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Katarzyna Dover, Christopher Marra, Sergio Solinas, Marko Popovic, Sathyaa Subramaniyam, Dejan Zecevic, Egidio D'Angelo, Mitchell Goldfarb
Neurons in vertebrate central nervous systems initiate and conduct sodium action potentials in distinct subcellular compartments that differ architecturally and electrically. Here, we report several unanticipated passive and active properties of the cerebellar granule cell's unmyelinated axon. Whereas spike initiation at the axon initial segment relies on sodium channel (Nav)-associated fibroblast growth factor homologous factor (FHF) proteins to delay Nav inactivation, distal axonal Navs show little FHF association or FHF requirement for high-frequency transmission, velocity and waveforms of conducting action potentials...
2016: Nature Communications
Fernando Mendes Paschoal, Ricardo Carvalho Nogueira, Karla De Almeida Lins Ronconi, Marcelo de Lima Oliveira, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Edson Bor-Seng-Shu
Acute liver failure, also known as fulminant hepatic failure (FHF), embraces a spectrum of clinical entities characterized by acute liver injury, severe hepatocellular dysfunction, and hepatic encephalopathy. Cerebral edema and intracranial hypertension are common causes of mortality in patients with FHF. The management of patients who present acute liver failure starts with determining the cause and an initial evaluation of prognosis. Regardless of whether or not patients are listed for liver transplantation, they should still be monitored for recovery, death, or transplantation...
August 8, 2016: World Journal of Hepatology
Xiaoli Guo, Ginny G Farías, Rafael Mattera, Juan S Bonifacino
An open question in cell biology is how the general intracellular transport machinery is adapted to perform specialized functions in polarized cells such as neurons. Here we illustrate this adaptation by elucidating a role for the ubiquitous small GTPase Ras-related protein in brain 5 (Rab5) in neuronal polarity. We show that inactivation or depletion of Rab5 in rat hippocampal neurons abrogates the somatodendritic polarity of the transferrin receptor and several glutamate receptor types, resulting in their appearance in the axon...
September 6, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Munehiro Furuichi, Takeo Fujiwara, Akinari Fukuda, Mureo Kasahara, Isao Miyairi
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is 1 of the most common causes of infection after solid organ transplantation with symptomatic disease occurring at an incidence of 20-40% without preventative measures. While CMV donor+/recipient- serostatus is well known to be a risk factor, there is little data about other risk factors for CMV infection in the setting of pediatric liver transplantation (LT). We hypothesized that fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) may be a risk factor for CMV infection given anecdotal reports of complications associated with FHF...
August 5, 2016: Transplantation
Tanner Culpitt, Kurt R Brorsen, Michael V Pak, Sharon Hammes-Schiffer
Multicomponent density functional theory (DFT) methods have been developed to treat two types of particles, such as electrons and nuclei, quantum mechanically at the same level. In the nuclear-electronic orbital (NEO) approach, all electrons and select nuclei, typically key protons, are treated quantum mechanically. For multicomponent DFT methods developed within the NEO framework, electron-proton correlation functionals based on explicitly correlated wavefunctions have been designed and used in conjunction with well-established electronic exchange-correlation functionals...
July 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Chien-Ning Hsu, Kay L H Wu, Wei-Chia Lee, Steve Leu, Julie Y H Chan, You-Lin Tain
UNLABELLED: Key points summary Maternal high-fructose (HF) induces programmed hypertension in adult offspring.Early aliskiren administration prevents HF-induced hypertension in both sexes of adult offspring.HF regulates RAS components in the offspring kidney in a sex-specific manner.HF alters renal transcriptome, with female offspring being more sensitive.Deprogramming strategy to prevent hypertension might be sex-specific. BACKGROUND: Maternal high fructose (HF) intake induced renal programming and hypertension in male adult offspring...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Chuan Wang, Yi Zhang, Yalan Zhan, Chunyan Luo, Yifei Li, Dajian Qiu, Dezhi Mu, Hongyu Duan, Kaiyu Zhou, Yimin Hua
INTRODUCTION: Placental P-glycoprotein (P-gp) plays a significant role in controlling transplacental digoxin transfer rate. Investigations on P-gp regulation in placenta of women with different pregnant pathological states are of great significance to individualized transplacental digoxin treatment for fetal heart failure (FHF). This study aimed to explore the effect of 17α-ethynylestradiol induced intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) on placental P-gp in mice. METHODS: ICP model in mice was induced by subcutaneous injection of 17α-ethynylestradiol dissolved in propylene glycol once daily from E12...
August 2016: Placenta
Yann Cornaton, Roberto Marquardt
A global analytical representation of the potential energy hypersurface of the lowest adiabatic electronic state of the FHF(-) anion is derived from ab initio calculations at the coupled cluster level of theory with full single and double and perturbative triple excitations using explicitly correlated atomic basis functions. The new compact function of interatomic distances combines covalent short-range and long-range electrostatic interaction forms and assesses accurately both the lowest reaction channels between the F(-) and HF fragments, with reaction enthalpies to within 1 kJ mol(-1), as well as vibrational terms to within 1...
August 4, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Sławomir J Grabowski, Jesus M Ugalde, Diego M Andrada, Gernot Frenking
Quantum chemical calculations at the MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ and CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ levels have been carried out for the title compounds. The electronic structures were analyzed with a variety of charge and energy partitioning methods. All molecules possess linear equilibrium structures with D∞h symmetry. The total bond dissociation energies (BDEs) of the strongly bonded halogen anions [XHX](-) and [XAuX](-) decrease from [FHF](-) to [IHI](-) and from [FAuF](-) to [IAuI](-) . The BDEs of the noble gas compounds [NgHNg](+) and [NgAuNg](+) become larger for the heavier atoms...
August 1, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Yusuke Kanematsu, Masanori Tachikawa, Yu Takano
The short hydrogen bond between tyrosine Yz and D1-His190 of photosystem II (PSII) was investigated using multicomponent quantum mechanics, where the quantum fluctuation of a hydrogen nucleus was incorporated into electronic structure calculation. Our computation demonstrated that the deuteration for hydrogen in the short hydrogen bond of PSII led to the reduction of the O…N distance. It indicated an inverse Ubbelohde effect typically recognized in strong and symmetric hydrogen-bonding clusters such as FHF(-) and H3O2-...
September 5, 2016: Journal of Computational Chemistry
James T Goettel, Nathan Kostiuk, Michael Gerken
Adducts between SF4 and a nitrogen base are easily solvolyzed by HF, yielding the protonated nitrogen base and fluoride. Salts resulting from the solvolysis of SF4·NC5H5, SF4·NC5H4(CH3), SF4·NC5H3(CH3)2, and SF4·NC5H4N(CH3)2 have been studied by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. Crystal structures were obtained for pyridinium salts [HNC5H5(+)]F(-)·SF4 and [HNC5H5(+)]F(-)[HF]·2SF4, the 4-methylpyridinium salt [HNC5H4(CH3)(+)]F(-)·SF4, the 2,6-methylpyridinium salt [HNC5H3(CH3)2(+)]2[SF5(-)]F(-)·SF4, and 4-(dimethylamino)pyridinium salts [HNC5H4N(CH3)2(+)]2[SF5(-)]F(-)·CH2Cl2 and [NC5H4N(CH3)2(+)][HF2(-)]·2SF4...
July 18, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
Geoffrey S Pitt, Seok-Yong Lee
In cardiac and skeletal myocytes, and in most neurons, the opening of voltage-gated Na(+) channels (NaV channels) triggers action potentials, a process that is regulated via the interactions of the channels' intercellular C-termini with auxiliary proteins and/or Ca(2+) . The molecular and structural details for how Ca(2+) and/or auxiliary proteins modulate NaV channel function, however, have eluded a concise mechanistic explanation and details have been shrouded for the last decade behind controversy about whether Ca(2+) acts directly upon the NaV channel or through interacting proteins, such as the Ca(2+) binding protein calmodulin (CaM)...
September 2016: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Jing Yang, Zhihua Wang, Daniel S Sinden, Xiangchong Wang, Bin Shan, Xiao Yu, Hailin Zhang, Geoffrey S Pitt, Chuan Wang
FGF13 (FHF2), the major fibroblast growth factor homologous factor (FHF) in rodent heart, directly binds to the C-terminus of the main cardiac sodium channel, NaV1.5. Knockdown of FGF13 in cardiomyocytes induces slowed ventricular conduction by altering NaV1.5 function. FGF13 has five splice variants, each of which possess the same core region and C terminus but differing in their respective N termini. Whether and how these alternatively spliced N termini impart isoform-specific regulation of NaV1.5, however, has not been reported...
May 31, 2016: Channels
Pengcheng Zhou, Li Shao, Lifu Zhao, Guoliang Lv, Xiaoping Pan, Anye Zhang, Jianzhou Li, Ning Zhou, Deying Chen, Lanjuan Li
Bioartificial livers may act as a promising therapy for fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) with better accessibility and less injury compared to orthotopic liver transplantation. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a fluidized bed bioartificial liver (FBBAL) and to explore its therapeutic mechanisms based on metabolomics. FHF was induced by D-galactosamine. Eighteen hours later, pigs were treated with an FBBAL containing encapsulated primary porcine hepatocytes (B group), with a sham FBBAL (containing cell-free capsules, S group) or with only intensive care (C group) for 6 h...
2016: Scientific Reports
Landon E Stigall, Tracy B Bramlette, John A Zitelli, David G Brodland
BACKGROUND: The traditional paramedian forehead flap (FHF) is an axial flap based on the supratrochlear artery (STA). Doppler examination is often used to ensure inclusion of the STA within the flap. The authors hypothesized that a FHF pedicle design could be simplified to extend from the midline of the glabella to 1.2 cm lateral to the midline without compromising outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To compare clinical outcomes and vessel densities of 2 FHF designs. METHODS: Two FHF designs were used to repair fifty nasal defects...
June 2016: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
Aleksandra Siekierska, Mala Isrie, Yue Liu, Chloë Scheldeman, Niels Vanthillo, Lieven Lagae, Peter A M de Witte, Hilde Van Esch, Mitchell Goldfarb, Gunnar M Buyse
OBJECTIVE: Voltage-gated sodium channel (Nav)-encoding genes are among early-onset epileptic encephalopathies (EOEE) targets, suggesting that other genes encoding Nav-binding proteins, such as fibroblast growth factor homologous factors (FHFs), may also play roles in these disorders. METHODS: To identify additional genes for EOEE, we performed whole-exome sequencing in a family quintet with 2 siblings with a lethal disease characterized by EOEE and cerebellar atrophy...
June 7, 2016: Neurology
Yohei Yamada, Ken Hoshino, Rie Irie, Hirofumi Tomita, Mototoshi Kato, Naoki Shimojima, Akihiro Fujino, Taizo Hibi, Masahiro Shinoda, Hideaki Obara, Osamu Itano, Shigeyuki Kawachi, Minoru Tanabe, Michiie Sakamoto, Yuko Kitagawa, Tatsuo Kuroda
The outcome of LTx in pediatric patients with FHF of unknown etiology remains inferior to that of LTx in pediatric patients with cholestatic diseases. A higher incidence of steroid-resistant severe rejection has been increasingly recognized among the responsible factors. We assessed the efficacy of the administration of steroids and PGE1 via PVI in the management of LTx for FHF in pediatric patients. In our early cohort (1995-2007), seven patients who underwent LTx for FHF of unknown etiology were treated with conventional immunosuppressive therapy (calcineurin inhibitor and a steroid)...
August 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
Heather Taussig, Lindsey Weiler, Tara Rhodes, Erin Hambrick, Robyn Wertheimer, Orah Fireman, Melody Combs
OBJECTIVE: This article describes the process of adapting and implementing a complex, multicomponent intervention for a new population. Specifically, the article delineates the development and implementation of the Fostering Healthy Futures for Teens (FHF-T) program, which is an adaptation and extension of the Fostering Healthy Futures(®) (FHF) preventive intervention. FHF is a 9-month mentoring and skills group program for 9 to 11 year olds recently placed in foster care. Following the designation of FHF as an evidence-based intervention, there was increasing demand for the program...
December 2015: Journal of the Society for Social Work and Research
Reggie Surya, Cécile Héliès-Toussaint, Océane C Martin, Thierry Gauthier, Françoise Guéraud, Sylviane Taché, Nathalie Naud, Isabelle Jouanin, Céline Chantelauze, Denys Durand, Charlotte Joly, Estelle Pujos-Guillot, Fabrice H Pierre, Laurence Huc
Epidemiological studies have associated red meat intake with risk of colorectal cancer. Experimental studies explain this positive association by the oxidative properties of heme iron released in the colon. This latter is a potent catalyst for lipid peroxidation, resulting in the neoformation of deleterious aldehydes in the fecal water of heme-fed rats. The toxicity of fecal water of heme-fed rats was associated to such lipid peroxidation. This study demonstrated that fecal water of hemoglobin- and beef-fed rats preferentially induced apoptosis in mouse normal colon epithelial cells than in those carrying mutation on Apc (Adenomatous polyposis coli) gene, considered as preneoplastic...
June 2016: Carcinogenesis
H Jin, Y Zhao, X Zhang, B Wang, P Liu
It is of great concern that pregnant women with acute viral hepatitis (AVH) type E have serious consequences. This study aimed to estimate the case-fatality risk (CFR) and potential risk factors of pregnant women with AVH type E. We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases for studies containing data on CFR in pregnancy with AVH type E. A pooled estimate of CFR was calculated using a random-effects model. Potential sources of heterogeneity were explored using subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, and meta-regression...
July 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
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