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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933579/oligomerization-and-chaperone-like-activity-of-drosophila-melanogaster-small-heat-shock-protein-dmhsp27-and-three-arginine-mutants-in-the-alpha-crystallin-domain
#1
Mohamed Taha Moutaoufik, Geneviève Morrow, Halim Maaroufi, Céline Férard, Stéphanie Finet, Robert M Tanguay
The small Hsp DmHsp27 from Drosophila melanogaster is one of the few small heat shock proteins (sHsps) found within the nucleus. We report that its dimerization is independent of disulfide bond formation and seems to rely on salt bridges. Unlike metazoan sHsps, DmHsp27 forms two populations of oligomers not in equilibrium. Mutations at highly conserved arginine residues in mammalian sHsps have been reported to be associated with protein conformational defects and intracellular aggregation. Independent mutation of three highly conserved arginines (R122, R131, and R135) to glycine in DmHsp27 results in only one population of higher molecular weight form...
December 8, 2016: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933142/salidroside-reduces-tau-hyperphosphorylation-via-up-regulating-gsk-3%C3%AE-phosphorylation-in-a-tau-transgenic-drosophila-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Bei Zhang, Qiongqiong Li, Xingkun Chu, Suya Sun, Shengdi Chen
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related and progressive neurodegenerative disease that causes substantial public health care burdens. Intensive efforts have been made to find effective and safe treatment against AD. Salidroside (Sal) is the main effective component of Rhodiola rosea L., which has several pharmacological activities. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of Sal in the treatment of AD transgenic Drosophila and the associated mechanisms...
2016: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932997/characterization-of-reproductive-dormancy-in-male-drosophila-melanogaster
#3
Olga I Kubrak, Lucie Kučerová, Ulrich Theopold, Sören Nylin, Dick R Nässel
Insects are known to respond to seasonal and adverse environmental changes by entering dormancy, also known as diapause. In some insect species, including Drosophila melanogaster, dormancy occurs in the adult organism and postpones reproduction. This adult dormancy has been studied in female flies where it is characterized by arrested development of ovaries, altered nutrient stores, lowered metabolism, increased stress and immune resistance and drastically extended lifespan. Male dormancy, however, has not been investigated in D...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932950/amyloid-precursor-proteins-are-dynamically-trafficked-and-processed-during-neuronal-development
#4
Jenna M Ramaker, Robert S Cargill, Tracy L Swanson, Hanil Quirindongo, Marlène Cassar, Doris Kretzschmar, Philip F Copenhaver
Proteolytic processing of the Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) produces beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptide fragments that accumulate in Alzheimer's Disease (AD), but APP may also regulate multiple aspects of neuronal development, albeit via mechanisms that are not well understood. APP is a member of a family of transmembrane glycoproteins expressed by all higher organisms, including two mammalian orthologs (APLP1 and APLP2) that have complicated investigations into the specific activities of APP. By comparison, insects express only a single APP-related protein (APP-Like, or APPL) that contains the same protein interaction domains identified in APP...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932545/population-genomics-of-daphnia-pulex
#5
Michael Lynch, Ryan Gutenkunst, Matthew Ackerman, Ken Spitze, Zhiqiang Ye, Takahiro Maruki, Zhiyuan Jia
Using data from 83 isolates from a single population, the population genomics of the microcrustacean Daphnia pulex are described and compared to current knowledge for the only other well-studied invertebrate, Drosophila melanogaster These two species are quite similar with respect to effective population sizes and mutation rates, although some features of recombination appear to be different, with linkage disequilibrium being elevated at short (< 100 bp) distances in D. melanogaster and at long distances in D...
December 7, 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932542/h2o2-sensitive-isoforms-of-drosophila-trpa1-act-in-bitter-sensing-gustatory-neurons-to-promote-avoidance-of-uv-during-egg-laying
#6
Ananya R Guntur, Bin Gou, Pengyu Gu, Ruo He, Ulrich Stern, Yang Xiang, Chung-Hui Yang
The evolutionarily conserved TRPA1 channel can sense various stimuli including temperatures and chemical irritants. Recent results have suggested that specific isoforms of Drosophila TRPA1 (dTRPA1) are UV sensitive and that their UV sensitivity is due to H2O2 sensitivity. However, whether such UV sensitivity serves any physiological purposes in behaving animals was unclear. Here, we demonstrate that H2O2-sensitive dTRPA1 isoforms promote avoidance of UV when adult Drosophila females are selecting sites for egg-laying...
December 7, 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932541/cooperation-between-kinesin-motors-promotes-spindle-symmetry-and-chromosome-organization-in-oocytes
#7
Sarah J Radford, Allysa Marie M Go, Kim S McKim
The oocyte spindle in most animal species is assembled in the absence of the microtubule-organizing centers called centrosomes. Without the organization provided by centrosomes, acentrosomal meiotic spindle organization may rely heavily on the bundling of microtubules by kinesin motor proteins. Indeed, the minus-end directed kinesin-14 NCD and the plus-end directed kinesin-6 Subito are known to be required for oocyte spindle organization in Drosophila melanogaster How multiple microtubule-bundling kinesins interact to produce a functional acentrosomal spindle is not known...
December 7, 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932481/modeling-monogenic-human-nephrotic-syndrome-in-the-drosophila-garland-cell-nephrocyte
#8
Tobias Hermle, Daniela A Braun, Martin Helmstädter, Tobias B Huber, Friedhelm Hildebrandt
Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome is characterized by podocyte dysfunction. Drosophila garland cell nephrocytes are podocyte-like cells and thus provide a potential in vivo model in which to study the pathogenesis of nephrotic syndrome. However, relevant pathomechanisms of nephrotic syndrome have not been studied in nephrocytes. Here, we discovered that two Drosophila slit diaphragm proteins, orthologs of the human genes encoding nephrin and nephrin-like protein 1, colocalize within a fingerprint-like staining pattern that correlates with ultrastructural morphology...
December 8, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932388/from-embryo-to-adult-pirna-mediated-silencing-throughout-germline-development-in-drosophila
#9
Pauline P Marie, Stéphane Ronsseray, Antoine Boivin
In metazoan germ cells, transposable element activity is repressed by small noncoding PIWI-associated RNAs (piRNAs). Numerous studies in Drosophila have elucidated the mechanism of this repression in the adult germline. However, when and how transposable element repression is established during germline development, has not been addressed. Here, we show that homology-dependent trans silencing is active in female primordial germ cells from late embryogenesis through pupal stages, and that genes related to the adult piRNA pathway are required for silencing during development...
December 7, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932297/dynamic-self-organisation-of-haematopoiesis-and-a-symmetric-cell-division
#10
Marthe Måløy, Frode Måløy, Per Jakobsen, Bjørn Olav Brandsdal
A model of haematopoiesis that links self-organisation with symmetric and asymmetric cell division is presented in this paper. It is assumed that all cell divisions are completely random events, and that the daughter cells resulting from symmetric and asymmetric stem cell divisions are, in general, phenotypically identical, and still, the haematopoietic system has the flexibility to self-renew, produce mature cells by differentiation, and regenerate undifferentiated and differentiated cells when necessary, due to self-organisation...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932267/human-pre-pik3c2b-an-intronic-cis-element-with-dual-function-of-activation-and-repression
#11
Jayant Maini, Mohsen Ghasemi, Deepti Yandhuri, Suman S Thakur, Vani Brahmachari
The Polycomb/Trithorax Responsive Elements (PRE/TREs) are the cis-regulatory sequences that interact with both repressive (PcG) as well as activating (TrxG) complexes. However, most of the mammalian PREs are demonstrated to interact with the repressive polycomb (PcG) complexes only. We have carried out an unbiased search for proteins interacting with human PRE-PIK3C2B (hPRE-PIK3C2B) based on DNA affinity purification followed by mass spectrometry and identified MLL, MLL4 and WDR87 among other proteins in three biological replicates in HEK, U87 and HeLa cell lines...
December 5, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930807/exploring-flybase-data-using-quicksearch
#12
Steven J Marygold, Giulia Antonazzo, Helen Attrill, Marta Costa, Madeline A Crosby, Gilberto Dos Santos, Joshua L Goodman, L Sian Gramates, Beverley B Matthews, Alix J Rey, Jim Thurmond
FlyBase (flybase.org) is the primary online database of genetic, genomic, and functional information about Drosophila species, with a major focus on the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. The long and rich history of Drosophila research, combined with recent surges in genomic-scale and high-throughput technologies, mean that FlyBase now houses a huge quantity of data. Researchers need to be able to rapidly and intuitively query these data, and the QuickSearch tool has been designed to meet these needs...
December 8, 2016: Current Protocols in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930646/retinal-expression-of-the-drosophila-eyes-absent-gene-is-controlled-by-several-cooperatively-acting-cis-regulatory-elements
#13
Bonnie M Weasner, Brandon P Weasner, Sarah D Neuman, Arash Bashirullah, Justin P Kumar
The eyes absent (eya) gene of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is a member of an evolutionarily conserved gene regulatory network that controls eye formation in all seeing animals. The loss of eya leads to the complete elimination of the compound eye while forced expression of eya in non-retinal tissues is sufficient to induce ectopic eye formation. Within the developing retina eya is expressed in a dynamic pattern and is involved in tissue specification/determination, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cell fate choice...
December 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930336/resistance-mutation-conserved-between-insects-and-mites-unravels-the-benzoylurea-insecticide-mode-of-action-on-chitin-biosynthesis
#14
Vassilis Douris, Denise Steinbach, Rafaela Panteleri, Ioannis Livadaras, John Anthony Pickett, Thomas Van Leeuwen, Ralf Nauen, John Vontas
Despite the major role of chitin biosynthesis inhibitors such as benzoylureas (BPUs) in the control of pests in agricultural and public health for almost four decades, their molecular mode of action (MoA) has in most cases remained elusive. BPUs interfere with chitin biosynthesis and were thought to interact with sulfonylurea receptors that mediate chitin vesicle transport. Here, we uncover a mutation (I1042M) in the chitin synthase 1 (CHS1) gene of BPU-resistant Plutella xylostella at the same position as the I1017F mutation reported in spider mites that confers etoxazole resistance...
December 5, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930288/experimental-evolution-reveals-hyperparasitic-interactions-among-transposable-elements
#15
Émilie Robillard, Arnaud Le Rouzic, Zheng Zhang, Pierre Capy, Aurélie Hua-Van
Transposable elements (TEs) are repeated DNA sequences that can constitute a substantial part of genomes. Studying TEs' activity, interactions, and accumulation dynamics is thus of major interest to understand genome evolution. Here, we describe the transposition dynamics of cut-and-paste mariner elements during experimental (short- and longer-term) evolution in Drosophila melanogaster Flies with autonomous and nonautonomous mariner copies were introduced in populations containing no active mariner, and TE accumulation was tracked by quantitative PCR for up to 100 generations...
December 5, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929474/a-simple-one-step-dissection-protocol-for-whole-mount-preparation-of-adult-drosophila-brains
#16
Antonio J Tito, Shebna Cheema, Mian Jiang, Sheng Zhang
There is an increasing interest in using Drosophila to model human brain degenerative diseases, map neuronal circuitries in adult brains, and study the molecular and cellular basis of higher brain functions. A whole-mount preparation of adult brains with well-preserved morphology is critical for such whole brain-based studies, but can be technically challenging and time-consuming. This protocol describes an easy-to-learn, one-step dissection approach of an adult fly head in less than 10 s, while keeping the intact brain attached to the rest of the body to facilitate subsequent processing steps...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929468/using-linear-agarose-channels-to-study-drosophila-larval-crawling-behavior
#17
Xiao Sun, Ellie S Heckscher
Drosophila larval crawling is emerging as a powerful model to study neural control of sensorimotor behavior. However, larval crawling behavior on flat open surfaces is complex, including: pausing, turning, and meandering. This complexity in the repertoire of movement hinders detailed analysis of the events occurring during a single crawl stride cycle. To overcome this obstacle, linear agarose channels were made that constrain larval behavior to straight, sustained, rhythmic crawling. In principle, because agarose channels and the Drosophila larval body are both optically clear, the movement of larval structures labeled by genetically-encoded fluorescent probes can be monitored in intact, freely-moving larvae...
November 26, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929462/methods-to-examine-the-lymph-gland-and-hemocytes-in-drosophila-larvae
#18
Theresa A Reimels, Cathie M Pfleger
Many parallels exist between the Drosophila and mammalian hematopoietic systems, even though Drosophila lack the lymphoid lineage that characterize mammalian adaptive immunity. Drosophila and mammalian hematopoiesis occur in spatially and temporally distinct phases to produce several blood cell lineages. Both systems maintain reservoirs of blood cell progenitors with which to expand or replace mature lineages. The hematopoietic system allows Drosophila and mammals to respond to and to adapt to immune challenges...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929458/in-vivo-biosensor-tracks-non-apoptotic-caspase-activity-in-drosophila
#19
Ho Lam Tang, Ho Man Tang, Ming Chiu Fung, J Marie Hardwick
Caspases are the key mediators of apoptotic cell death via their proteolytic activity. When caspases are activated in cells to levels detectable by available technologies, apoptosis is generally assumed to occur shortly thereafter. Caspases can cleave many functional and structural components to cause rapid and complete cell destruction within a few minutes. However, accumulating evidence indicates that in normal healthy cells the same caspases have other functions, presumably at lower enzymatic levels. Studies of non-apoptotic caspase activity have been hampered by difficulties with detecting low levels of caspase activity and with tracking ultimate cell fate in vivo...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929117/cct-complex-restricts-neuropathogenic-protein-aggregation-via-autophagy
#20
Mariana Pavel, Sara Imarisio, Fiona M Menzies, Maria Jimenez-Sanchez, Farah H Siddiqi, Xiaoting Wu, Maurizio Renna, Cahir J O'Kane, Damian C Crowther, David C Rubinsztein
Aberrant protein aggregation is controlled by various chaperones, including CCT (chaperonin containing TCP-1)/TCP-1/TRiC. Mutated CCT4/5 subunits cause sensory neuropathy and CCT5 expression is decreased in Alzheimer's disease. Here, we show that CCT integrity is essential for autophagosome degradation in cells or Drosophila and this phenomenon is orchestrated by the actin cytoskeleton. When autophagic flux is reduced by compromise of individual CCT subunits, various disease-relevant autophagy substrates accumulate and aggregate...
December 8, 2016: Nature Communications
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