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Situational judgment test

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516391/denial-of-a-sleep-deprivation-message-situational-and-dispositional-influences-on-message-rejection
#1
Suzanne C Thompson, Haley W Marber, Laeesha N Cornejo, Bryn M Launer, Kimberly Ona Ayala
Two studies investigated situational and dispositional influences on rejection of a sleep deprivation warning message for young adults. The hassle of protection (Study 1) and the self-relevance of the problem (Study 2) were manipulated; the disposition to use denial (threat orientation) for warning messages was measured. In both studies, it was found that both dispositional denial and the situational manipulation (more protection-hassle or self-relevance) showed at least one denial effect by reducing perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, or credibility...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495558/acute-psychosocial-stress-and-everyday-moral-decision-making-in-young-healthy-men-the-impact-of-cortisol
#2
Nina Singer, Monika Sommer, Katrin Döhnel, Sandra Zänkert, Stefan Wüst, Brigitte M Kudielka
In everyday life, moral decisions must frequently be made under acute stress. Although there is increasing evidence that both stress and cortisol affect moral judgment and behavior as well as decision-making in various domains unrelated to morality, surprisingly few attempts have been made to explore the effects of stress on everyday moral decision-making. Therefore, in the present study, we exposed 50 young healthy men to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) or its non-stressful placebo version (PTSST). We investigated the impact of acute stress exposure and stress-related cortisol levels on decision-making, decision certainty, and emotions in 28 everyday moral conflict situations with altruistic versus egoistic response alternatives...
May 19, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493614/accuracy-of-physical-exam-ankle-brachial-index-and-ultrasonography-in-the-diagnosis-of-arterial-injury-in-patients-with-penetrating-extremity-trauma-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Ian S deSouza, Roshanak Benabbas, Sean McKee, Bardiya Zangbar, Ashika Jain, Lorenzo Paladino, Leon Boudourakis, Richard Sinert
BACKGROUND: Penetrating Extremity Trauma (PET) may result in arterial injury, a rare but limb- and life-threatening surgical emergency. Accurate and timely diagnosis is vital to enable potential intervention and prevent significant morbidity. OBJECTIVES: Using a systematic review/meta-analysis approach, we determined the utility of Physical Examination (exam), Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI), and Ultrasonography (US) in the diagnosis of arterial injury in ED patients who have sustained PET...
May 11, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430567/how-should-clinicians-respond-to-medical-requests-from-clinician-family-members-of-patients
#4
Andrew Thurston
In the medical profession, receiving a request for medical management from a colleague is a routine experience. However, when the colleague is a family member of a patient and the desired or requested medical intervention is not medically indicated in the attending physician's view, the situation becomes more complicated. Ethical issues include respect for patient autonomy and social justice as well as nonmaleficence. Furthermore, interpersonal and professional relationships may be tested in this situation...
April 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394626/decision-making-on-the-labor-and-delivery-unit-an-investigation-of-influencing-factors
#5
Megan E Gregory, Shirley C Sonesh, Jennifer Feitosa, Lauren E Benishek, Ashley M Hughes, Eduardo Salas
Objective The aim of this study was to describe the relationship between negative affect (NA), decision-making style, time stress, and decision quality in health care. Background Health care providers must often make swift, high-stakes decisions. Influencing factors of the decision-making process in this context have been understudied. Method Within a sample of labor and delivery nurses, physicians, and allied personnel, we used self-report measures to examine the impact of trait factors, including NA, decision-making style, and perceived time stress, on decision quality in a situational judgment test (Study 1)...
April 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339399/early-huntington-s-disease-impulse-control-deficits-but-correct-judgment-regarding-risky-situations
#6
Victor Galvez, Juan Fernandez-Ruiz, Leo Bayliss, Adriana Ochoa-Morales, Carlos R Hernandez-Castillo, Rosalinda Díaz, Aurelio Campos-Romo
BACKGROUND: Huntington's disease (HD) patients show alterations in decision making tasks. However, it is still uncertain if these deficits are due to poor judgment regarding risky situations, or to impulse control deficits. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate whether decision-making in patients is related to genuine risk behavior or to impulse control deficits. METHODS: To test between these two alternative possibilities, we evaluated the performance of 19 prodromal HD patients and 19 matched healthy controls in the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT)...
2017: Journal of Huntington's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296651/the-predictive-validity-of-a-text-based-situational-judgment-test-in-undergraduate-medical-and-dental-school-admissions
#7
Fiona Patterson, Fran Cousans, Helena Edwards, Anna Rosselli, Sandra Nicholson, Barry Wright
PROBLEM: Situational judgment tests (SJTs) can be used to assess the nonacademic attributes necessary for medical and dental trainees to become successful practitioners. Evidence for SJTs' predictive validity, however, relates predominantly to selection in postgraduate settings or using video-based SJTs at the undergraduate level; it may not be directly transferable to text-based SJTs in undergraduate medical and dental school selection. This preliminary study aimed to address these gaps by assessing the validity of the UK Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT) text-based SJT...
March 14, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292289/at-first-glance-informal-payments-experience-on-track-why-accept-or-refuse-patients-perceive-in-cardiac-surgery-department-of-public-hospitals-northeast-of-iran-2013
#8
Ali Vafaei Najar, Hossein Ebrahimipour, Arefeh Pourtaleb, Habibollah Esmaily, Mehdi Jafari, Zohre Nejatzadegan, Yasamin Molavi Taleghani
BACKGROUND: Patient's Informal payments is among the main source of health care financing in some countries. This paper aimed at determining the patient informal payments and relative factors in Cardiac Surgery Departments (CSD) in hospitals affiliated to Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (MUMS) in 2013. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 316 discharged patients were selected using multi-stage sampling. Data gathering tool was a questionnaire which was filled by structured telephone interviews...
March 14, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253561/the-neurology-of-acutely-failing-respiratory-mechanics
#9
Eelco F M Wijdicks
Forces involved in breathing-which effectively pull in air-are the diaphragmatic, intercostal, spine, and neck muscles. Equally important is the bulbar musculature maintaining the architecture of a patent airway conduit and abdominal wall and internal intercostal muscles providing cough. Acute injury along a neural trajectory from brainstem to muscle will impair the coordinated interaction between these muscle groups. Acutely failing respiratory mechanics can be caused by central and peripheral lesions. In central lesions, the key lesion is in the nucleus ambiguus innervating the dilator muscles of the soft palate, pharynx, and larynx, but abnormal respiratory mechanics rarely coincide with abnormalities of the respiratory pattern generator...
April 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220334/future-directions-in-personality-occupational-and-medical-selection-myths-misunderstandings-measurement-and-suggestions
#10
Eamonn Ferguson, Filip Lievens
This paper has two objectives: (1) presenting recent advances in personality theory whereby personality traits are conceptualized within a framework that focuses on the dynamic interactions of behaviour, biology, context, and states, and (2) discussing the implications of these developments for measurement and medical selection. We start by presenting evidence that traits are no longer regarded as stable deterministic predictors of behaviour. Instead, traits are found to change across generations, the life span, and in response to environmental contingencies...
February 20, 2017: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207004/patch-testing-for-adverse-drug-reactions
#11
Sahil Sekhon, Susan T Nedorost
Adverse drug reactions result in a substantial number of hospital admissions and inpatient events. Diagnosis usually is made with clinical judgment and circumstantiality without diagnostic testing. Furthermore, even in situations where diagnostic testing is performed, no safe gold standard tests exist. Oral rechallenge is currently the gold standard but carries the risk of recrudescence of severe allergic symptoms. Other tests include skin prick tests, the lymphocyte transformation test, immunohistochemistry, and patch testing...
January 2017: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129174/the-martian-examining-human-physical-judgments-across-virtual-gravity-fields
#12
Tian Ye, Siyuan Qi, James Kubricht, Yixin Zhu, Hongjing Lu, Song-Chun Zhu
This paper examines how humans adapt to novel physical situations with unknown gravitational acceleration in immersive virtual environments. We designed four virtual reality experiments with different tasks for participants to complete: strike a ball to hit a target, trigger a ball to hit a target, predict the landing location of a projectile, and estimate the flight duration of a projectile. The first two experiments compared human behavior in the virtual environment with real-world performance reported in the literature...
January 23, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098523/effects-of-psychological-distance-and-need-for-cognitive-closure-on-impression-formation
#13
Ivan Tomić, Mirjana Tonković, Dragutin Ivanec
Based on theoretical and empirical similarities between Construal level theory of psychological distance and the Need for cognitive closure (NFC) theory, it could be hypothesized that psychological distance and NFC represent constructs that overlap to some degree. Since both theories describe judgmental behavior in terms of schematic processing, we hypothesized that primacy effect, a schema-driven phenomenon, is strengthened under the heightened NFC and psychological distance. We tested this hypothesis in an impression formation experiment while manipulating psychological distance and measuring NFC...
January 2017: Journal of General Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096705/situational-judgment-tests-reliably-measure-professional-attributes-important-for-clinical-practice
#14
EDITORIAL
Katie Petty-Saphon, Kim A Walker, Fiona Patterson, Vicki Ashworth, Helena Edwards
Over the course of more than 40 years, international research has consistently shown situational judgment tests (SJTs) to be a reliable and valid selection method for assessing a range of professional attributes. However, SJTs still represent a relatively new selection method within the medical profession, and as such it is to be expected that applicant reactions will vary. In this Expert Opinion piece, we respond to Najim et al's article "The situational judgement test: a student's worst nightmare" by highlighting three key clarifications...
2017: Advances in Medical Education and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018263/honor-as-cultural-mindset-activated-honor-mindset-affects-subsequent-judgment-and-attention-in-mindset-congruent-ways
#15
Sheida Novin, Daphna Oyserman
Honor values articulate gender roles, the importance of reputation in maintaining one's place in society, and maintaining respect for the groups one belongs to. In that sense honor provides a template for organizing social interactions and hence may be functional even among people and societies that do not report valuing and endorsing honor. We test the prediction that honor influences judgment and attention when activated in two experiments (N = 538). Using a culture-as-situated cognition perspective, we predicted that activating one aspect of honor would activate other aspects, even among individuals who do not much endorse honor values...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993262/-the-recognition-of-emotions-empathy-and-moral-judgment-in-the-national-mental-health-survey-in-colombia-2015
#16
Diana Matallana, Carlos Gómez-Restrepo, Paulina Ramirez, Nathalie Tamayo Martínez, Martin Rondon
BACKGROUND: Social cognition refers to the mental processes involved in social interactions. Different aspects, such as the perception of others, self-knowledge, motivation and the cultural context, can modulate empathy responses and moral judgments regarding the actions of others. The National Mental Health Survey (ENSM for its acronym in Spanish) explored aspects of social cognition such as the perception of emotions, empathy and moral judgment in situations in which another person experiences pain...
December 2016: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981181/stress-potentiates-decision-biases-a-stress-induced-deliberation-to-intuition-sidi-model
#17
REVIEW
Rongjun Yu
Humans often make decisions in stressful situations, for example when the stakes are high and the potential consequences severe, or when the clock is ticking and the task demand is overwhelming. In response, a whole train of biological responses to stress has evolved to allow organisms to make a fight-or-flight response. When under stress, fast and effortless heuristics may dominate over slow and demanding deliberation in making decisions under uncertainty. Here, I review evidence from behavioral studies and neuroimaging research on decision making under stress and propose that stress elicits a switch from an analytic reasoning system to intuitive processes, and predict that this switch is associated with diminished activity in the prefrontal executive control regions and exaggerated activity in subcortical reactive emotion brain areas...
June 2016: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784580/the-paradox-of-expert-judgment-in-rivers-ecological-monitoring
#18
M J Feio, A R Calapez, C L Elias, R M V Cortes, M A S Graça, P Pinto, S F P Almeida
A great investment has been done in the last decades in the development of numerical and qualitative assessment methods to classify the ecological quality of water bodies. Yet, in spite of all attempts to avoid subjectivity, expert judgment is still used at numerous steps of the ecological classification and is considered by some authors as indispensible for management purposes. Thus, the aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that expert judgment, when done by the adequate experts (limnologists/river ecologist) with experience in the study area (i...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757558/scoring-method-of-a-situational-judgment-test-influence-on-internal-consistency-reliability-adverse-impact-and-correlation-with-personality
#19
W E De Leng, K M Stegers-Jager, A Husbands, J S Dowell, M Ph Born, A P N Themmen
Situational Judgment Tests (SJTs) are increasingly used for medical school selection. Scoring an SJT is more complicated than scoring a knowledge test, because there are no objectively correct answers. The scoring method of an SJT may influence the construct and concurrent validity and the adverse impact with respect to non-traditional students. Previous research has compared only a small number of scoring methods and has not studied the effect of scoring method on internal consistency reliability. This study compared 28 different scoring methods for a rating SJT on internal consistency reliability, adverse impact and correlation with personality...
October 18, 2016: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681280/work-environments-for-healthy-and-motivated-public-health-nurses
#20
Naoko Saito, Takeshi Yamamoto, Tadashi Kitaike
Objectives By defining health as mental health and productivity and performance as work motivation, the study aimed to identify work environments that promote the health and motivation of public health nurses, using the concept of a healthy work organizations, which encompasses the coexistence of excellent health for each worker and the productivity and performance of the organization.Methods Self-administered questionnaires were sent to 363 public health nurses in 41 municipal public health departments in Chiba prefecture...
2016: [Nihon Kōshū Eisei Zasshi] Japanese Journal of Public Health
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