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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443615/the-plant-cell-wall-enzyme-atxth3-catalyses-covalent-cross-linking-between-cellulose-and-cello-oligosaccharide
#1
Naoki Shinohara, Naoki Sunagawa, Satoru Tamura, Ryusuke Yokoyama, Minoru Ueda, Kiyohiko Igarashi, Kazuhiko Nishitani
Cellulose is an economically important material, but routes of its industrial processing have not been fully explored. The plant cell wall - the major source of cellulose - harbours enzymes of the xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) family. This class of enzymes is unique in that it is capable of elongating polysaccharide chains without the requirement for activated nucleotide sugars (e.g., UDP-glucose) and in seamlessly splitting and reconnecting chains of xyloglucan, a naturally occurring soluble analogue of cellulose...
April 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440640/nucleic-acid-nanocapsules-for-enzyme-triggered-drug-release
#2
Joseph K Awino, Saketh Gudipati, Alyssa K Hartmann, Joshua J Santiana, Dominic F Cairns-Gibson, Nicole Gomez, Jessica L Rouge
Herein we describe a nucleic acid functionalized nanocapsule in which nucleic acid ligands are assembled and disassembled in the presence of enzymes. The particles are fully degradable in response to esterases due to an embedded ester cross-linker in the particle's core. During synthesis the nanocapsules can be loaded with hydrophobic small molecules and post self-assembly undergo covalent cross-linking using copper catalyzed click chemistry. They can then be functionalized with thiolated DNA through stepwise thiolyne chemistry using UV light irradiation...
April 25, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440618/design-of-antibacterial-polyethersulfone-membranes-via-covalently-attaching-hydrogel-thin-layers-loaded-with-ag-nanoparticles
#3
Min He, Qian Wang, Rui Wang, Yi Xie, Weifeng Zhao, Changsheng Zhao
In order to inhibit the bacteria attachment and the subsequent formation of bio-films on polyethersulfone (PES) membranes, poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (PSBMA)/poly(sodium acrylate) (PAANa) antibacterial hydrogel thin layers were covalently attached onto the membranes, followed by loading Ag nanoparticles. In our strategy, double bonds were firstly introduced onto PES membrane surfaces to provide anchoring sites, and then the hydrogel layers were synthesized on the membrane surfaces via UV light initiated cross-linking copolymerization...
April 25, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439017/semibatch-monomer-addition-as-a-general-method-to-tune-and-enhance-the-mechanics-of-polymer-networks-via-loop-defect-control
#4
Yuwei Gu, Ken Kawamoto, Mingjiang Zhong, Mao Chen, Michael J A Hore, Alex M Jordan, LaShanda T J Korley, Bradley D Olsen, Jeremiah A Johnson
Controlling the molecular structure of amorphous cross-linked polymeric materials is a longstanding challenge. Herein, we disclose a general strategy for precise tuning of loop defects in covalent polymer gel networks. This "loop control" is achieved through a simple semibatch monomer addition protocol that can be applied to a broad range of network-forming reactions. By controlling loop defects, we demonstrate that with the same set of material precursors it is possible to tune and in several cases substantially improve network connectivity and mechanical properties (e...
April 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435148/plasma-mediated-protein-immobilisation-enhances-the-vascular-compatibility-of-polyurethane-with-tissue-matched-mechanical-properties
#5
Irina Kondyurina, Steven Wise, Alan Ngo, Elysse Filipe, Alexey Kondyurin, Anthony Weiss, Shisan Bao, Marcela Bilek
Polyurethanes are a diverse class of polymers, with independently tunable mechanical and biodegradation properties making them a versatile platform material for biomedical implants. Previous iterations have failed to adequately embody appropriate mechanical and biological properties, particularly for vascular medicine where strength, compliance and multifaceted biocompatibility are required. We have synthesized a new polyurethane formulation with finely tuned mechanical properties, combining high strength and extensibility with a low Young's modulus...
April 24, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428562/dehydroascorbic-acids-modified-polymer-micelles-target-cancer-cells-to-enhance-anti-tumor-efficacy-of-paclitaxel
#6
Xiaoyu Pei, Feifei Luo, Jun Zhang, Wulian Chen, Chen Jiang, Jie Liu
Paclitaxel (PTX), especially albumin-bound PTX in clinical, has displayed significant inhibition of tumor growth in patients. But the systemic distribution and poor water solubility of PTX often lead to severe side effects, consequently limiting the anti-tumor efficacy. In this study, we developed a novel PTX-loaded polymeric micelle drug delivery system. These self-assembled polymeric micelles from core to outside consisted of poly L-phenylalanine (pPhe), DTSSP linked poly L-lysine (pLys), poly ethylene glycol (PEG) and dehydroascorbic acids (DHA)...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425282/mechanical-force-sensitive-acrylic-latex-coating
#7
Meng Li, Weifeng Liu, Qi Zhang, Shiping Zhu
We prepared force sensitive acrylic latex coatings by covalently incorporating spiropyran mechanophore. The acrylic latexes were obtained through emulsion copolymerization of butyl acrylate (BA), methyl methacrylate (MMA) with vinyltriethoxysilane (VTES) as interparticle cross-linker, and (1'-(2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl)-3',3'-dimethylspiro[chromene-2,2'-indolin]-6-yl)methyl methacrylate) (SP) as intraparticle cross-linker. The latexes of P(BA-co-MMA-co-SP-co-VTES) were subsequently cast onto Teflon-coated surface to form latex coatings...
April 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422400/sequence-specific-covalent-capture-coupled-with-high-contrast-nanopore-detection-of-a-disease-derived-nucleic-acid-sequence
#8
Maryam Imani Nejad, Ruicheng Shi, Xinyue Zhang, Li-Qun Gu, Kent S Gates
Hybridization-based methods for the detection of nucleic acid sequences are important in research and medicine. Short probes provide sequence specificity, but may not provide a durable signal. Sequence-specific covalent cross-link formation can anchor probes to target DNA and also may provide an additional layer of target selectivity. Here we develop a new cross-linking reaction for the covalent capture of specific nucleic acid sequences. This process involves reaction of an abasic site in a probe strand with an adenine residue in the target strand and was used for the detection of a disease-relevant T→A mutation at position 1799 of the human BRAF kinase gene sequence...
April 19, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415047/plod2-in-cancer-research
#9
REVIEW
Hongzhi Du, Mao Pang, Xiaoying Hou, Shengtao Yuan, Li Sun
Collagen is not only the most abundant protein providing the scaffold for assembly of the extracellular matrix (ECM), but also considered to be the "highway" for cancer cell migration and invasion depending on the different collagen organizations. The accumulation of stabilized collagen is enhanced by different covalent collagen cross-links, lysyl hydroxylases 2 (encoded by the PLOD2 gene) is the key enzyme mediating the formation of the stabilized collagen cross-link. Interestingly, PLOD2 is overexpressed in different cancers and closely related to a poor prognosis...
April 14, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403667/a-computational-model-for-predicting-transmembrane-regions-of-retroviruses
#10
Ze Liu, Hongqiang Lv, Jiuqiang Han, Ruiling Liu
Transmembrane region (TR) is a conserved region of transmembrane (TM) subunit in envelope (env) glycoprotein of retrovirus. Evidences have shown that TR is responsible for anchoring the env glycoprotein on the lipid bilayer and substitution of the TR for a covalently linked lipid anchor abrogates fusion. However, universal software could not achieve sufficient accuracy as TM in env also has several motifs such as signal peptide, fusion peptide and immunosuppressive domain composed largely of hydrophobic residues...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391848/poly-2-methyl-2-oxazoline-coating-by-thermally-induced-immobilization-for-determination-of-bovine-lactoferrin-in-infant-formula-with-capillary-electrophoresis
#11
Ke Mao, Haiqin Du, Longchao Bai, Yalin Zhang, Haikun Zhu, Yanmei Wang
In this work, a one-step coating procedure by a simple annealing protocol of poly (2-methyl-2-oxazoline)-random-glycidyl methacrylate (PMOXA-r-GMA) copolymer was used to yield covalent and cross-linked PMOXA-based antifouling coating on a fused-silica capillary inner surface, which was used to determine the bovine lactoferrin (Lf) in infant formula by capillary electrophoresis with ultraviolet (CE-UV) detection. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed that PMOXA-r-GMA could be bonded onto fused-silica capillary inner wall and stable electroosmotic flow (EOF) was obtained in the PMOXA-r-GMA coated capillary at pH 2...
June 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387499/versatile-bottom-up-synthesis-of-tethered-bilayer-lipid-membranes-on-nanoelectronic-biosensor-devices
#12
Weiwei Zhou, Peter J Burke
Interfacing nanoelectronic devices with cell membranes can enable multiplexed detection of fundamental biological processes (such as signal transduction, electrophysiology, and import/export control) even down to the single ion channel level, which can lead to a variety of applications in pharmacology and clinical diagnosis. Therefore, it is necessary to understand and control the chemical and electrical interface between the device and the lipid bilayer membrane. Here, we develop a simple bottom-up approach to assemble tethered bilayer lipid membranes (tBLMs) on silicon wafers and glass slides, using a covalent tether attachment chemistry based on silane functionalization, followed by step-by-step stacking of two other functional molecular building blocks (oligo-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and lipid)...
April 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387497/light-stimulated-permanent-shape-reconfiguration-in-cross-linked-polymer-microparticles
#13
Lewis Michael Cox, Xiaohao Sun, Chen Wang, Nancy Sowan, Jason P Killgore, Rong Long, Heng-An Wu, Christopher N Bowman, Yifu Ding
Reconfiguring the permanent shape of elastomeric microparticles has been impossible due to the incapability of plastic deformation in these materials. To address this limitation, we synthesize the first instance of microparticles comprising a covalent adaptable network (CAN). CANs are cross-linked polymer networks capable of reconfiguring their network topology, enabling stress relaxation and shape changing behaviors, and reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) is the corresponding dynamic chemistry used in this work to enable CAN-based microparticles...
April 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387473/combining-affinity-enrichment-cross-linking-with-photo-amino-acids-and-mass-spectrometry-for-probing-protein-kinase-d2-interactions
#14
Björn Häupl, Christian H Ihling, Andrea Sinz
We present a novel approach that relies on the affinity capture of protein interaction partners from a complex mixture, followed by covalent fixation via UV-induced activation of incorporated diazirine photo-reactive amino acids (photo-methionine and photo-leucine). The captured protein complexes are enzymatically digested and interacting proteins are identified and quantified by label-free LC/MS analysis. Using HeLa cell lysates with photo-methionine and photo-leucine-labeled proteins, we were able to capture and preserve protein interactions that are otherwise elusive in conventional pull-down experiments...
April 7, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386598/defining-rna-small-molecule-affinity-landscapes-enables-design-of-a-small-molecule-inhibitor-of-an-oncogenic-noncoding-rna
#15
Sai Pradeep Velagapudi, Yiling Luo, Tuan Tran, Hafeez S Haniff, Yoshio Nakai, Mohammad Fallahi, Gustavo J Martinez, Jessica L Childs-Disney, Matthew D Disney
RNA drug targets are pervasive in cells, but methods to design small molecules that target them are sparse. Herein, we report a general approach to score the affinity and selectivity of RNA motif-small molecule interactions identified via selection. Named High Throughput Structure-Activity Relationships Through Sequencing (HiT-StARTS), HiT-StARTS is statistical in nature and compares input nucleic acid sequences to selected library members that bind a ligand via high throughput sequencing. The approach allowed facile definition of the fitness landscape of hundreds of thousands of RNA motif-small molecule binding partners...
March 22, 2017: ACS Central Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367567/the-shape-memory-effect-in-ionic-elastomers-fixation-through-ionic-interactions
#16
Antonio González-Jiménez, Marta A Malmierca, Pilar Bernal-Ortega, Pilar Posadas, Roberto Pérez-Aparicio, Ángel Marcos-Fernández, Patrick T Mather, Juan L Valentín
Shape-memory elastomers based on a commercial rubber cross-linked by both ionic and covalent bonds have been developed. The elastomeric matrix was a carboxylated nitrile rubber (XNBR) vulcanized with magnesium oxide (MgO) providing ionic interactions that form hierarchical structures. The so-named ionic transition is used as the unique thermal transition responsible for the shape-memory effect (SME) in these elastomers. These ionic interactions fix the temporary shape due to their behavior as dynamic cross-links with temperature changes...
April 19, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327735/reverse-micelle-based-water-soluble-nanoparticles-for-simultaneous-bioimaging-and-drug-delivery
#17
Ying Chen, Yong Liu, Yongchao Yao, Shiyong Zhang, Zhongwei Gu
With special confined water pools, reverse micelles (RMs) have shown potential for a wide range of applications. However, the inherent water-insolubility of RMs hinders their further application prospects, especially for applications related to biology. We recently reported the first successful transfer of RMs from organic media to an aqueous phase without changing the smart water pools by the hydrolysis of an arm-cleavable interfacial cross-linked reverse micelles. Herein, we employed another elaborate amphiphile 1 to construct new acrylamide-based cross-linked water-soluble nanoparticles (ACW-NPs) under much gentler conditions...
April 11, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327730/tough-rapid-recovery-composite-hydrogels-fabricated-via-synergistic-core-shell-microgel-covalent-bonding-and-fe-3-coordination-cross-linking
#18
Xuechen Liang, Yukun Deng, Xiaopeng Pei, Kankan Zhai, Kun Xu, Ying Tan, Xinyuan Gong, Pixin Wang
We developed tough, rapid-recovery composite hydrogels that are fabricated via core-shell microgel covalent bonding and Fe(3+) dynamic metal coordination cross-linking. First, core-shell microgels are used as cross-linking agents and initiators to prepare homogeneous hydrogel networks with rapid recovery in the absence of an organic cross-linking agent. The toughness and recoverability of the composite hydrogels can be improved by adding the dynamic reversibility of ionic cross-linking. Owing to the synergistic effect of microgel covalent bonding, Fe(3+) coordination cross-linking, and H-bond cross-linking, the multi-cross-linked composite hydrogels exhibit excellent toughness and a fast recovery rate...
March 22, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325837/threonine-eliminylation-by-bacterial-phosphothreonine-lyases-rapidly-causes-crosslinking-of-mapk-in-live-cells
#19
Benoit M Meijer, Suk Min Jang, Ida C Guerrera, Cerina Chhuon, Joanna Lipecka, Caroline Reisacher, Françoise Baleux, Philippe Sansonetti, Christian Muchardt, Laurence Arbibe
Old long-lived proteins contain dehydroalanine (Dha) and dehydrobutyrine (Dhb), two amino acids engendered by dehydration of serines and threonines respectively. While these residues have a suspected role in protein crosslink and aggregation, their direct implication has yet to be determined. Here, we have taken advantage of the ability of the enteropathogen Shigella to convert the phosphothreonine residue of the pT-X-pY consensus sequence of ERK and p38 into Dhb, and followed the impact of dehydration on the fate of the two MAPKs...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325683/biomimetic-scaffolds-with-three-dimensional-undulated-microtopographies
#20
Jonelle Z Yu, Emrullah Korkmaz, Monica I Berg, Philip R LeDuc, O Burak Ozdoganlar
Many human and animal tissues naturally possess three-dimensional (3D) micro-scale geometries enabling certain physiological functions. Absence of these microgeometries in engineered tissues may undermine the effectiveness of corresponding tissue repair and regeneration. This paper introduces a novel approach to create tissue scaffolds with biomimetic 3D undulated microtopographies. The mechanical micromilling technology is used for precise and reproducible fabrication of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) master molds with 3D undulated microtopographies...
February 14, 2017: Biomaterials
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