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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646164/regulation-of-drosophila-lifespan-by-bellwether-promoter-alleles
#1
Júlia Frankenberg Garcia, Mary Anna Carbone, Trudy F C Mackay, Robert R H Anholt
Longevity varies among individuals, but how natural genetic variation contributes to variation in lifespan is poorly understood. Drosophila melanogaster presents an advantageous model system to explore the genetic underpinnings of longevity, since its generation time is brief and both the genetic background and rearing environment can be precisely controlled. The bellwether (blw) gene encodes the α subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase. Since metabolic rate may influence lifespan, we investigated whether alternative haplotypes in the blw promoter affect lifespan when expressed in a co-isogenic background...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645846/heparan-sulfate-proteoglycans-in-drosophila-neuromuscular-development
#2
REVIEW
Keisuke Kamimura, Nobuaki Maeda
Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are glycoconjugates bearing heparan sulfate (HS) chains covalently attached to core proteins, which are ubiquitously distributed on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix. HSPGs interact with a number of molecules mainly through HS chains, which play critical roles in diverse physiological and disease processes. Among these, recent vertebrate studies showed that HSPGs are closely involved in synapse development and function. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms remain elusive...
June 20, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645777/increased-food-intake-after-starvation-enhances-sleep-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#3
Josue M Regalado, McKenna B Cortez, Jeremy Grubbs, Jared A Link, Alexander van der Linden, Yong Zhang
Feeding and sleep are highly conserved, interconnected behaviors essential for survival. Starvation has been shown to potently suppress sleep across species; however, whether satiety promotes sleep is still unclear. Here we use the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, as a model organism to address the interaction between feeding and sleep. We first monitored the sleep of flies that had been starved for 24 h and found that sleep amount increased in the first 4 h after flies were given food. Increased sleep after starvation was due to an increase in sleep bout number and average sleep bout length...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645749/a-population-of-g2-arrested-cells-are-selected-as-sensory-organ-precursors-for-the-interommatidial-bristles-of-the-drosophila-eye
#4
Joy H Meserve, Robert J Duronio
Cell cycle progression and differentiation are highly coordinated during the development of multicellular organisms. The mechanisms by which these processes are coordinated and how their coordination contributes to normal development are not fully understood. Here, we determine the developmental fate of a population of precursor cells in the developing Drosophila melanogaster retina that arrest in G2 phase of the cell cycle and investigate whether cell cycle phase-specific arrest influences the fate of these cells...
June 20, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645543/mechanosensing-in-the-drosophila-nervous-system
#5
REVIEW
Katerina Karkali, Enrique Martin-Blanco
Neurons allocated to sense organs respond rapidly to mechanical signals dictating behavioral responses at the organism level. The receptors that transduce these signals, and underlie these senses, are mechanically gated channels. Research on mechanosensation over the past decade, employing in many cases Drosophila as a model, has focused in typifying these receptors and in exploring the different ways, depending on context, in which these mechanosensors are modulated. In this review, we discuss first what we have learned from Drosophila on these mechanisms and we describe the different mechanosensory organs present in the Drosophila larvae and adult...
June 20, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644726/cytotoxic-and-genotoxic-actions-of-casiopeina-iii-ea-cas-iii-ea-in-somatic-and-germ-cells-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#6
L M Vidal, E Pimentel, M P Cruces, S Hernández, L Ruiz-Azuara
Casiopeinas® are a group of newly synthesized drugs designed to treat cancer. These copper (Cu) complexes exhibit cytostatic, cytotoxic, genotoxic, and antineoplastic activities through different mechanisms of action. To evaluate the influence of these compounds, some in vivo studies were performed using predominantly somatic cells. The aim of the present study was to examine the cytotoxic and genotoxic actions of Casiopeina III-Ea (Cas III-Ea) in somatic as well as germ cells of Drosophila melanogaster. For cytotoxicity, the productivity and some morphometric parameters were measured and genotoxicity was assessed by means of the somatic mutation and recombination test assay in the wing...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644712/comparative-analysis-of-behavioral-and-transcriptional-variation-underlying-co2-sensory-neuron-function-and-development-in-drosophila
#7
Jia Wern Pan, Joi McLaughlin, Haining Yang, Charles Leo, Paula Rambarat, Sumie Okuwa, Anaïs Monroy-Eklund, Sabrina Clark, Corbin D Jones, Pelin Cayirlioglu Volkan
Carbon dioxide is an important environmental cue for many insects, regulating many behaviors including some that have direct human impacts. To further improve our understanding of how this system varies among closely related insect species, we examined both the behavioral response to CO2 as well as the transcriptional profile of key developmental regulators of CO2 sensory neurons in the olfactory system across the Drosophila genus. We found that CO2 generally evokes repulsive behavior across most of the Drosophilids we examined, but this behavior has been lost or reduced in several lineages...
June 23, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643248/computational-prediction-of-crispr-cas9-target-sites-reveals-potential-off-target-risks-in-human-and-mouse
#8
Qingbo Wang, Kumiko Ui-Tei
The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) system is a prominent genome engineering technology. In the CRISPR/Cas system, the RNA-guided endonuclease Cas protein introduces a DNA double-stranded break at the genome position recognized by a guide RNA (gRNA) based on complementary base-pairing of about 20-nucleotides in length. The 8- or 12-mer gRNA sequence in the proximal region is especially important for target recognition, and the genes with sequence complementarity to such regions are often disrupted...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642678/a-cold-blooded-view-on-adult-neurogenesis
#9
REVIEW
Anabel R Simões, Christa Rhiner
During brain development, highly complex and interconnected neural circuits are established. This intricate wiring needs to be robust to faithfully perform adult brain function throughout life, but at the same time offer room for plasticity to integrate new information. In the mammalian brain, adult-born neurons are produced in restricted niches harboring neural stem cells. In the fruit fly Drosophila, low-level adult neurogenesis arising from a dispersed population of neural progenitors has recently been detected in the optic lobes...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642367/the-activities-of-the-c-terminal-regions-of-the-formin-protein-disheveled-associated-activator-of-morphogenesis-daam-in-actin-dynamics
#10
Andrea Teréz Vig, István Földi, Szilárd Szikora, Ede Migh, Rita Gombos, Mónika Ágnes Tóth, Tamás Huber, Réka Pintér, Gábor Csaba Talián, József Mihály, Beáta Bugyi
Disheveled-associated activator of morphogenesis (DAAM) is a diaphanous-related formin protein essential for the regulation of actin cytoskeleton dynamics in diverse biological processes. The conserved formin homology 1 and 2 (FH1-FH2) domains of DAAM catalyze actin nucleation and processively mediate filament elongation. These activities are indirectly regulated by the N-, and C-terminal regions flanking the FH1-FH2 domains. Recently, the C-terminal diaphanous-autoregulatory domain (DAD) and the C-terminus (CT) of formins have also been shown to regulate actin assembly by directly interacting with actin...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642270/heritable-micro-environmental-variance-covaries-with-fitness-in-an-outbred-population-of-drosophila-serrata
#11
Jacqueline L Sztepanacz, Katrina McGuigan, Mark W Blows
The genetic basis of stochastic variation within a defined environment, and the consequences of such micro-environmental variance for fitness are poorly understood. Using a multigenerational breeding design in Drosophila serrata, we demonstrated that the micro-environmental variance in a set of morphological wing traits in a randomly mating population had significant additive genetic variance in most single wing traits. Although heritability was generally low (< 1%), coefficients of additive genetic variance were of a magnitude typical of other morphological traits, indicating that the micro-environmental variance is an evolvable trait...
June 22, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642244/investigation-of-protein-synthesis-in-drosophila-larvae-using-puromycin-labelling
#12
Lisa P Deliu, Abhishek Ghosh, Savraj S Grewal
Translational control of gene expression is an important regulator of growth, homeostasis and aging in Drosophila The ability to measure changes in protein synthesis in response to genetic and environmental cues is therefore important in studying these processes. Here we describe a simple and cost effective approach to assay protein synthesis in Drosophila larval cells and tissues. The method is based on the incorporation of puromycin into nascent peptide chains. Using an ex vivo approach, we label newly synthesized peptides in larvae with puromycin and then measure levels of new protein synthesis using an anti-puromycin antibody...
June 22, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642242/specific-expression-and-function-of-the-six3-optix-in-drosophila-serially-homologous-organs
#13
Amer Al Khatib, Natalia Siomava, Antonella Iannini, Nico Posnien, Fernando Casares
Organ size and pattern results from the integration of two positional information systems. One global, encoded by the Hox genes, links organ type with position along the main body axis. Within specific organs, local information is conveyed by signaling molecules that regulate organ growth and pattern. The mesothoracic (T2) wing and the metathoracic (T3) haltere of Drosophila represent a paradigmatic example of this coordination. The Hox gene Ultrabithorax (Ubx), expressed in the developing T3, selects haltere identity by, among other processes, modulating the production and signaling efficiency of Dpp, a BMP2-like molecule that acts as a major regulator of size and pattern...
June 22, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642050/the-drosophila-thioester-containing-protein-4-participates-in-the-induction-of-the-cellular-immune-response-to-the-pathogen-photorhabdus
#14
Upasana Shokal, Ioannis Eleftherianos
The function of thioester-containing proteins (TEPs) in the immune defense of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is yet mostly unexplored. Recently, we showed the involvement of TEP4 in the activation of humoral and phenoloxidase immune responses of Drosophila against the pathogenic bacteria Photorhabdus luminescens and Photorhabdus asymbiotica. Here, we investigated the participation of Tep4 in the cellular defense of Drosophila against the two pathogens. We report significantly lower numbers of live and dead plasmatocytes in the tep4 mutants compared to control flies in response to Photorhabdus infection...
June 19, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641508/is-longevity-a-heritable-trait-evidence-for-non-genomic-influence-from-an-extended-longevity-phenotype-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#15
S Deepashree, Thimmappa Shivanandappa, Saraf R Ramesh
BACKGROUND: Although genetic variations are heritable, some quantitative traits like longevity may have non-genomic influence in heritability. Laboratory-selected inbred strains of extended longevity phenotype of Drosophila offer an opportunity to study the inheritance of longevity. OBJECTIVE: To examine the heritability of longevity in an extended longevity phenotype of Drosophila melanogaster using reciprocal cross effects in F1 and F2 generations. METHODS: Lifespan variations of virgin and mated flies in parent, F1 and F2 generations were investigated using reciprocal crosses between normal and long lifespan lines of inbred population of D...
June 15, 2017: Current Aging Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641402/ec-tagging-allows-cell-type-specific-rna-analysis
#16
Naoki Hida, Mohamed Y Aboukilila, Dana A Burow, Rakesh Paul, Marc M Greenberg, Michael Fazio, Samantha Beasley, Robert C Spitale, Michael D Cleary
Purification of cell type-specific RNAs remains a significant challenge. One solution involves biosynthetic tagging of target RNAs. RNA tagging via incorporation of 4-thiouracil (TU) in cells expressing transgenic uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT), a method known as TU-tagging, has been used in multiple systems but can have limited specificity due to endogenous pathways of TU incorporation. Here, we describe an alternative method that requires the activity of two enzymes: cytosine deaminase (CD) and UPRT...
June 21, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641115/feature-integration-drives-probabilistic-behavior-in-the-drosophila-escape-response
#17
Catherine R von Reyn, Aljoscha Nern, W Ryan Williamson, Patrick Breads, Ming Wu, Shigehiro Namiki, Gwyneth M Card
Animals rely on dedicated sensory circuits to extract and encode environmental features. How individual neurons integrate and translate these features into behavioral responses remains a major question. Here, we identify a visual projection neuron type that conveys predator approach information to the Drosophila giant fiber (GF) escape circuit. Genetic removal of this input during looming stimuli reveals that it encodes angular expansion velocity, whereas other input cell type(s) encode angular size. Motor program selection and timing emerge from linear integration of these two features within the GF...
June 21, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641103/staring-at-the-clock-face-in-drosophila
#18
Ezio Rosato, Charalambos P Kyriacou
Liang et al. (2017) demonstrate how neuropeptides from two groups of clock cells appear to be responsible for the fly's circadian neurons becoming active at different times of day. By delaying the activity of their clock cell targets, they give rise to morning and evening behavior.
June 21, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640815/an-autonomous-metabolic-role-for-spen
#19
Kelsey E Hazegh, Travis Nemkov, Angelo D'Alessandro, John D Diller, Jenifer Monks, James L McManaman, Kenneth L Jones, Kirk C Hansen, Tânia Reis
Preventing obesity requires a precise balance between deposition into and mobilization from fat stores, but regulatory mechanisms are incompletely understood. Drosophila Split ends (Spen) is the founding member of a conserved family of RNA-binding proteins involved in transcriptional regulation and frequently mutated in human cancers. We find that manipulating Spen expression alters larval fat levels in a cell-autonomous manner. Spen-depleted larvae had defects in energy liberation from stores, including starvation sensitivity and major changes in the levels of metabolic enzymes and metabolites, particularly those involved in β-oxidation...
June 22, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640802/peroxisomal-biogenesis-is-genetically-and-biochemically-linked-to-carbohydrate-metabolism-in-drosophila-and-mouse
#20
Michael F Wangler, Yu-Hsin Chao, Vafa Bayat, Nikolaos Giagtzoglou, Abhijit Babaji Shinde, Nagireddy Putluri, Cristian Coarfa, Taraka Donti, Brett H Graham, Joseph E Faust, James A McNew, Ann Moser, Marco Sardiello, Myriam Baes, Hugo J Bellen
Peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBD) are a group of multi-system human diseases due to mutations in the PEX genes that are responsible for peroxisome assembly and function. These disorders lead to global defects in peroxisomal function and result in severe brain, liver, bone and kidney disease. In order to study their pathogenesis we undertook a systematic genetic and biochemical study of Drosophila pex16 and pex2 mutants. These mutants are short-lived with defects in locomotion and activity. Moreover these mutants exhibit severe morphologic and functional peroxisomal defects...
June 2017: PLoS Genetics
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