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Situational judgment test

Aimee K Gardner, Brian J Dunkin
INTRODUCTION: As current screening methods for selecting surgical trainees are receiving increasing scrutiny, development of a more efficient and effective selection system is needed. We describe the process of creating an evidence-based selection system and examine its impact on screening efficiency, faculty perceptions, and improving representation of underrepresented minorities. METHODS: The program partnered with an expert in organizational science to identify fellowship position requirements and associated competencies...
May 1, 2018: Annals of Surgery
Takaaki Hashimoto, Kaori Karasawa
We addressed how individuals' power influences their judgments regarding corporate transgressions. Based on the Situated Focus Theory of Power, which theorizes that powerful people respond more in accordance to circumstantial factors, we tested the interaction of power and the type of corporate discourse offered by the accused company. Across two studies (overall N = 216), we experimentally primed power (Study 1) and manipulated participants' sense of direct control over the company (Study 2). We consistently found an interaction effect of power and corporate discourse on people's negative attitudes toward the company-particularly on the unwillingness to use the company's products...
2018: PloS One
Filip Lievens, Jonas W B Lang, Filip De Fruyt, Jan Corstjens, Myrjam Van de Vijver, Ronald Bledow
In the last decade, there has been increased recognition that traits refer not only to between-person differences but also to meaningful within-person variability across situations (i.e., whole trait theory). So far, this broader more contemporary trait conceptualization has made few inroads into assessment practices. Therefore, this study focuses on the assessment and predictive power of people's intraindividual variability across situations. In three studies (either in student or employee samples), both test-takers' mean trait scores and the variability of their responses across multiple written job-related situations of a situational judgment test (SJT) were assessed...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
Jessica C Lee, Brett K Hayes, Peter F Lovibond
Two experiments tested whether a peak-shifted generalization gradient could be explained by the averaging of distinct gradients displayed in subgroups reporting different generalization rules. Across experiments using a causal judgment task (Experiment 1) and a fear conditioning paradigm (Experiment 2), we found a close concordance between self-reported rules and generalization gradients using a continuous stimulus dimension (hue). Both experiments also showed an overall peak-shifted gradient after differential conditioning, but not after single cue conditioning...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Anita Harrewijn, Melle J W van der Molen, Irene M van Vliet, Renaud L M Tissier, P Michiel Westenberg
Social anxiety disorder is an invalidating psychiatric disorder characterized by extreme fear and avoidance of one or more social situations in which patients might experience scrutiny by others. The goal of this two-generation family study was to delineate behavioral and electrocortical endophenotypes of social anxiety disorder related to social evaluation. Nine families of patients with social anxiety disorder (their spouse and children, and siblings of these patients with spouse and children) performed a social judgment paradigm in which they believed to be evaluated by peers...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Hyuma Makizako, Hiroyuki Shimada, Ryo Hotta, Takehiko Doi, Kota Tsutsumimoto, Sho Nakakubo, Keitaro Makino
BACKGROUND: Attention and executive function may play an important role in ensuring safe driving as they involve paying attention to complex information and making an instantaneous judgment during driving. We hypothesized that poor performance in attention and executive function may increase the risk of near-miss incidents among older drivers. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine associations of current experience of near-miss traffic incidents with attention and executive function among older Japanese drivers...
February 9, 2018: Gerontology
Benjamin Lecorps, Daniel M Weary, Marina A G von Keyserlingk
Animals that experience situations likely to induce negative emotions show changes in judgment associated with pessimism. Few studies have focused on whether animals express stable differences in pessimism and whether these differences are related to personality traits. The first aim of this study was to explore if dairy calves are consistent over time in making judgments under ambiguous situations. Our second aim was to determine whether individual differences in judgment bias are related to conventional personality traits assessed using four standardized tests (Open field, Novel object, Human reactivity and Social motivation test)...
January 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Susan Churchill, Donna C Jessop, Ricky Green, Peter R Harris
OBJECTIVE: Individuals low in eating self-efficacy are at particular risk of engaging in unhealthy eating behaviours, including the consumption of high calorie snacks. The elevated levels of snacking displayed by these individuals can largely be attributed to their experiencing low self-control over the avoidance of such foods (Hankonen, Kinnunen, Absetz, & Jallinoja, 2014). Interventions are thus required to boost self-control over snacking among those low in eating self-efficacy...
April 1, 2018: Appetite
Aimee K Gardner, Brian J Dunkin
Importance: The ability to identify candidates who will thrive and successfully complete their residency is especially critical for general surgery programs. Objective: To assess the extent to which 3 screening tools used extensively in industrial selection settings-emotional intelligence (EQ), personality profiles, and situational judgment tests (SJTs)-could identify successful surgery residents. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this analysis, personality profiles, EQ assessments, and SJTs were administered from July through August 2015 to 51 postgraduate year 1 through 5 general surgery residents in a large general surgery residency program...
December 27, 2017: JAMA Surgery
Fajrianthi, Rizqy Amelia Zein
This study aimed to develop an emotional intelligence (EI) test that is suitable to the Indonesian workplace context. Airlangga Emotional Intelligence Test (Tes Kecerdasan Emosi Airlangga [TKEA]) was designed to measure three EI domains: 1) emotional appraisal, 2) emotional recognition, and 3) emotional regulation. TKEA consisted of 120 items with 40 items for each subset. TKEA was developed based on the Situational Judgment Test (SJT) approach. To ensure its psychometric qualities, categorical confirmatory factor analysis (CCFA) and item response theory (IRT) were applied to test its validity and reliability...
2017: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Sabine Seehagen, Larissa Dreier, Norbert Zmyj
Children perceive adults as more knowledgeable than peers. We tested whether this general preconception influences preschoolers' performance in a false-belief task. Children (4- and 5-year-olds; N = 146) watched videos showing a peer protagonist or an adult protagonist experiencing events that should lead the protagonist to hold a false belief. Then children were asked to infer the protagonist's perception of the situation. Age of the protagonist influenced 4-year-olds' judgments but not 5-year-olds' judgments...
March 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Barteld N J Postma, Brian F G Katz
Auralizations have become more prevalent in architectural acoustics and virtual reality. Studies have shown that by employing a methodical calibration procedure, ecologically/perceptually valid auralizations can be obtained. Another study demonstrated a manner to include dynamic voice directivity with results indicating these auralizations were judged significantly more plausible than auralizations with static source orientations. With the increased plausibility of auralizations, it is possible to study room-acoustic experience employing virtual reality, having confidence that the results also apply to real-life situations...
November 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
J Peter Leeds
The theory of cognitive acuity (TCA) treats the response options within items as signals to be detected and uses psychophysical methods to estimate the respondents' sensitivity to these signals. Such a framework offers new methods to construct and score situational judgment tests (SJT). Leeds (2012) defined cognitive acuity as the capacity to discern correctness and distinguish between correctness differences among simultaneously presented situation-specific response options. In this study, SJT response options were paired in order to offer the respondent a two-option choice...
November 9, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
Ursula Hess, Helen Landmann, Shlomo David, Shlomo Hareli
The present research tested the notion that emotion expression and context perception are bidirectionally related. Specifically, in two studies focusing on moral violations (N = 288) and positive moral deviations (N = 245) respectively, we presented participants with short vignettes describing behaviours that were either (im)moral, (in)polite or unusual together with a picture of the emotional reaction of a person who supposedly had been a witness to the event. Participants rated both the emotional reactions observed and their own moral appraisal of the situation described...
October 13, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
Giles E H Neal, Rebecca C Oram, Amanda J Bacon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Medical Teacher
Fiona Patterson, Amy Aitkenhead, Vicki Ashworth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Medical Teacher
Halim Hicheur, Alan Chauvin, Steve Chassot, Xavier Chenevière, Wolfgang Taube
The cognitive-motor performance (CMP), defined here as the capacity to rapidly use sensory information and transfer it into efficient motor output, represents a major contributor to performance in almost all sports, including soccer. Here, we used a high-technology system (COGNIFOOT) which combines a visual environment simulator fully synchronized with a motion capture system. This system allowed us to measure objective real-time CMP parameters (passing accuracy/speed and response times) in a large turf-artificial grass playfield...
2017: PloS One
Woojae Han, Junghak Lee, Jinsook Kim, Kyeongwon Lee, Dongwook Kim
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Listeners with sensorineural hearing loss want to compensate for their narrow dynamic range from appropriate compression functions of hearing aids. The present study aimed to determine which compression threshold and release time of nonlinear hearing aids might affect speech recognition and speech quality judgments. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Ten elderly listeners with symmetrical moderate-to-severe sensorineural hearing loss participated in the study...
September 2017: Journal of Audiology & Otology
Justin P Brienza, Franki Y H Kung, Henri C Santos, D Ramona Bobocel, Igor Grossmann
Philosophers and behavioral scientists refer to wisdom as unbiased reasoning that guides one toward a balance of interests and promotes a good life. However, major instruments developed to test wisdom appear biased, and it is unclear whether they capture balance-related tendencies. We examined whether shifting from global, de-contextualized reports to state-level reports about concrete situations provides a less biased method to assess wise reasoning (e.g., intellectual humility, recognition of uncertainty and change, consideration of the broader context at hand and perspectives of others, integration of these perspectives or compromise), which may be aligned with the notion of balancing interests...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Tim Joda, Fernando Zarone, Marco Ferrari
BACKGROUND: The continuous development in dental processing ensures new opportunities in the field of fixed prosthodontics in a complete virtual environment without any physical model situations. The aim was to compare fully digitalized workflows to conventional and/or mixed analog-digital workflows for the treatment with tooth-borne or implant-supported fixed reconstructions. METHODS: A PICO strategy was executed using an electronic (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google Scholar) plus manual search up to 2016-09-16 focusing on RCTs investigating complete digital workflows in fixed prosthodontics with regard to economics or esthetics or patient-centered outcomes with or without follow-up or survival/success rate analysis as well as complication assessment of at least 1 year under function...
September 19, 2017: BMC Oral Health
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