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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533412/extraordinarily-rapid-speciation-in-a-marine-fish
#1
Paolo Momigliano, Henri Jokinen, Antoine Fraimout, Ann-Britt Florin, Alf Norkko, Juha Merilä
Divergent selection may initiate ecological speciation extremely rapidly. How often and at what pace ecological speciation proceeds to yield strong reproductive isolation is more uncertain. Here, we document a case of extraordinarily rapid speciation associated with ecological selection in the postglacial Baltic Sea. European flounders (Platichthys flesus) in the Baltic exhibit two contrasting reproductive behaviors: pelagic and demersal spawning. Demersal spawning enables flounders to thrive in the low salinity of the Northern Baltic, where eggs cannot achieve neutral buoyancy...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526886/fk866-attenuates-acute-hepatic-failure-through-c-jun-n-terminal-kinase-jnk-dependent-autophagy
#2
Enshuang Guo, Renlong Li, Jiankun Yang, Jun Zhang, Anyi Li, Yan Yang, Shenpei Liu, Anding Liu, Xiaojing Jiang
FK866 exhibits a protective effect on D-galactosamine (GaIN)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and concanavalin A (ConA)-induced acute liver failure (ALF), but the mechanism by which FK866 affords this benefit has not yet been elucidated. Autophagy has a protective effect on acute liver injury. However, the contribution of autophagy to FK866-conferred hepatoprotection is still unclear. This study aimed to investigate whether FK866 could attenuate GaIN/LPS and ConA-induced ALF through c-jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK)-dependent autophagy...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521834/incidence-of-total-hip-or-knee-replacement-due-to-osteoarthritis-in-relation-to-thyroid-function-a-prospective-cohort-study-the-nord-tr%C3%A3-ndelag-health-study
#3
Alf Inge Hellevik, Marianne Bakke Johnsen, Arnulf Langhammer, Anne Marie Fenstad, Ove Furnes, Kjersti Storheim, John Anker Zwart, Gunnar Flugsrud, Lars Nordsletten
BACKGROUND: To study whether thyroid function was associated with risk of hip or knee replacement due to primary osteoarthritis. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study, data from the second and third survey of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study were linked to the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register in order to identify total hip or knee replacement as a result of primary osteoarthritis. RESULTS: Among 37 891 participants without previously known thyroid disease we recorded 978 total hip replacements (THRs) and 538 total knee replacements (TKRs) during a median follow-up time of 15...
May 18, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513770/association-between-mfn2-gene-polymorphisms-and-the-risk-and-prognosis-of-acute-liver-failure-a-case-control-study-in-a-chinese-population
#4
Y-L Wei, Q Tian, X-X Zhao, G-Z Qiu, Y Xu
This study aimed to determine the role of mitofusin 2 (MFN2) gene polymorphisms in the risk and prognosis of acute liver failure (ALF). A total of 298 blood samples were collected from 138 ALF patients (case group) and 160 healthy participants (control group). Coagulation function, glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), total bilirubin (TB), blood ammonia and lactic acid (LA) were measured. The predictive evaluation of MFN2 gene polymorphisms in the risk and prognosis of ALF patients was estimated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, haplotype analysis, binary logistic regression analysis and Cox regression analysis...
May 15, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509629/nanoparticle-based-delivery-enhances-anti-inflammatory-effect-of-low-molecular-weight-heparin-in-experimental-ulcerative-colitis
#5
Tawfek Yazeji, Brice Moulari, Arnaud Beduneau, Valentin Stein, Dirk Dietrich, Yann Pellequer, Alf Lamprecht
Epithelial administration of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) has proven its therapeutic efficiency in ulcerative colitis (UC) but still lacks of a sufficiently selective drug delivery system. Polymeric nanoparticles were used here not only to protect LMWH from intestinal degradation but also to provide targeted delivery to inflamed tissue in experimental colitis mice. LMWH was associated with polymethacrylate nanoparticles (NP) type A (PEMT-A) or type B (PEMT-B) of a size: 150 nm resulting in a maximum drug loading: 0...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509333/altered-glycan-accessibility-on-native-immunoglobulin-g-complexes-in-early-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-its-changes-during-therapy
#6
Judith Stümer, Mona H C Biermann, Jasmin Knopf, Iryna Magorivska, Alf Kastbom, Anna Svärd, Christina Janko, Rostyslav Bilyy, Georg Schett, Christopher Sjöwall, Martin Herrmann, Luis E Muñoz
The goal of this study was to investigate the glycosylation profile of native IgG present in serum immune complexes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To accomplish this, lectin binding assays, detecting the accessibility of glycans present on IgG-containing immune complexes by biotinylated lectins were employed. Lectins capturing fucosyl residues (AAL), fucosylated tri-mannose N-glycan core sites (LCA), terminal sialic acid residues (SNA) and O-glycosidically-linked galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNac-L) were used...
May 16, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508586/role-and-regulation-of-autophagy-and-apoptosis-by-nitric-oxide-in-hepatic-stellate-cells-during-acute-liver-failure
#7
Li Jin, Heng Gao, JiuPing Wang, ShuJuan Yang, Jing Wang, JingFeng Liu, Yuan Yang, TaoTao Yan, Tianyan Chen, Yingren Zhao, Yingli He
BACKGROUND & AIMS: We previously found that hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation induced by autophagy maintains the liver architecture to prevent collapse during acute liver failure (ALF). Nitric oxide (NO) has shown to induce HSC apoptosis. Whether and how NO is involved in ALF and autophagy remains unclear. METHODS: ALF patients were recruited to investigate the correlation between plasma NO levels and clinical features. Liver tissues were collected from chronic hepatitis patients by biopsy and from ALF patients who had undergone liver transplantation...
May 15, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503286/fulminant-hepatic-failure-due-to-metastatic-choroidal-melanoma
#8
Emmanuel Escobar-Valdivia, Roberto Monreal-Robles, Guillermo Delgado-García, Badir Hernández-Velazquez
BACKGROUND: Acute liver failure (ALF) as a consequence of metastatic disease is extremely uncommon. The liver is the most commonly affected organ by metastatic disease, but only a few cases of ALF in the setting of metastatic choroidal melanoma have been reported. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe the case of a 47-year-old man with right upper quadrant pain, progressive jaundice, and unintentional weight loss. He also reported that he had experienced reduced left visual acuity which progressed to blindness over 2 months...
2017: Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501483/reversal-of-bioenergetics-dysfunction-by-diphenyl-diselenide-is-critical-to-protection-against-the-acetaminophen-induced-acute-liver-failure
#9
Nélson R Carvalho, Cintia C Tassi, Fernando Dobraschinski, Guilherme P Amaral, Ana P Zemolin, Ronaldo M Golombieski, Cristiane L Dalla Corte, Jeferson L Franco, José L Mauriz, Javier González-Gallego, Félix A Soares
Physiopathological conditions such as acute liver failure (ALF) induced by acetaminophen (APAP) can often impair the mitochondrial bioenergetics. Diphenyl diselenide [(PhSe)2] has been shown protects against APAP-induced ALF. The present study aimed to clarify the signaling mechanism involved in the protection of bioenergetics dysfunction associated with ALF-induced by APAP overdose. Mice received APAP (600mg/kg) or (PhSe)2 (15.6mg/kg) alone, or APAP+(PhSe)2, all the solutions were administered by the intraperitoneal (i...
May 10, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499684/flying-lessons-for-clinicians-developing-system-2-practice
#10
Jerome N Gregoire, Celeste M Alfes, Andrew P Reimer, Mary F Terhaar
There is a long history of adopting lessons learned from aviation to improve health care practice. Two of the major practices that have successfully transferred include using a checklist and simulation. Training and simulation technology is currently underdeveloped for nurses and health care providers entering critical care transport. This article describes a pedagogical approach adopted from aviation to develop a new simulation platform and program of research to develop the science of critical care transport nursing education...
May 2017: Air Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499683/response-of-flight-nurses-in-a-simulated-helicopter-environment
#11
David M Kaniecki, Ronald L Hickman, Celeste M Alfes, Andrew P Reimer
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine if a helicopter flight simulator could provide a useful educational platform by creating experiences similar to those encountered by actual flight nurses. METHODS: Flight nurse (FN) and non-FN participants completed a simulated emergency scenario in a flight simulator. Physiologic and psychological stress during the simulation was measured using heart rate and perceived stress scores. A questionnaire was then administered to assess the realism of the flight simulator...
May 2017: Air Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489388/ultrathin-and-highly-passivating-silica-shells-for-luminescent-and-water-soluble-cdse-cds-nanorods
#12
Xiao Tang, Elvira Kröger, Andreas Nielsen, Christian Strelow, Alf Mews, Tobias Kipp
Microemulsion (water-in-oil) methods enable the encapsulation of individual nanoparticles into SiO2 spheres. The major drawbacks of this method, when applied for silica encapsulation of anisotropic nanorods (NRs), are a spatially unequal silica growth and long reaction times (24 h at least). In this work, various tetra-alkoxysilanes (tetramethyl orthosilicate (TMOS), tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and tetrapropyl orthosilicate (TPOS)) with different alkyl-chain lengths were used as the silica precursors in attempt to tune the silanization behavior of CdSe/CdS NRs in a microemulsion system...
May 10, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488376/a-predictive-formula-of-coma-onset-and-prothrombin-time-to-distinguish-patients-who-recover-from-acute-liver-injury
#13
Keisuke Kakisaka, Yuji Suzuki, Kojiro Kataoka, Yohei Okada, Yasuhiro Miyamoto, Hidekatsu Kuroda, Yasuhiro Takikawa
BACKGROUND & AIM: Acute liver failure (ALF) is defined as acute liver injury (ALI) associated with coagulopathy. A follow-up strategy for ALI and characterization of ALI patients with a risk of progressing to ALF have never been established. To establish predictive markers for progression from ALI to ALF, we compared the clinical characteristics and laboratory data on the day of registration to data from a regional referral system of patients with ALI. METHODS: This prospective, observational study enrolled 365 consecutive patients with ALI/ALF between 2007 and 2016...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482744/accelerated-long-term-forgetting-is-not-epilepsy-specific-evidence-from-childhood-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
Suncica Lah, Carly Black, Michael Gascoigne, Chloe Gott, Adrienne Epps, Louise Parry
Accelerated long-term forgetting (ALF) is characterised by adequate recall after short, but not long delays. ALF is not detected by standardised neuropsychological memory tests. Currently, the prevailing conceptualisation of ALF is of a temporal-lobe seizure related phenomenon. Nevertheless, Mayes and colleagues (2003) proposed that ALF may arise when any of the components of the brain network involved in long-term memory formation, or their interaction is disrupted. This disruption does not have to be caused by temporal lobe seizures for ALF to occur...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482410/-therapeutic-efficacy-and-mechanism-of-action-of-ginsenoside-rg1-in-treating-acute-hepatic-failure-in-mice
#15
H Luo, W X Huang, C Yang, J Q Zhao, S Liu, Y S Xu, C W Liu
Objective: To examine the regulatory effect of ginsenoside Rg1 (G-Rg1) on endoplasmic reticulum stress and its effect on hepatocellular apoptosis in carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced acute liver failure (ALF). Methods: Forty healthy, adult male C57/BL mice were randomly divided into normal saline control (NS) group, G-Rg1 blank control (G-Rg1) group, CCl(4) model (CCl(4)) group, and G-Rg1 preventive treatment (CCl(4)+G-Rg1) group, and an ALF mouse model was established by CCl(4) induction. Blood and liver specimens were collected from all mice upon sacrifice at 12 hours post-intraperitoneal injection...
March 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481408/the-physical-and-cognitive-performance-test-for-residents-in-assisted-living-facilities
#16
Mary Elizabeth Bowen, Meredeth Rowe, Mary Ersek, Said Ibrahim, Judy A Shea
OBJECTIVES: To develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of a new performance-based instrument (Physical and Cognitive Performance Test for Assisted Living Facilities (PCPT ALF)) designed to assess the physical and cognitive skills associated with performance of activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). DESIGN: There were three stages in this study: development of instrument items and validity testing, a feasibility pilot study, and a cross-sectional trial to establish construct and criterion validity and reliability...
May 8, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464835/streamlining-staging-of-lung-and-colorectal-cancer-with-whole-body-mri-study-protocols-for-two-multicentre-non-randomised-single-arm-prospective-diagnostic-accuracy-studies-streamline-c-and-streamline-l
#17
Stuart A Taylor, Sue Mallett, Anne Miles, Sandy Beare, Gauraang Bhatnagar, John Bridgewater, Rob Glynne-Jones, Vicky Goh, Ashley M Groves, Sam M Janes, Dow Mu Koh, Steve Morris, Alison Morton, Neal Navani, Alf Oliver, Anwar R Padhani, Shonit Punwani, Andrea G Rockall, Steve Halligan
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Rapid and accurate cancer staging following diagnosis underpins patient management, in particular the identification of distant metastatic disease. Current staging guidelines recommend sequential deployment of various imaging platforms such as computerised tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography (PET) which can be time and resource intensive and onerous for patients. Recent studies demonstrate that whole body magnetic resonance Imaging (WB-MRI) may stage cancer efficiently in a single visit, with potentially greater accuracy than current staging investigations...
May 2, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463624/evaluation-of-robot-guided-minimally-invasive-implantation-of-2067-pedicle-screws
#18
Naureen Keric, Christian Doenitz, Amer Haj, Izabela Rachwal-Czyzewicz, Mirjam Renovanz, Dominik M A Wesp, Stephan Boor, Jens Conrad, Alexander Brawanski, Alf Giese, Sven R Kantelhardt
Objective Recent studies have investigated the role of spinal image guidance for pedicle screw placement. Many authors have observed an elevated placement accuracy and overall improvement of outcome measures. This study assessed a bi-institutional experience following introduction of the Renaissance miniature robot for spinal image guidance in Europe. Methods The medical records and radiographs of all patients who underwent robot-guided implantation of spinal instrumentation using the novel system (between October 2011 and March 2015 in Mainz and February 2014 and February 2016 in Regensburg) were reviewed to determine the efficacy and safety of the newly introduced robotic system...
May 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462386/association-of-variants-of-arginine-vasopressin-and-arginine%C3%A2-vasopressin-receptor-1a-with-severe-acetaminophen%C3%A2-liver-injury
#19
Matthew Randesi, Orna Levran, Joel Correa da Rosa, Julia Hankins, Jody Rule, Mary Jeanne Kreek, William M Lee
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Acetaminophen-related acute liver injury and liver failure (ALF) result from ingestion of supratherapeutic quantities of this analgesic, frequently in association with other forms of substance abuse including alcohol, opioids, and cocaine. Thus, overdosing represents a unique high-risk behavior associated with other forms of drug use disorder. METHODS: We examined a series of 21 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 9 genes related to impulsivity and/or stress responsivity that may modify response to stress...
May 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459065/optimization-of-catheter-based-rtpa-thrombolysis-in-a-novel-in-vitro-clot-model-for-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#20
Naureen Keric, Julia Masomi-Bornwasser, Hendrik Müller-Werkmeister, Sven Rainer Kantelhardt, Jochem König, Oliver Kempski, Alf Giese
Hematoma lysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) has emerged as an alternative therapy for spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Optimal dose and schedule are still unclear. The aim of this study was to create a reliable in vitro blood clot model for investigation of optimal drug dose and timing. An in vitro clot model was established, using 25 mL and 50 mL of human blood. Catheters were placed into the clots and three groups, using intraclot application of rtPA, placebo, and catheter alone, were analyzed...
2017: BioMed Research International
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