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Julia Masomi-Bornwassser, Fabio Freguia, Hendrik Müller-Werkmeister, Oliver Kempski, Alf Giese, Naureen Keric
OBJECTIVE: Although fibrinolytic therapy is an upcoming treatment for intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH), standard guidelines are lacking, and some clinical issues persist. Here, we used our recently devised clot model of ICH to systematically analyse effects of irrigation and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) on fibrinolysis. METHODS: In vitro clots of human blood (25 ml) were generated and a catheter irrigation system was applied to deliver fluid/treatment. Clots were weighed before and after treatment and compared to rtPA treatment alone...
March 21, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
Li Liu, Mingxing Miao, Yang Chen, Zhongjian Wang, Binbin Sun, Xiaodong Liu
This study investigated alterations in the function and expression of P-glycoprotein (P-GP), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) of acute liver failure (ALF) mice and its clinical significance. ALF mice were developed using intraperitoneal injection of thioacetamide. P-GP, BCRP, and MRP2 functions were determined by measuring the ratios of brain-to-plasma concentration of rhodamine 123, prazosin, and dinitrophenyl- S -glutathione, respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Li Liu, Di Xiao, Jin-Hong Yu, Rui Shen, Meng Wang, Qiang Li
OBJECTIVES: In China, the epidemic pattern of acute hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection has changed from waterborne outbreaks to foodborne sporadic cases. However, the clinical course of sporadic acute hepatitis E has not been well defined. METHODS: Consecutive AHE inpatients who were admitted to the Jinan Infectious Disease Hospital, Jinan, Shandong Province, between January 2003 and December 2014 were evaluated and followed. Demographic data, clinical manifestations, results of laboratory tests,and outcomes were recorded...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Yu Huang, Mitsuhisa Takatsuki, Akihiko Soyama, Masaaki Hidaka, Shinichiro Ono, Tomohiko Adachi, Takanobu Hara, Satomi Okada, Takashi Hamada, Susumu Eguchi
BACKGROUND Liver transplantation is indicated for patients with Wilson's disease (WD) who present either with acute liver failure or with end-stage liver disease and severe hepatic insufficiency as the first sign of disease. However, almost all reported cases have been treated with death donor liver transplantation. Here we report the case of a patient with WD associated with fulminant hepatic failure (WD-FHF) who underwent living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). CASE REPORT A 17-year-old female was diagnosed with WD-FHF based on high uric copper (10 603 μg/day, normal <100 μg/day), low serum ceruloplasmin (15 mg/dL, normal >20 mg/dL) and Kayser-Fleischer (K-F) corneal ring, and acute liver failure (ALF), acute renal failure (ARF) and grade 2 hepatic encephalopathy (HE)...
March 17, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
Anetta Zioła-Frankowska, Marcin Frankowski
The research presents the first results of aluminium speciation analysis in aqueous extracts of individual plant parts of Betula pendula and soil samples, using High Performance Ion Chromatography with Diode Array Detection (HPIC-DAD). The applied method allowed us to carry out a full speciation analysis of aluminium in the form of predominant aluminium-fluoride complexes: AlF(x=2,3,4) (3-x) (first analytical signal), AlF2+ (second analytical signal) and Al3+ (third analytical signal) in samples of lateral roots, tap roots, twigs, stem, leaf and soil collected under roots of B...
March 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Xueliang Yang, Yunru Chen, Jian Zhang, Tiantian Tang, Ying Kong, Feng Ye, Xi Zhang, Xiaojing Liu, Shumei Lin
The present study aimed to evaluate whether thymosin α1 (Tα1) increases survival rates through the improvement of immunofunction and inhibition of hepatocyte apoptosis in rats with acute liver failure (ALF). A total of 25 rats were randomly divided into the control group (CG), the model group (MG) and the treatment group (TG). The CG received an intraperitoneal injection of saline (2 ml). The ALF rat model was established by the intraperitoneal injection of D-galactosamine (700 mg/kg) and lipopolysaccharide (10 µg/kg)...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Salvatore Sutti, Frank Tacke
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) remains a clinical challenge due to the poorly predictable outcomes. Accordingly, considerable efforts have been devoted to unravel the risk factors responsible for DILI worsening toward acute liver failure (ALF), liver transplantation (LT), and/or death. From a pathogenic point of view, exhaustion of drug metabolizing pathways, cell death mechanisms, activation of local immune cells, such as Kupffer cells, and recruitment of inflammatory leukocytes including monocytes and lymphocytes are key drivers of DILI progression...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
Prachi Borude, Bharat Bhushan, Udayan Apte
Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is the leading cause of Acute Liver Failure (ALF) with limited treatment options. It is known that liver regeneration following APAP induced ALF is a deciding factor in the final outcome. Previous studies from our laboratory using incremental dose model involving a regenerating (300 mg/kg, APAP300) and a non-regenerating (600 mg/kg, APAP600) dose of APAP in mice have revealed several pro- regenerative pathways that regulate regeneration after APAP overdose. Here we report that DNA damage and repair mechanisms regulate initiation liver regeneration following APAP overdose...
March 14, 2018: Gene Expression
Xiao-Wen Zhang, Xin Man, Xin Huang, Yue Wang, Qi-Sheng Song, Kai-Min Hui, Hong-Wei Zhang
C-type lectins are important immune molecules that participate in crustacean defense response. The present work reports a novel C-type lectin (PcLec6) from the red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii. PcLec6 encodes a single-peptide protein of 385 amino acids, which include a C-type lectin domain (CTLD) and a serine-rich region. PcLec6 expression in lymph organ and gills was up-regulated after bacterial challenge by Vibrio alginolyticus or white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Recombinant full-length PcLec6 or its CTLD proteins were used for the functional analyses...
March 10, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
V Ince, C Kayaalp, E Otan, F Ozdemir, A Dirican, H I Toprak, C Aydin, C Ara, S Yilmaz
Emergency liver transplantation (LT) for acute liver failure (ALF) is a life-saving treatment. Occurrence of this situation in the same patient twice is very rare. Herein, we describe a patient who underwent two emergency LTs for ALF, both from living donors. When she was 26 years old, she underwent a right lobe living donor LT (LDLT) from her sister for ALF due to use of herbal weight loss medications. The next 3 years were uneventful but another ALF developed during a terminal stage pregnancy (37th week)...
2018: International Journal of Organ Transplantation Medicine
Horng-Ren Yang, Ashok Thorat, Long-Bin Jeng, Shih-Chao Hsu, Ping-Chun Li, Chun-Chieh Yeh, Te-Hung Chen, Kin-SHing Poon
BACKGROUND The prognosis of the patients of acute liver failure (ALF) with onset of hepatic coma is often dismal. ALF is a well-accepted indication for liver transplantation (LT) and has markedly improved the prognosis of these patients. However, its role in ALF patients with onset of hepatic coma has never been elucidated before. The aim of our study was to analyze the outcome in patients of ALF with hepatic coma who underwent LT. MATERIAL AND METHODS From January 2002 to December 2015, a total of 726 liver transplantations were done at China Medical University Hospital, Taiwan...
March 13, 2018: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
Ryusuke Amemiya, Masahiro Shinoda, Masayuki Yamada, Yoshiyuki Ueno, Kaoru Shimada, Hiroaki Fujieda, Hiroshi Yagi, Takamasa Mizota, Ryo Nishiyama, Go Oshima, Shingo Yamada, Kentaro Matsubara, Yuta Abe, Taizo Hibi, Minoru Kitago, Hideaki Obara, Osamu Itano, Yuko Kitagawa
BACKGROUND: High-mobility-group box chromosomal protein 1 has been identified as an important mediator of various kinds of acute and chronic inflammation. In this study, we aimed to develop a column that effectively adsorbs high-mobility-group box chromosomal protein 1 by altering the pore size of the fiber. MATERIALS AND METHODS: First, we produced three types of porous polymethylmethacrylate fiber by altering the concentration of polymethylmethacrylate dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Artificial Organs
Ruth Ec Evans, Stuart A Taylor, Sandra Beare, Steve Halligan, Alison Morton, Alf Oliver, Andrea Rockall, Anne Miles
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate perceived patient burden and acceptability of whole body MRI (WB-MRI) compared to standard staging investigations, and identify predictors of reduced tolerance.  Methods: Patients recruited to multi-centre trials comparing WB-MRI with standard staging scans for lung and colorectal cancer were invited to complete two questionnaires: a baseline questionnaire at recruitment, measuring demographics, comorbidities, and distress; and a follow-up questionnaire after staging, measuring recovery time, comparative acceptability/satisfaction between WB-MRI and CT (colorectal cancer) and PET-CT (lung cancer), and perceived scan burden (scored 1 low to 7 high)...
March 12, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Yafei Duan, Yun Wang, Jiasong Zhang, Qingsong Liu, Xian Ding
The shrimp intestine barrier serves as the first line of the host defense against pathogen infection. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the cell wall component of gram-negative bacteria, which known as endotoxin and induce the intestine inflammation. In this study, the acute toxicity effects of LPS injection on the morphology, digestive enzymes and immunological responses of intestine from Litopenaeus vannamei was investigated. HE stain showed that LPS injection damaged the intestine connective and epithelium tissue...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Maryam Alsadat Shetab Boushehri, Valentin Stein, Alf Lamprecht
Nanoparticles create exciting platforms for anticancer immunotherapy and vaccination, though their inherent immunomodulatory properties have remained underexploited. Ammonio methacrylate copolymers (AMC) are well-established excipients in pharmaceutical industry and components of controlled-release oral formulations. Here, we demonstrate that nanoscaling of type A and B AMC (Eudragit® RL and RS) endows these inactive ingredients immunostimulatory properties exploitable for cancer therapy. The particles induce the secretion of various pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines from the cells of innate immunity...
March 2, 2018: Biomaterials
David Noiva Perdigoto, Pedro Amaro, Manuela Ferreira, Luis Tomé
A patient is admitted with complaints of recent onset nausea, discomfort, jaundice and blood tests that reveal severe hepatitis. At the time, she had been taking medication with Hypericum perforatum (St John's wort) for 6 months, and 6 weeks before this event, she took flupirtine maleate. A few days after being admitted, she developed encephalopathy progressing to acute liver failure (ALF) requiring unsuccessful liver transplantation. The patient was ultimately diagnosed with drug-induced liver injury (DILI)...
March 9, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Wen-Jun Liu, Wei Li, Yang Tang, Si-Jie Gao, Fang Fang, Feng Xu, Ye Xu
CONTEXT: Soft tissue calcifications (STCs) were incidentally found in some of the Hymenoptera-stung (HS) children when they underwent computed tomography (CT) scans for evaluating complications of vital organs. Afterwards, a predilection of STCs to the children with severe complications was clinically noticed. A hypothesis was then developed that STCs secondary to HS may correlate with poor outcomes. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to firstly characterize the CT findings of STCs in HS children and to confirm our hypothesis that the occurrence of STCs may act as an indicator of poor outcomes in HS children...
March 9, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
Rajia Bahri, Adnan Custovic, Peter Korosec, Marina Tsoumani, Martin Barron, Jiakai Wu, Rebekah Sayers, Alf Weimann, Monica Ruiz-Garcia, Nandinee Patel, Abigail Robb, Mohamed H Shamji, Sara Fontanella, Mira Silar, E N Clare Mills, Angela Simpson, Paul J Turner, Silvia Bulfone-Paus
BACKGROUND: Food allergy is an increasing public health issue and the commonest cause of life-threatening anaphylactic reactions. Conventional allergy tests assess for the presence of allergen-specific IgE, significantly overestimating the rate of true clinical allergy resulting in over-diagnosis and adverse impact on health-related quality of life. OBJECTIVE: To undertake initial validation and assessment of a novel diagnostic tool, the mast cell activation test (MAT)...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Javier Giglio, Maia Zeni, Eduardo Savio, Henry Engler
Background: Overexpression of prostatic membrane antigen (PSMA) is associated with the progression and prognosis of prostate cancer. There are numerous studies using this peptide with the68 Ga radionuclide. Previous methods to synthetize18 F-labeled PSMA ligands with complexes [18 F]AlF2+ have been achieved. However, these reported syntheses were performed manually, using small volumes. Therefore it is only possible to have the radiopharmaceutical on a small scale, for use in preclinical studies...
2018: EJNMMI Radiopharm Chem
Raphaël Cornu, Nathalie Rougier, Yann Pellequer, Alf Lamprecht, Paul Hamon, Ruoya Li, Arnaud Beduneau, Hélène Martin
Nanomedicines represent a promising approach in the treatment and diagnosis of numerous disorders. The majority of the injected dose of nanoparticles (NPs) is sequestrated in the liver. Despite this hepatic tropism, the interaction of NPs with the detoxification function of the liver remains unclear. The present study consists of evaluating the impact of biodegradable poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and silica NPs on cytochrome P450 (CYP) activities. The effects of NPs were evaluated in vitro on human and rat hepatocytes in primary cultures and in vivo by intravenous injections in healthy rats...
March 1, 2018: Nanoscale
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