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Aline Rideau Batista Novais, Hoa Pham, Yohan Van de Looij, Miguel Bernal, Jerome Mairesse, Elodie Zana-Taieb, Marina Colella, Pierre-Henri Jarreau, Julien Pansiot, Florent Dumont, Stéphane Sizonenko, Pierre Gressens, Christiane Charriaut-Marlangue, Mickael Tanter, Charlie Demene, Daniel Vaiman, Olivier Baud
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a major complication of human pregnancy, frequently resulting from placental vascular diseases and prenatal malnutrition, and is associated with adverse neurocognitive outcomes throughout life. However, the mechanisms linking poor fetal growth and neurocognitive impairment are unclear. Here, we aimed to correlate changes in gene expression induced by FGR in rats and abnormal cerebral white matter maturation, brain microstructure, and cortical connectivity in vivo. We investigated a model of FGR induced by low-protein-diet malnutrition between embryonic day 0 and birth using an interdisciplinary approach combining advanced brain imaging, in vivo connectivity, microarray analysis of sorted oligodendroglial and microglial cells and histology...
December 2016: Glia
Ahmed Elsayed Sultan, Tamer Hassan
Dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) of the transverse sinus with ophthalmic manifestations in young children are rare. We reviewed two cases of direct AVF of the transverse sinus with ocular manifestations managed at our institution. The first, a 2.5 years old male child presented with left exophthalmos. Angiography revealed AVF between the occipital artery and the transverse sinus. The second, a 2 years old female child, complained of left exophthalmos. Imaging studies showed bilateral direct AVFs of the transverse sinus with bilateral dysmaturation of the sigmoid sinus...
May 2016: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
Daniel Kessler, Michael Angstadt, Chandra Sripada
IMPORTANCE: Intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs), important units of brain functional organization, demonstrate substantial maturation during youth. In addition, interrelationships between ICNs have been reliably implicated in attention performance. It is unknown whether alterations in ICN maturational profiles can reliably detect impaired attention functioning in youth. OBJECTIVE: To use a network growth charting approach to investigate the association between alterations in ICN maturation and attention performance...
May 1, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
Elizabeth Smith, Audrey Thurm, Deanna Greenstein, Cristan Farmer, Susan Swedo, Jay Giedd, Armin Raznahan
Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans at high spatial resolution can detect potential foci of early brain dysmaturation in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In addition, comparison between MRI and behavior measures over time can identify patterns of brain change accompanying specific outcomes. We report structural MRI data from two time points for a total of 84 scans in children with ASD and 30 scans in typical controls (mean age time one = 4.1 years, mean age at time two = 6...
July 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Angelika Mühlebner, Anand M Iyer, Jackelien van Scheppingen, Jasper J Anink, Floor E Jansen, Tim J Veersema, Kees P Braun, Wim G M Spliet, Wim van Hecke, Figen Söylemezoğlu, Martha Feucht, Pavel Krsek, Josef Zamecnik, Christian G Bien, Tilman Polster, Roland Coras, Ingmar Blümcke, Eleonora Aronica
BACKGROUND: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a multisystem disorder that results from mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 genes, leading to constitutive activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. Cortical tubers represent typical lesions of the central nervous system (CNS) in TSC. The pattern of cortical layering disruption observed in brain tissue of TSC patients is not yet fully understood, and little is known about the origin and phenotype of individual abnormal cell types recognized in tubers...
2016: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Jin-Ah Park, Jeffrey J Fredberg
Hallmarks of asthma include chronic airway inflammation, progressive airway remodeling, and airway hyperresponsiveness. The initiation and perpetuation of these processes are attributable at least in part to critical events within the airway epithelium, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. New evidence now suggests that epithelial cells derived from donors without asthma versus donors with asthma, even in the absence of inflammatory cells or mediators, express modes of collective migration that innately differ not only in the amount of migration but also in the kind of migration...
March 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Bruno G Loos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
Katherine E Travis, Jenna N Adams, Michal Ben-Shachar, Heidi M Feldman
Premature birth is highly prevalent and associated with neurodevelopmental delays and disorders. Adverse outcomes, particularly in children born before 32 weeks of gestation, have been attributed in large part to white matter injuries, often found in periventricular regions using conventional imaging. To date, tractography studies of white matter pathways in children and adolescents born preterm have evaluated only a limited number of tracts simultaneously. The current study compares diffusion properties along 18 major cerebral white matter pathways in children and adolescents born preterm (n = 27) and full term (n = 19), using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging and tractography...
2015: PloS One
J Schneider, T Kober, M Bickle Graz, R Meuli, P S Hüppi, P Hagmann, A C Truttmann
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The alteration of brain maturation in preterm infants contributes to neurodevelopmental disabilities during childhood. Serial imaging allows understanding of the mechanisms leading to dysmaturation in the preterm brain. The purpose of the present study was to provide reference quantitative MR imaging measures across time in preterm infants, by using ADC, fractional anisotropy, and T1 maps obtained by using the magnetization-prepared dual rapid acquisition of gradient echo technique...
January 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Chunfeng Xie, Jianliang Jin, Xianhui Lv, Jianguo Tao, Rong Wang, Dengshun Miao
To determine whether transplanted amniotic membrane mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs) ameliorated the premature senescent phenotype of Bmi-1-deficient mice, postnatal 2-day-old Bmi-1(-/-) mice were injected intraperitoneally with the second-passage AMSCs from amniotic membranes of β-galactosidase (β-gal) transgenic mice or wild-type (WT) mice labeled with DiI. Three reinjections were given, once every seven days. Phenotypes of 5-week-old β-gal(+) AMSC-transplanted or 6-week-old DiI(+) AMSC-transplanted Bmi-1(-/-) mice were compared with vehicle-transplanted Bmi-1(-/-) and WT mice...
2015: Scientific Reports
Yun Ling, Xin Kong, Bao-An Chen
Anti-platelet specific antibody is one of the most important reasons leading to thrombocytopenia and megakaryocyte dysmaturity. The detection of platelet autoantibodies is an important step in the diagnosis of ITP because of the absence of specific clinic feature. The monoclonal antibody-specific immobilization of platelet antigens (MAIPA) has become a "gold standard" for determination of PLT specific antibody, which has high specificity and low sensitivity. However, this assay is time-consuming and tedious work...
August 2015: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
Stephen A Back
Preterm neonates are surviving with a milder spectrum of motor and cognitive disabilities that appear to be related to widespread disturbances in cell maturation that target cerebral gray and white matter. Whereas the preterm brain was previously at high risk for destructive lesions, preterm survivors now commonly display less severe injury that is associated with aberrant regeneration and repair responses that result in reduced cerebral growth. Impaired cerebral white matter growth is related to myelination disturbances that are initiated by acute death of premyelinating oligodendrocytes, but are followed by rapid regeneration of premyelinating oligodendrocytes that fail to normally mature to myelinating cells...
September 2015: Pediatric Neurology
Luit Penninga, Markus J Werz, Jurrian C Reurings, David R Nellensteijn
We describe a dysmature (small-for-gestational-age) neonate born at term with multiple congenital defects, who presented with bloody diarrhoea. The abdominal X-ray showed gastric pneumatosis. The patient was treated conservatively with intravenous fluids and antibiotics, and recovered uneventfully. The patient underwent genetic investigation, and was diagnosed with Cornelia de Lange syndrome. Gastric pneumatosis is rare, and may be the result of neonatal sepsis, gastritis, pyloric stenosis, necrotising enterocolitis of the stomach, misplacement of nasogastric tubes, or non-invasive positive pressure ventilation...
2015: BMJ Case Reports
E G Duerden, J Foong, V Chau, H Branson, K J Poskitt, R E Grunau, A Synnes, J G Zwicker, S P Miller
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Adverse neurodevelopmental outcome is common in children born preterm. Early sensitive predictors of neurodevelopmental outcome such as MR imaging are needed. Tract-based spatial statistics, a diffusion MR imaging analysis method, performed at term-equivalent age (40 weeks) is a promising predictor of neurodevelopmental outcomes in children born very preterm. We sought to determine the association of tract-based spatial statistics findings before term-equivalent age with neurodevelopmental outcome at 18-months corrected age...
August 2015: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
E M Khedr, N Abo-Elfetoh, K A Elbeh, A A Baky, R M Gamal, D El Hammady, F Korashy
OBJECTIVES: A limited number of electroencephalography (EEG) studies in nocturnal enuresis (NE) have reported cortical dysmaturity. The aim of the present study was to test this notion by examining cortical excitability in subjects with nocturnal enuresis (NE) using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We investigated 41 patients with NE meeting the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for NE, and 18 age- and sex-matched controls. Each subject was assessed clinically regarding frequency, duration of enuresis and Health Survey Measurement...
May 2015: Neurophysiologie Clinique, Clinical Neurophysiology
Neil D Woodward, Stephan Heckers
BACKGROUND: Neuropsychological impairment is heterogeneous in psychosis. The association of intracranial volume (ICV) and total brain volume (TBV) with cognition suggests brain structure abnormalities in psychosis will covary with the severity of cognitive impairment. We tested the following hypotheses: (1) brain structure abnormalities will be more extensive in neuropsychologically impaired psychosis patients; (2) psychosis patients with premorbid cognitive limitations will show evidence of hypoplasia (ie, smaller ICV); and (3) psychosis patients with evidence of cognitive decline will demonstrate atrophy (ie, smaller TBV, but normal ICV)...
November 2015: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Olga Selioutski, Laurie E Seltzer, James Burchfiel, Alex R Paciorkowski, Giuseppe Erba
PURPOSE: To describe chronological electrographic features of the interictal EEG background observed in two patients with malignant migrating partial epilepsy in infancy from neonatal to early infantile period. METHODS: EEGs of two patients who fulfilled diagnostic criteria for malignant migrating partial epilepsy in infancy were acquired over the period of 6 months to monitor treatment efficacy and characterize seizures and other paroxysmal events. RESULTS: Both patients followed a similar sequential pattern...
August 2015: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
L L de Wall, M M C van den Heijkant, A Bökenkamp, C F Kuijper, H J R van der Horst, T P V M de Jong
INTRODUCTION: Candida bezoar (CB) is a rare finding in neonates and infants with candiduria, presenting as necrotic debris with proliferating mycelia in the collecting system of the kidney. If initial antifungal medical treatment does not result in clearance of candiduria and disappearance of CB on ultrasound in dilated kidneys, invasive interventions like insertion of nephrostomy tubes (NT) or surgical interventions to drain the kidney are sometimes advocated(.). However, NT placement can be a technical challenge, especially in pre- and dysmature neonates, and NT displacement or obstruction by the CB can lead to suboptimal treatment...
April 2015: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Liqun Sun, Christopher K Macgowan, John G Sled, Shi-Joon Yoo, Cedric Manlhiot, Prashob Porayette, Lars Grosse-Wortmann, Edgar Jaeggi, Brian W McCrindle, John Kingdom, Edward Hickey, Steven Miller, Mike Seed
BACKGROUND: Fetal hypoxia has been implicated in the abnormal brain development seen in newborns with congenital heart disease (CHD). New magnetic resonance imaging technology now offers the potential to investigate the relationship between fetal hemodynamics and brain dysmaturation. METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured fetal brain size, oxygen saturation, and blood flow in the major vessels of the fetal circulation in 30 late-gestation fetuses with CHD and 30 normal controls using phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging and T2 mapping...
April 14, 2015: Circulation
Jonathan R Malowitz, Christoph P Hornik, Matthew M Laughon, Daniela Testoni, C Michael Cotten, Reese H Clark, P Brian Smith
OBJECTIVE: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is fatal in 20 to 40% of cases, largely due to pulmonary dysmaturity, lung hypoplasia, and persistent pulmonary hypertension. Evidence for survival benefit of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and other medical interventions targeting pulmonary hypertension is lacking. We assessed medical interventions and mortality over time in a large multicenter cohort of infants with CDH. STUDY DESIGN: We identified all infants ≥ 34 weeks' gestation with CDH discharged from 29 neonatal intensive care units between 1999 and 2012 with an average of ≥ 2 CDH admissions per year...
July 2015: American Journal of Perinatology
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