomal A site, there are six nucleotides (+4 to +9) downstream that are inferred to be occupying the mRNA channel. We examined the influence of these downstream nucleotides on translation termination success or failure in mammalian cells at the three stop codons. The expected hierarchy in the intrinsic fidelity of the stop codons (UAA>UAG>UGA) was observed, with highly influential effects on termination readthrough mediated by nucleotides at position +4 and position +8...
January 9, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325071/viral-suppressors-of-rnai-employ-a-rapid-screening-mode-to-discriminate-viral-rna-from-cellular-small-rna
#13
Mohamed Fareh, Jasper van Lopik, Iason Katechis, Alfred W Bronkhorst, Anna C Haagsma, Ronald P van Rij, Chirlmin Joo
RNA interference (RNAi) is an indispensable mechanism for antiviral defense in insects, including mosquitoes that transmit human diseases. To escape this antiviral defense system, viruses encode suppressors of RNAi that prevent elimination of viral RNAs, and thus ensure efficient virus accumulation. Although the first animal Viral Suppressor of RNAi (VSR) was identified more than a decade ago, the molecular basis of RNAi suppression by these viral proteins remains unclear. Here, we developed a single-molecule fluorescence assay to investigate how VSRs inhibit the recognition of viral RNAs by Dcr-2, a key endoribonuclease enzyme in the RNAi pathway...
January 9, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324767/glass-promotes-the-differentiation-of-neuronal-and-non-neuronal-cell-types-in-the-drosophila-eye
#14
Carolyn A Morrison, Hao Chen, Tiffany Cook, Stuart Brown, Jessica E Treisman
Transcriptional regulators can specify different cell types from a pool of equivalent progenitors by activating distinct developmental programs. The Glass transcription factor is expressed in all progenitors in the developing Drosophila eye, and is maintained in both neuronal and non-neuronal cell types. Glass is required for neuronal progenitors to differentiate as photoreceptors, but its role in non-neuronal cone and pigment cells is unknown. To determine whether Glass activity is limited to neuronal lineages, we compared the effects of misexpressing it in neuroblasts of the larval brain and in epithelial cells of the wing disc...
January 11, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324752/tet-protein-function-during-drosophila-development
#15
Fei Wang, Svetlana Minakhina, Hiep Tran, Neha Changela, Joseph Kramer, Ruth Steward
The TET (Ten-eleven translocation) 1, 2 and 3 proteins have been shown to function as DNA hydroxymethylases in vertebrates and their requirements have been documented extensively. Recently, the Tet proteins have been shown to also hydroxylate 5-methylcytosine in RNA. 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmrC) is enriched in messenger RNA but the function of this modification has yet to be elucidated. Because Cytosine methylation in DNA is barely detectable in Drosophila, it serves as an ideal model to study the biological function of 5hmrC...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324742/functional-characterization-of-adaptive-variation-within-a-cis-regulatory-element-influencing-drosophila-melanogaster-growth
#16
Amanda Glaser-Schmitt, John Parsch
Gene expression variation is a major contributor to phenotypic diversity within species and is thought to play an important role in adaptation. However, examples of adaptive regulatory polymorphism are rare, especially those that have been characterized at both the molecular genetic level and the organismal level. In this study, we perform a functional analysis of the Drosophila melanogaster CG9509 enhancer, a cis-regulatory element that shows evidence of adaptive evolution in populations outside the species' ancestral range in sub-Saharan Africa...
January 11, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324667/dietary-resveratrol-does-not-affect-life-span-body-composition-stress-response-and-longevity-related-gene-expression-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#17
Stefanie Staats, Anika E Wagner, Bianca Kowalewski, Florian T Rieck, Sebastian T Soukup, Sabine E Kulling, Gerald Rimbach
In this study, we tested the effect of the stilbene resveratrol on life span, body composition, locomotor activity, stress response, and the expression of genes encoding proteins centrally involved in ageing pathways in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. Male and female w1118 D. melanogaster were fed diets based on sucrose, corn meal, and yeast. Flies either received a control diet or a diet supplemented with 500 µmol/L resveratrol. Dietary resveratrol did not affect mean, median, and maximal life span of male and female flies...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324364/automatic-non-invasive-heartbeat-quantification-of-drosophila-pupae
#18
Dimitri Berh, Aaron Scherzinger, Nils Otto, Xiaoyi Jiang, Christian Klämbt, Benjamin Risse
The importance of studying model organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster has significantly increased in recent biological research. Amongst others, Drosophila can be used to study heart development and heartbeat related diseases. Here we propose a method for automatic in vivo heartbeat detection of Drosophila melanogaster pupae based on morphological structures which are recorded without any dissection using FIM imaging. Our approach is easy-to-use, has low computational costs, and enables high-throughput experiments...
December 29, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324046/gustatory-processing-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#19
Kristin Scott
The ability to identify nutrient-rich food and avoid toxic substances is essential for an animal's survival. Although olfaction and vision contribute to food detection, the gustatory system acts as a final checkpoint control for food acceptance or rejection. The vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster tastes many of the same stimuli as mammals and provides an excellent model system for comparative studies of taste detection. The relative simplicity of the fly brain and behaviors, along with the molecular genetic and functional approaches available in this system, allow the examination of gustatory neural circuits from sensory input to motor output...
January 7, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323461/n-benzyl-substitution-of-polyhydroxypyrrolidines-the-way-to-selective-inhibitors-of-golgi-%C3%AE-mannosidase-ii
#20
Sergej Šesták, Maroš Bella, Tomáš Klunda, Soňa Gurská, Petr Džubák, Florian Wöls, Iain Bh Wilson, Vladimir Sladek, Marián Hajdúch, Monika Polakova, Juraj Kóňa
Inhibition of biosynthesis of complex N-glycans in Golgi apparatus influence progress of tumor growth and metastasis. Golgi α-mannosidase II (GMII) has become a therapeutic target for a drug with anticancer activities. One critical task for successful application GMII drugs in medicine treatment is to reduce their unwanted co-inhibition with lysosomal α-mannosidase (LMan) by which suffer all known potent GMII inhibitors. A series of novel N-substituted polyhydroxypyrrolidines was synthesized and tested with modeled GH38 α-mannosidases from Drosophila melanogaster (GMIIb and LManII)...
January 11, 2018: ChemMedChem
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