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Situational judgment test

M J Feio, A R Calapez, C L Elias, R M V Cortes, M A S Graça, P Pinto, S F P Almeida
A great investment has been done in the last decades in the development of numerical and qualitative assessment methods to classify the ecological quality of water bodies. Yet, in spite of all attempts to avoid subjectivity, expert judgment is still used at numerous steps of the ecological classification and is considered by some authors as indispensible for management purposes. Thus, the aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that expert judgment, when done by the adequate experts (limnologists/river ecologist) with experience in the study area (i...
October 23, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
W E De Leng, K M Stegers-Jager, A Husbands, J S Dowell, M Ph Born, A P N Themmen
Situational Judgment Tests (SJTs) are increasingly used for medical school selection. Scoring an SJT is more complicated than scoring a knowledge test, because there are no objectively correct answers. The scoring method of an SJT may influence the construct and concurrent validity and the adverse impact with respect to non-traditional students. Previous research has compared only a small number of scoring methods and has not studied the effect of scoring method on internal consistency reliability. This study compared 28 different scoring methods for a rating SJT on internal consistency reliability, adverse impact and correlation with personality...
October 18, 2016: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
Naoko Saito, Takeshi Yamamoto, Tadashi Kitaike
Objectives By defining health as mental health and productivity and performance as work motivation, the study aimed to identify work environments that promote the health and motivation of public health nurses, using the concept of a healthy work organizations, which encompasses the coexistence of excellent health for each worker and the productivity and performance of the organization.Methods Self-administered questionnaires were sent to 363 public health nurses in 41 municipal public health departments in Chiba prefecture...
2016: [Nihon Kōshū Eisei Zasshi] Japanese Journal of Public Health
Rebecca A Blackie, Nancy L Kocovski
BACKGROUND: Post-event processing (PEP) refers to negative and prolonged rumination following anxiety-provoking social situations. Although there are scales to assess PEP, they are situation-specific, some targeting only public-speaking situations. Furthermore, there are no trait measures to assess the tendency to engage in PEP. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this research was to create a new measure of PEP, the Post-Event Processing Inventory (PEPI), which can be employed following all types of social situations and includes both trait and state forms...
September 19, 2016: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
Michael T Bradley, Andrew Brand
Accurate measurement and a cutoff probability with inferential statistics are not wholly compatible. Fisher understood this when he developed the F test to deal with measurement variability and to make judgments on manipulations that may be worth further study. Neyman and Pearson focused on modeled distributions whose parameters were highly determined and concluded that inferential judgments following an F test could be made with accuracy because the distribution parameters were determined. Neyman and Pearson's approach in the application of statistical analyses using alpha and beta error rates has played a dominant role guiding inferential judgments, appropriately in highly determined situations and inappropriately in scientific exploration...
October 2016: Psychological Reports
Amin Madani, Yusuke Watanabe, Elif Bilgic, Philip H Pucher, Melina C Vassiliou, Rajesh Aggarwal, Gerald M Fried, Elliot J Mitmaker, Liane S Feldman
BACKGROUND: Errors in judgment during laparoscopic cholecystectomy can lead to bile duct injuries and other complications. Despite correlations between outcomes, expertise and advanced cognitive skills, current methods to evaluate these skills remain subjective, rater- and situation-dependent and non-systematic. The purpose of this study was to develop objective metrics using a Web-based platform and to obtain validity evidence for their assessment of decision-making during laparoscopic cholecystectomy...
July 13, 2016: Surgical Endoscopy
Caroline Giraudeau, Céline Musielak, Catherine Hervé, Delphine Seren, Gérard Chasseigne, Etienne Mullet
BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: The study compared the learning performance of younger and older adults in situations differing in the number of cues that could be relied on for predicting the value of a criterion. Two hypotheses were tested: one based on the assumption that the greater the inhibition effort needed in the task, the greater the difference between younger and older participants, and the other based on the fact that the context in which inhibition occurs plays a role, and consequently that the level of difficulty of the four learning conditions can be better predicted from the number of possible sets of valid cues...
July 2016: Experimental Aging Research
Corentin Vande Kerckhove, Samuel Martin, Pascal Gend, Peter J Rentfrow, Julien M Hendrickx, Vincent D Blondel
Opinion evolution and judgment revision are mediated through social influence. Based on a large crowdsourced in vitro experiment (n = 861), it is shown how a consensus model can be used to predict opinion evolution in online collective behaviour. It is the first time the predictive power of a quantitative model of opinion dynamics is tested against a real dataset. Unlike previous research on the topic, the model was validated on data which did not serve to calibrate it. This avoids to favor more complex models over more simple ones and prevents overfitting...
2016: PloS One
Chadd K Kraus, Catherine A Marco
The process of shared decision making (SDM) is an ethical imperative in the physician-patient relationship, especially in the emergency department (ED), where SDM can present unique challenges because patients and emergency physicians often have no established relationship and decisions about diagnosis, treatment, and disposition are time dependent. SDM should be guided by the ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice and the related principle of stewardship of finite resources...
August 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Auria Albacete, Fernando Contreras, Clara Bosque, Ester Gilabert, Ángela Albiach, José M Menchón, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro, Rosa Ayesa-Arriola
Counterfactual thinking (CFT) is a type of conditional reasoning that enables the generation of mental simulations of alternatives to past factual events. Previous research has found this cognitive feature to be disrupted in schizophrenia (Hooker et al., 2000; Contreras et al., 2016). At the same time, the study of cognitive deficits in unaffected relatives of people with schizophrenia has significantly increased, supporting its potential endophenotypic role in this disorder. Using an exploratory approach, the current study examined CFT for the first time in a sample of non-psychotic first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients (N = 43), in comparison with schizophrenia patients (N = 54) and healthy controls (N = 44)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Sigrid Stjernswärd, Lars Hansson
Mental health problems affect the patients and their families, who may also need therapeutic interventions. Mindfulness interventions have shown beneficial health effects for clinical and healthy populations. A web-based mindfulness intervention was tailored to address families' needs of support and tested in a pilot intervention study. The aim of this study was to explore the participants' experiences of using an 8-week web-based mindfulness programme in terms of user value and usability. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were carried out over the phone (Spring 2015, Sweden) with 15 randomly selected participants after the 3-month follow-up as part of the pilot study...
May 17, 2016: Health & Social Care in the Community
Maria S Tsantani, Pascal Belin, Helena M Paterson, Phil McAleer
Vocal pitch has been found to influence judgments of perceived trustworthiness and dominance from a novel voice. However, the majority of findings arise from using only male voices and in context-specific scenarios. In two experiments, we first explore the influence of average vocal pitch on first-impression judgments of perceived trustworthiness and dominance, before establishing the existence of an overall preference for high or low pitch across genders. In Experiment 1, pairs of high- and low-pitched temporally reversed recordings of male and female vocal utterances were presented in a two-alternative forced-choice task...
April 13, 2016: Perception
Ferdinand Hoffmann, Christian Banzhaf, Philipp Kanske, Matti Gärtner, Felix Bermpohl, Tania Singer
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been associated with empathy deficits. The exact nature of these deficits and their relation to concurrent alexithymia remain unknown. Here we tested under which conditions MDD patients with high and low alexithymia show deficient empathy, particularly investigating empathic abilities when inhibition of self-related emotional states is needed and when it is not. METHODS: Healthy controls (low: n=28, high: n=14) and currently depressed MDD patients (low: n=11, high: n=18) with low or high alexithymia performed an emotional egocentricity paradigm based on tactile stimulation...
July 15, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Caroline Rios, Renaud Vialet, Christine Dosmas, Anderson Loundou, Fabrice Michel
PURPOSE: Dilutions of intravenous medications may be inaccurate. The mixing technique may be a crucial factor. DESIGN: Three factors of dilution were tested: volume for dilution (large vs small), method for mixing (shaking vs inversion), and number of maneuvers (3 times vs 10). METHODS: Dilutions of glucose in saline solution were made by nurses, after a random factorial plan. The judgment criteria were the comparison between measured (Cmes) and expected (Cexp) concentration...
April 2016: Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses
Mie Komori
Monitoring is an executive function of working memory that serves to update novel information, focusing attention on task-relevant targets, and eliminating task-irrelevant noise. The present research used a verbal working memory task to examine how working memory capacity limits affect monitoring. Participants performed a Japanese listening span test that included maintenance of target words and listening comprehension. On each trial, participants responded to the target word and then immediately estimated confidence in recall performance for that word (metacognitive judgment)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Meelad Sayma, Shiraz Jamshaid, Doa'a Kerwat, Dina Saleh, Aaniya Ahmed, Folashade Oyewole, Abdul Samad Wahid
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Advances in Medical Education and Practice
M Talat Birgonul, Irem Dikmen, Cenk Budayan, Tuncay Demirel
INTRODUCTION: Expert witness reports, prepared with the aim of quantifying fault rates among parties, play an important role in a court's final decision. However, conflicting fault rates assigned by different expert witness boards lead to iterative objections raised by the related parties. This unfavorable situation mainly originates due to the subjectivity of expert judgments and unavailability of objective information about the causes of accidents. As a solution to this shortcoming, an expert system based on a rule-based system was developed for the quantification of fault rates in construction fall accidents...
2016: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
Huiqin Yang, Carl Thompson
BACKGROUND: Nurses' risk assessments of patients at risk of deterioration are sometimes suboptimal. Advances in clinical simulation mean higher quality information can be used as an alternative to traditional paper-based approaches as a means of improving judgement. This paper tests the hypothesis that nurses' judgement strategies and policies change as the quality of information used by nurses in simulation changes. METHODS: Sixty-three student nurses and 34 experienced viewed 25 paper-case based and 25 clinically simulated scenarios, derived from real cases, and judged whether the (simulated) patient was at 'risk' of acute deterioration...
2016: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
A A Zurdinova
BACKGROUND: Improving quality of care in many countries is one of the priorities of health systems. At the same time one of the most important methods of improving quality of care is the widespread use of methods and principles of evidence-based medicine (EBM) [1]. The implementation of EBM in public health practice provides for the optimization of quality of care in terms of safety, efficacy and cost, one way of which is the use of clinical guidelines. Clinical guidelines developed with the use of EBM, provide an opportunity to use the latest and accurate information to optimize or neutralize impact on physician decision-making of subjective factors such as intuition, expertise, opinion of respected colleagues, recommendations of popular manuals and handbooks, etc...
2015: International Journal of Risk & Safety in Medicine
D Graham Stacey, Tania M Kurunathan
Dental educators have traditionally prioritized cognitive indicators (especially undergraduate grade point average and Dental Admission Test scores) in choosing students for admission to dental school. These indicators' role in predicting academic outcomes, including coursework and examination success, is well documented. However, noncognitive predictors including conscientiousness, self-discipline, achievement-striving, task orientation, deliberation, resilience, and situational judgment have also been identified...
December 2015: Journal of Dental Education
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