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Helix stabilisation

Jonas Protze, Doreen Braun, Katrin Manuela Hinz, Dorothea Bayer-Kusch, Ulrich Schweizer, Gerd Krause
Monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) mediates thyroid hormone (TH) transport across the plasma membrane in many cell types. In order to better understand its mechanism, we have generated three new MCT8 homology models based on sugar transporters XylE in the intracellular opened (PDB ID: 4aj4) and the extracellular partly occluded (PDB ID: 4gby) conformations as well as FucP (PDB ID: 3o7q) and GLUT3 (PDB ID: 4zwc) in the fully extracellular opened conformation. T3-docking studies from both sides revealed interactions with His192, His415, Arg445 and Asp498 as previously identified...
January 28, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Anthony C G Dossang, Precious G Motshwene, Yang Yang, Martyn F Symmons, Clare E Bryant, Satty Borman, Julie George, Alexander N R Weber, Nicholas J Gay
Activation of Toll-like receptors induces dimerization and the recruitment of the death domain (DD) adaptor protein MyD88 into an oligomeric post receptor complex termed the Myddosome. The Myddosome is a hub for inflammatory and oncogenic signaling and has a hierarchical arrangement with 6-8 MyD88 molecules assembling with exactly 4 of IRAK-4 and 4 of IRAK-2. Here we show that a conserved motif in IRAK-4 (Ser8-X-X-X-Arg12) is autophosphorylated and that the phosphorylated DD is unable to form Myddosomes. Furthermore a mutant DD with the phospho-mimetic residue Asp at this position is impaired in both signalling and Myddosome assembly...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
Charlotte Marshall, Jaime Lopez, Laura Crookes, Rebecca C Pollitt, Meena Balasubramanian
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic disorder characterised by low bone mineral density resulting in fractures. 85-90% of patients with OI carry a variant in the type 1 collagen genes, COL1A1 and COL1A2, which follows an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. However, within the last two decades, there have been growing number of variants identified in genes that follow an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. Our proband is a child born in Mexico with multiple fractures of ribs, minimal calvarial mineralisation, platyspondyly, marked compression and deformed long bones...
December 20, 2016: Gene
Wojciech P Galej, Max E Wilkinson, Sebastian M Fica, Chris Oubridge, Andrew J Newman, Kiyoshi Nagai
Precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA) splicing proceeds by two consecutive transesterification reactions via a lariat-intron intermediate. Here we present the 3.8 Å cryo-electron microscopy structure of the spliceosome immediately after lariat formation. The 5'-splice site is cleaved but remains close to the catalytic Mg(2+) site in the U2/U6 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) triplex, and the 5'-phosphate of the intron nucleotide G(+1) is linked to the branch adenosine 2'OH. The 5'-exon is held between the Prp8 amino-terminal and linker domains, and base-pairs with U5 snRNA loop 1...
September 8, 2016: Nature
Dhaval Varshney, Alain-Pierre Petit, Juan A Bueren-Calabuig, Chimed Jansen, Dan A Fletcher, Mark Peggie, Simone Weidlich, Paul Scullion, Andrei V Pisliakov, Victoria H Cowling
Maturation and translation of mRNA in eukaryotes requires the addition of the 7-methylguanosine cap. In vertebrates, the cap methyltransferase, RNA guanine-7 methyltransferase (RNMT), has an activating subunit, RNMT-Activating Miniprotein (RAM). Here we report the first crystal structure of the human RNMT in complex with the activation domain of RAM. A relatively unstructured and negatively charged RAM binds to a positively charged surface groove on RNMT, distal to the active site. This results in stabilisation of a RNMT lobe structure which co-evolved with RAM and is required for RAM binding...
December 1, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Ikrormi Rungsung, Amutha Ramaswamy
LKB1, the tumour suppressor, is found mutated in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS). The LKB1 is a serine-threonine kinase protein that is allosterically activated by the binding of STRADα and MO25α without phosphorylating the Thr212 present at activation loop. The present study aims to highlight the structural dynamics and complexation mechanism during the allosteric activation of LKB1 by these co-activators using molecular dynamics simulations. The all atom simulations performed on the complexes of LKB1 with ATP, STRADα, and MO25α for a period of 30 ns reveal that binding of STRADα and MO25α significantly stabilizes the highly flexible regions of LKB1 such as ATP binding region (β1-β2 loop), catalytic & activation loop segments and αG helix...
April 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Ivan Kisly, Suna P Gulay, Uno Mäeorg, Jonathan D Dinman, Jaanus Remme, Tiina Tamm
During translation, the two eukaryotic ribosomal subunits remain associated through 17 intersubunit bridges, five of which are eukaryote specific. These are mainly localized to the peripheral regions and are believed to stabilize the structure of the ribosome. The functional importance of these bridges remains largely unknown. Here, the essentiality of the eukaryote-specific bridge eB12 has been investigated. The main component of this bridge is ribosomal protein eL19 that is composed of an N-terminal globular domain, a middle region, and a long C-terminal α-helix...
May 22, 2016: Journal of Molecular Biology
McGillewie L, Mahmoud E Soliman
Plasmepsin V belongs to the plasmepsin family of aspartic proteases. PlmV is unique compared to other plasmepsins, as this membrane bound aspartic protease resides in the endoplasmic reticulum and is responsible for the cleavage of PEXEL tagged proteins destined for export outside of the host red blood cell. Plasmepsin V is highly conserved throughout the Plasmodium species, and is essential to the survival of the parasite. Recently, two potent inhibitors of Plmv have been identified, WEHI-916 and WEHI-842...
April 26, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
Sai Krishnan, Michael Collett, Phillip J Robinson
Dynamin I is a highly regulated GTPase enzyme enriched in nerve terminals which mediates vesicle fission during synaptic vesicle endocytosis. One regulatory mechanism involves its interactions with proteins containing Src homology 3 (SH3) domains. At least 30 SH3 domain-containing proteins bind dynamin at its proline-rich domain (PRD). Those that stimulate dynamin activity act by promoting its oligomerisation. We undertook a systematic parallel screening of 13 glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-tagged endocytosis-related SH3 domains on dynamin binding, GTPase activity and oligomerisation...
2015: PloS One
Jaimini Cegla, Joyceline Cuenco, James Minnion, Samar Ghourab, Klara Hostomska, Tricia Tan, Stephen Bloom
BACKGROUND: Obesity is an emergent epidemic associated with morbidity, mortality, and psychosocial effects. One of the key gut hormones that controls appetite is peptide tyrosine-tyrosine 3-36 (PYY3-36) whose circulating half-life is only 8 min. A long-acting analogue of PYY3-36 would therefore have great potential as an antiobesity agent. The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of various aminoacid modifications of PYY3-36 on pharmacokinetics and their ability to suppress food intake...
February 26, 2015: Lancet
Muddegowda Umashankara, Mahesh V Sonar, Nitin D Bansode, Krishna N Ganesh
Collagens are an important family of structural proteins found in the extracellular matrix with triple helix as the characteristic structural motif. The collagen triplex is made of three left-handed polyproline II (PPII) helices with each PPII strand consisting of repetitive units of the tripeptide motif X-Y-Gly, where the amino acids X and Y are most commonly proline (Pro) and 4R-hydroxyproline (Hyp), respectively. A C4-endo pucker at X-site and C4-exo pucker at Y-site have been proposed to be the key for formation of triplex, and the nature of pucker is dependent on both the electronegativity and stereochemistry of the substituent...
September 4, 2015: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Kim Vriens, Tanne L Cools, Peta J Harvey, David J Craik, Pieter Spincemaille, David Cassiman, Annabel Braem, Jozef Vleugels, Peter H Nibbering, Jan Wouter Drijfhout, Barbara De Coninck, Bruno P A Cammue, Karin Thevissen
Plant defensins are small, cysteine-rich peptides with antifungal activity against a broad range of yeast and fungi. In this study we investigated the antibiofilm activity of a plant defensin from coral bells (Heuchera sanguinea), i.e. HsAFP1. To this end, HsAFP1 was heterologously produced using Pichia pastoris as a host. The recombinant peptide rHsAFP1 showed a similar antifungal activity against the plant pathogen Fusarium culmorum as native HsAFP1 purified from seeds. NMR analysis revealed that rHsAFP1 consists of an α-helix and a triple-stranded antiparallel β-sheet stabilised by four intramolecular disulfide bonds...
2015: PloS One
Krisna Prak, Masashi Naka, Mary Rose Gecolea Tandang-Silvas, Janos Kriston-Vizi, Nobuyuki Maruyama, Shigeru Utsumi
β-Conglycinin and glycinin are soybean major seed storage proteins. Previous studies have shown that adding the extension region of β-conglycinin α subunit improves the emulsifying properties of proglycinin and confers more favourable characteristics than fusing the extension region of β-conglycinin α' subunit or the hypervariable regions (A4IV) of glycinin A1aB1b subunit. To evaluate the polypeptide properties, we designed mutants of A1aB1b subunits fused with truncated versions of A4IV (A4IVcut), α (αcut) or α' (α'cut) extension regions lacking the C-terminus 25 or 31 residues (A4IVC25, αC25 or α'C31), and also A4IVcut and α'cut with αC25 residues added (A4IVcut-αC25 and α'cut-αC25)...
September 2015: Protein Engineering, Design & Selection: PEDS
W Ying Chow, Dominique Bihan, Chris J Forman, David A Slatter, David G Reid, David J Wales, Richard W Farndale, Melinda J Duer
Collagens, the most abundant proteins in mammals, are defined by their triple-helical structures and distinctive Gly-Xaa-Yaa repeating sequence, where Xaa is often proline and Yaa, hydroxyproline (Hyp/O). It is known that hydroxyproline in the Yaa position stabilises the triple helix, and that lack of proline hydroxylation in vivo leads to dysfunctional collagen extracellular matrix assembly, due to a range of factors such as a change in hydration properties. In addition, we note that in model peptides, when Yaa is unmodified proline, the Xaa proline has a strong propensity to adopt an endo ring conformation, whilst when Yaa is hydroxyproline, the Xaa proline adopts a range of endo and exo conformations...
2015: Scientific Reports
H M Moreno, C Jacq, M P Montero, M C Gómez-Guillén, A J Borderías, T Mørkøre
Collagen content and properties of skeletal muscle were studied among selected (FP) and unselected (WP) Atlantic salmon lines that were reared together to avoid any environmental effects. The FP group had significantly higher body weight at harvesting, softer texture and lower connective tissue yield compared with the WP group. The relative collagen fractions (acid, pepsin, insoluble) were similar, but the FP group had a greater abundance of amino acids involved in collagen triple helix conformation and stabilisation (Gly, Pro, Hyp and Hyl), whilst the Lys content was greater for the WP group, indicating a more aggregated collagen...
January 1, 2016: Food Chemistry
Alastair D G Lawson
As the considerable technical challenges involved with generating crystal structures of G (guanine nucleotide- binding) protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are starting to be successfully addressed, opportunities to apply fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) to this class of target are becoming a reality. GPCRs represent a large and important family of drug targets with considerable clinical and commercial interest. While their general seven transmembrane helix bundle structures are amenable to therapeutic intervention with small molecules, to date successful drugs have primarily been discovered using traditional competitive or function-based screening...
2015: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Yassmine Chebaro, Andrew J Ballard, Debayan Chakraborty, David J Wales
Analysis of an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) reveals an underlying multifunnel structure for the energy landscape. We suggest that such 'intrinsically disordered' landscapes, with a number of very different competing low-energy structures, are likely to characterise IDPs, and provide a useful way to address their properties. In particular, IDPs are present in many cellular protein interaction networks, and several questions arise regarding how they bind to partners. Are conformations resembling the bound structure selected for binding, or does further folding occur on binding the partner in a induced-fit fashion? We focus on the p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) protein, which adopts an α-helical conformation when bound to its partner, and is involved in the activation of apoptosis...
2015: Scientific Reports
Zhenbo Cao, Donna P McGow, Colin Shepherd, J Gordon Lindsay
Mitochondrial 2-cys peroxiredoxin III (PrxIII) is a key player in antioxidant defence reducing locally-generated H2O2 to H2O. A Phe to Leu (F190L) mutation in the C-terminal α-helix of PrxIII, mimicking that found in some bacteria and parasites, increases its resistance to hyperoxidation but has no obvious influence on peroxidase activity. Here we report on the oxidized and reduced crystal structures of bovine PrxIII F190L at 2.4 Å and 2.2 Å, respectively. Both structures exist as two-ring catenanes with their dodecameric rings inclined at 55o to each other, similar to that previously reported for PrxIII C168S...
2015: PloS One
Kathryn Evans, Inder Bhamra, Richard T Wheelhouse, John R P Arnold, Richard Cosstick, Julie Fisher
Triplexes formed from oligonucleic acids are key to a number of biological processes. They have attracted attention as molecular biology tools and as a result of their relevance in novel therapeutic strategies. The recognition properties of single-stranded nucleic acids are also relevant in third-strand binding. Thus, there has been considerable activity in generating such moieties, referred to as triplex forming oligonucleotides (TFOs). Triplexes, composed of Watson-Crick (W-C) base-paired DNA duplexes and a Hoogsteen base-paired RNA strand, are reported to be more thermodynamically stable than those in which the third strand is DNA...
May 4, 2015: Chemistry: a European Journal
Paolo Di Gianvincenzo, Javier Calvo, Serge Perez, Amparo Álvarez, Luis Miguel Bedoya, José Alcamí, Soledad Penadés
The third variable region (V3 peptide) of the HIV-1 gp120 is a major immunogenic domain of HIV-1. Controlling the formation of the immunologically active conformation is a crucial step to the rational design of fully synthetic candidate vaccines. Herein, we present the modulation and stabilization of either the α-helix or β-strand conformation of the V3 peptide by conjugation to negatively charged gold glyconanoparticles (GNPs). The formation of the secondary structure can be triggered by the variation of the buffer concentration and/or pH as indicated by circular dichoism...
April 15, 2015: Bioconjugate Chemistry
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