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Situational judgment test

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790948/bridging-social-circles-need-for-cognition-prejudicial-judgments-and-personal-social-network-characteristics
#1
Petru L Curşeu, Jeroen P de Jong
Various factors pertaining to the social context (availability of plausible social contacts) as well as personality traits influence the emergence of social ties that ultimately compose one's personal social network. We build on a situational selection model to argue that personality traits influence the cognitive processing of social cues that in turn influences the preference for particular social ties. More specifically, we use a cross-lagged design to test a mediation model explaining the effects of need for cognition (NFC) on egocentric network characteristics...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761637/evaluating-validity-of-current-criteria-for-judgment-passing-er-rotation-among-internee-medical-students
#2
Hooman Hoseinnejad, Noushin Kohan, Akram Mirzaee
BACKGROUND: Passing the emergency medicine internship is an essential process for all graduates of medical schools. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate validity of current criteria for judgment passing ER rotation among internee medical students. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 200 students in the emergency departments (ED) of the teaching hospitals at Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) were included. The data were gathered using by a valid self-assessment questionnaire including demographic information and 12-items about the students' level of confidence with the skills and procedures under study...
August 2017: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751186/the-science-of-selection-using-best-practices-from-industry-to-improve-success-in-surgery-training
#3
Aimee K Gardner, Teodor Grantcharov, Brian J Dunkin
BACKGROUND: The selection of high-quality applicants is critical to the future of surgery. However, it is unclear if current practices meet industry criteria of a successful selection system, as measured by administrative efficiency and performance and attrition of those selected. METHODS: We performed a modified systematic review process to gain an understanding of current selection processes, remediation practices, and attrition rates in surgery residency training programs in the United States...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714700/children-s-prototypic-facial-expressions-during-emotion-eliciting-conversations-with-their-mothers
#4
Vanessa L Castro, Linda A Camras, Amy G Halberstadt, Michael Shuster
Despite theoretical claims that emotions are primarily communicated through prototypic facial expressions, empirical evidence is surprisingly scarce. This study aimed to (a) test whether children produced more components of a prototypic emotional facial expression during situations judged or self-reported to involve the corresponding emotion than situations involving other emotions (termed "intersituational specificity"), (b) test whether children produced more components of the prototypic expression corresponding to a situation's judged or self-reported emotion than components of other emotional expressions (termed "intrasituational specificity"), and (c) examine coherence between children's self-reported emotional experience and observers' judgments of children's emotions...
July 17, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703327/testing-the-situationism-scale-in-europe-scale-validation-self-regulation-and-regional-differences
#5
Megan E Roberts, Lisa Wagner, Saša Zorjan, Enikö Nèmeth, Désie van Toor, Michał Czaplinski
The term situationism refers to an individual's belief about the importance of a behaviour's context. This study tested whether the degree of situationism expressed by individuals in various regions of Europe was consistent with self-regulation and cross-cultural theories. The English version of a Situationism Scale (measuring beliefs about the relation between the environment and one's own behaviour) was translated into five additional languages: Dutch, German, Hungarian, Italian and Slovenian. Young adults (N = 1106, MAge  = 22...
August 2017: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691837/childhood-maltreatment-and-context-dependent-empathic-accuracy-in-adult-romantic-relationships
#6
Annemarie Miano, Teresa Weber, Stefan Roepke, Isabel Dziobek
OBJECTIVES: Childhood maltreatment, that is neglect and abuse, are associated with difficulties in adult relationship functioning. We tested whether childhood maltreatment changes the presence of a relationship protective mechanism, called motivated inaccuracy. It describes a decrease in romantic couples' empathic accuracy, (EA), that is, their correct understanding of the partners' thoughts and feelings, in situations that pose a potential threat to the stability of the relationship...
July 10, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687263/brief-mindfulness-practices-for-healthcare-providers-a-systematic-literature-review
#7
REVIEW
Heather Gilmartin, Anupama Goyal, Mary C Hamati, Jason Mann, Sanjay Saint, Vineet Chopra
Mindfulness practice, where an individual maintains openness, patience, and acceptance, while focusing attention on a situation in a non-judgmental way, can improve symptoms of anxiety, burnout, and depression. The practice is relevant for healthcare providers; however, the time commitment is a barrier to practice. For this reason, brief mindfulness interventions (e.g. ≤ four hours) are being introduced. We systematically reviewed the literature from inception to January 2017 regarding the effects of brief mindfulness interventions on provider well-being and behavior...
July 4, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682309/laboratory-diagnosis-of-biotinidase-deficiency-2017-update-a-technical-standard-and-guideline-of-the-american-college-of-medical-genetics-and-genomics
#8
Erin T Strovel, Tina M Cowan, Anna I Scott, Barry Wolf
Disclaimer: These ACMG Standards and Guidelines are intended as an educational resource for clinical laboratory geneticists to help them provide quality clinical laboratory genetic services. Adherence to these Standards and Guidelines is voluntary and does not necessarily assure a successful medical outcome. These Standards and Guidelines should not be considered inclusive of all proper procedures and tests or exclusive of others that are reasonably directed to obtaining the same results. In determining the propriety of any specific procedure or test, clinical laboratory geneticists should apply their professional judgment to the specific circumstances presented by the patient or specimen...
July 6, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682091/a-quantum-probability-framework-for-human-probabilistic-inference
#9
Jennifer S Trueblood, James M Yearsley, Emmanuel M Pothos
There is considerable variety in human inference (e.g., a doctor inferring the presence of a disease, a juror inferring the guilt of a defendant, or someone inferring future weight loss based on diet and exercise). As such, people display a wide range of behaviors when making inference judgments. Sometimes, people's judgments appear Bayesian (i.e., normative), but in other cases, judgments deviate from the normative prescription of classical probability theory. How can we combine both Bayesian and non-Bayesian influences in a principled way? We propose a unified explanation of human inference using quantum probability theory...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575413/comprehensive-protocol-of-traceability-during-ivf-the-result-of-a-multicentre-failure-mode-and-effect-analysis
#10
L Rienzi, F Bariani, M Dalla Zorza, E Albani, F Benini, S Chamayou, M G Minasi, L Parmegiani, L Restelli, G Vizziello, A Nanni Costa
STUDY QUESTION: Can traceability of gametes and embryos be ensured during IVF? SUMMARY ANSWER: The use of a simple and comprehensive traceability system that includes the most susceptible phases during the IVF process minimizes the risk of mismatches. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Mismatches in IVF are very rare but unfortunately possible with dramatic consequences for both patients and health care professionals. Traceability is thus a fundamental aspect of the treatment...
May 31, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516391/denial-of-a-sleep-deprivation-message-situational-and-dispositional-influences-on-message-rejection
#11
Suzanne C Thompson, Haley W Marber, Laeesha N Cornejo, Bryn M Launer, Kimberly Ona Ayala
Two studies investigated situational and dispositional influences on rejection of a sleep deprivation warning message for young adults. The hassle of protection (Study 1) and the self-relevance of the problem (Study 2) were manipulated; the disposition to use denial (threat orientation) for warning messages was measured. In both studies, it was found that both dispositional denial and the situational manipulation (more protection-hassle or self-relevance) showed at least one denial effect by reducing perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, or credibility...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495558/acute-psychosocial-stress-and-everyday-moral-decision-making-in-young-healthy-men-the-impact-of-cortisol
#12
Nina Singer, Monika Sommer, Katrin Döhnel, Sandra Zänkert, Stefan Wüst, Brigitte M Kudielka
In everyday life, moral decisions must frequently be made under acute stress. Although there is increasing evidence that both stress and cortisol affect moral judgment and behavior as well as decision-making in various domains unrelated to morality, surprisingly few attempts have been made to explore the effects of stress on everyday moral decision-making. Therefore, in the present study, we exposed 50 young healthy men to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) or its non-stressful placebo version (PTSST). We investigated the impact of acute stress exposure and stress-related cortisol levels on decision-making, decision certainty, and emotions in 28 everyday moral conflict situations with altruistic versus egoistic response alternatives...
May 19, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493614/accuracy-of-physical-exam-ankle-brachial-index-and-ultrasonography-in-the-diagnosis-of-arterial-injury-in-patients-with-penetrating-extremity-trauma-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Ian S deSouza, Roshanak Benabbas, Sean McKee, Bardiya Zangbar, Ashika Jain, Lorenzo Paladino, Leon Boudourakis, Richard Sinert
BACKGROUND: Penetrating Extremity Trauma (PET) may result in arterial injury, a rare but limb- and life-threatening surgical emergency. Accurate and timely diagnosis is vital to enable potential intervention and prevent significant morbidity. OBJECTIVES: Using a systematic review/meta-analysis approach, we determined the utility of Physical Examination (exam), Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI), and Ultrasonography (US) in the diagnosis of arterial injury in ED patients who have sustained PET...
May 11, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430567/how-should-clinicians-respond-to-medical-requests-from-clinician-family-members-of-patients
#14
Andrew Thurston
In the medical profession, receiving a request for medical management from a colleague is a routine experience. However, when the colleague is a family member of a patient and the desired or requested medical intervention is not medically indicated in the attending physician's view, the situation becomes more complicated. Ethical issues include respect for patient autonomy and social justice as well as nonmaleficence. Furthermore, interpersonal and professional relationships may be tested in this situation...
April 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394626/decision-making-on-the-labor-and-delivery-unit-an-investigation-of-influencing-factors
#15
Megan E Gregory, Shirley C Sonesh, Jennifer Feitosa, Lauren E Benishek, Ashley M Hughes, Eduardo Salas
Objective The aim of this study was to describe the relationship between negative affect (NA), decision-making style, time stress, and decision quality in health care. Background Health care providers must often make swift, high-stakes decisions. Influencing factors of the decision-making process in this context have been understudied. Method Within a sample of labor and delivery nurses, physicians, and allied personnel, we used self-report measures to examine the impact of trait factors, including NA, decision-making style, and perceived time stress, on decision quality in a situational judgment test (Study 1)...
September 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339399/early-huntington-s-disease-impulse-control-deficits-but-correct-judgment-regarding-risky-situations
#16
Victor Galvez, Juan Fernandez-Ruiz, Leo Bayliss, Adriana Ochoa-Morales, Carlos R Hernandez-Castillo, Rosalinda Díaz, Aurelio Campos-Romo
BACKGROUND: Huntington's disease (HD) patients show alterations in decision making tasks. However, it is still uncertain if these deficits are due to poor judgment regarding risky situations, or to impulse control deficits. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate whether decision-making in patients is related to genuine risk behavior or to impulse control deficits. METHODS: To test between these two alternative possibilities, we evaluated the performance of 19 prodromal HD patients and 19 matched healthy controls in the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT)...
2017: Journal of Huntington's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296651/the-predictive-validity-of-a-text-based-situational-judgment-test-in-undergraduate-medical-and-dental-school-admissions
#17
Fiona Patterson, Fran Cousans, Helena Edwards, Anna Rosselli, Sandra Nicholson, Barry Wright
PROBLEM: Situational judgment tests (SJTs) can be used to assess the nonacademic attributes necessary for medical and dental trainees to become successful practitioners. Evidence for SJTs' predictive validity, however, relates predominantly to selection in postgraduate settings or using video-based SJTs at the undergraduate level; it may not be directly transferable to text-based SJTs in undergraduate medical and dental school selection. This preliminary study aimed to address these gaps by assessing the validity of the UK Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT) text-based SJT...
March 14, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292289/at-first-glance-informal-payments-experience-on-track-why-accept-or-refuse-patients-perceive-in-cardiac-surgery-department-of-public-hospitals-northeast-of-iran-2013
#18
Ali Vafaei Najar, Hossein Ebrahimipour, Arefeh Pourtaleb, Habibollah Esmaily, Mehdi Jafari, Zohre Nejatzadegan, Yasamin Molavi Taleghani
BACKGROUND: Patient's Informal payments is among the main source of health care financing in some countries. This paper aimed at determining the patient informal payments and relative factors in Cardiac Surgery Departments (CSD) in hospitals affiliated to Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (MUMS) in 2013. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 316 discharged patients were selected using multi-stage sampling. Data gathering tool was a questionnaire which was filled by structured telephone interviews...
March 14, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253561/the-neurology-of-acutely-failing-respiratory-mechanics
#19
REVIEW
Eelco F M Wijdicks
Forces involved in breathing-which effectively pull in air-are the diaphragmatic, intercostal, spine, and neck muscles. Equally important is the bulbar musculature maintaining the architecture of a patent airway conduit and abdominal wall and internal intercostal muscles providing cough. Acute injury along a neural trajectory from brainstem to muscle will impair the coordinated interaction between these muscle groups. Acutely failing respiratory mechanics can be caused by central and peripheral lesions. In central lesions, the key lesion is in the nucleus ambiguus innervating the dilator muscles of the soft palate, pharynx, and larynx, but abnormal respiratory mechanics rarely coincide with abnormalities of the respiratory pattern generator...
April 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220334/future-directions-in-personality-occupational-and-medical-selection-myths-misunderstandings-measurement-and-suggestions
#20
Eamonn Ferguson, Filip Lievens
This paper has two objectives: (1) presenting recent advances in personality theory whereby personality traits are conceptualized within a framework that focuses on the dynamic interactions of behaviour, biology, context, and states, and (2) discussing the implications of these developments for measurement and medical selection. We start by presenting evidence that traits are no longer regarded as stable deterministic predictors of behaviour. Instead, traits are found to change across generations, the life span, and in response to environmental contingencies...
February 20, 2017: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
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