keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Raf

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456854/novel-braf-mutation-in-melanoma-a-case-report
#1
Serena Trubini, Alessandro Ubiali, Carlo Terenzio Paties, Luigi Cavanna
In melanoma, a number of specific genetic and genomic aberrations have been identified to be important in tumorigenesis. In particular, the mutant B-Raf proto-oncogene, Serine/Threonine kinase (BRAF) gene is the target of tailored therapy with kinase inhibitor molecules. Identification of the array of mutations in patients with melanoma will be useful in determining a genetic profile of the tumor with potential implications for treatment decisions. A rare aminoacidic insertion in codon 599 of the BRAF gene (c...
March 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456739/effects-of-pha-665752-and-vemurafenib-combination-treatment-on-in-vitro-and-murine-xenograft-growth-of-human-colorectal-cancer-cells-with-braf-v600e-mutations
#2
Jie Zhi, Zhongxin Li, Jian Lv, Bo Feng, Donghai Yang, Liang Xue, Zhaolong Zhao, Yanni Zhang, Jianhua Wu, Yingchao Jv, Yitao Jia
It remains unknown whether blockade of B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase (BRAF)V600E signaling and MET proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase (c-Met) signaling is effective in suppressing the growth of human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. The present study investigated the effects of the vemurafenib alone and in combination with c-Met inhibitor PHA-665752 on the growth of human CRC cells in vitro and in mouse xenografts. HT-29 and RKO CRC cell lines with BRAFV600E mutations and mice bearing HT-29 xenografts were treated with vemurafenib in the absence or presence of PHA-665752...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456689/inhibition-of-the-ras-raf-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-1-2-signaling-pathway-by-compounds-of-natural-origin-for-possible-treatment-of-spinal-cord-injury-an-in-silico-approach
#3
Shilei Yan, Li Zhang, Shuai Wang, Tianhao Wu, Zhixin Gong
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a severe disease associated with permanent neurological deficit. Recent studies in the treatment of SCI have demonstrated that the Ras/Raf/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling pathway serves an important role in the disease etiology, and that upregulation of this signaling pathway is associated with the development of SCI. In the present study, inhibition of Ras protein was employed in order to downregulate the Ras/Raf/ERK1/2 signaling pathway using compounds of natural origin from the Interbioscreen natural compound database...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455659/receptor-tyrosine-kinases-and-downstream-pathways-as-druggable-targets-for-cancer-treatment-the-current-arsenal-of-inhibitors
#4
REVIEW
Wagner Ricardo Montor, Andrei Ronaldo Oliveira Silva Escartin Salas, Fabiana Henriques Machado de Melo
Searching for targets that allow pharmacological inhibition of cell proliferation in over-proliferative states, such as cancer, leads us to finely understand the complex mechanisms orchestrating the perfect control of mitosis number, frequency and pace as well as the molecular arrangements that induce cells to enter functional quiescence and brings them back to cycling in specific conditions. Although the mechanisms regulating cell proliferation have been described several years ago, never before has so much light been shed over this machinery as during the last decade when therapy targets have been explored and molecules, either synthetic or in the form of antibodies with the potential of becoming cancer drugs were produced and adjusted for specific binding and function...
February 19, 2018: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454854/erk1-2-inhibitors-new-weapons-to-inhibit-the-ras-regulated-raf-mek1-2-erk1-2-pathway
#5
REVIEW
Andrew M Kidger, James Sipthorp, Simon J Cook
The RAS-regulated RAF-MEK1/2-ERK1/2 signalling pathway is de-regulated in a variety of cancers due to mutations in receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), negative regulators of RAS (such as NF1) and core pathway components themselves (RAS, BRAF, CRAF, MEK1 or MEK2). This has driven the development of a variety of pharmaceutical agents to inhibit RAF-MEK1/2-ERK1/2 signalling in cancer and both RAF and MEK inhibitors are now approved and used in the clinic. There is now much interest in targeting at the level of ERK1/2 for a variety of reasons...
February 15, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450646/evidence-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy-transmission-through-neurosurgery
#6
Zane Jaunmuktane, Annelies Quaegebeur, Ricardo Taipa, Miguel Viana-Baptista, Raquel Barbosa, Carolin Koriath, Raf Sciot, Simon Mead, Sebastian Brandner
Amyloid-β (Aβ) is a peptide deposited in the brain parenchyma in Alzheimer's disease and in cerebral blood vessels, causing cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). Aβ pathology is transmissible experimentally in animals and through medical procedures in humans, such as contaminated growth hormone or dura mater transplantation in the context of iatrogenic prion disease. Here, we present four patients who underwent neurosurgical procedures during childhood or teenage years and presented with intracerebral haemorrhage approximately three decades later, caused by severe CAA...
February 15, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449645/egfr-pi3k-pdk1-pathway-regulates-yap-signaling-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-the-mechanism-and-its-implications-in-targeted-therapy
#7
Hongwei Xia, Xinyu Dai, Huangfei Yu, Sheng Zhou, Zhenghai Fan, Guoqing Wei, Qiulin Tang, Qiyong Gong, Feng Bi
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway and Hippo signaling play an important role in the carcinogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the crosstalk between these two pathways and its implications in targeted therapy remains unclear. We found that the activated EGFR signaling could bypass RhoA to promote the expression of YAP(Yes-associated protein), the core effector of the Hippo signaling, and its downstream target Cyr61. Further studies indicated that EGFR signaling mainly acted through the PI3K-PDK1 (Phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1) pathway to activate YAP, but not the AKT and MAPK pathways...
February 15, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447000/ghrelin-prevents-cardiac-cell-apoptosis-during-cardiac-remodelling-post-experimentally-induced-myocardial-infarction-in-rats-via-activation-of-raf-mek1-2-erk1-2-signalling
#8
Refaat A Eid, Mahmoud A Alkhateeb, Mubarak Al-Shraim, Samy M Eleawa, Abdullah S Shatoor, Attalla Farag El-Kott, Mohamed Samir Ahmed Zaki, Khalid A Shatoor, Ismaeel Bin-Jaliah, Fahaid H Al-Hashem
CONTEXT: Mechanisms by which ghrelin affords its cardioprotection in mammals remained unclear. OBJECTIVE: To examine if ghrelin confers cardio-protection during cardiac remodelling post-MI by modulating the RAF-1-MEK1/2-ERK1/2 signalling pathway. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were divided into control, sham, sham + ghrelin, myocardial infarction (MI), and MI + ghrelin groups. Ghrelin (100 µg/kg) was administered for 21 days, starting one-day post-MI...
February 15, 2018: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444439/differential-effector-engagement-by-oncogenic-kras
#9
Tina L Yuan, Arnaud Amzallag, Rachel Bagni, Ming Yi, Shervin Afghani, William Burgan, Nicole Fer, Leslie A Strathern, Katie Powell, Brian Smith, Andrew M Waters, David Drubin, Ty Thomson, Rosy Liao, Patricia Greninger, Giovanna T Stein, Ellen Murchie, Eliane Cortez, Regina K Egan, Lauren Procter, Matthew Bess, Kwong Tai Cheng, Chih-Shia Lee, Liam Changwoo Lee, Christof Fellmann, Robert Stephens, Ji Luo, Scott W Lowe, Cyril H Benes, Frank McCormick
KRAS can bind numerous effector proteins, which activate different downstream signaling events. The best known are RAF, phosphatidylinositide (PI)-3' kinase, and RalGDS families, but many additional direct and indirect effectors have been reported. We have assessed how these effectors contribute to several major phenotypes in a quantitative way, using an arrayed combinatorial siRNA screen in which we knocked down 41 KRAS effectors nodes in 92 cell lines. We show that every cell line has a unique combination of effector dependencies, but in spite of this heterogeneity, we were able to identify two major subtypes of KRAS mutant cancers of the lung, pancreas, and large intestine, which reflect different KRAS effector engagement and opportunities for therapeutic intervention...
February 13, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444410/enhanced-ion-transmission-efficiency-up-to-m-z-24-000-for-maldi-protein-imaging-mass-spectrometry
#10
Boone M Prentice, Daniel Ryan, Raf Van de Plas, Richard M Caprioli, Jeffrey M Spraggins
The molecular identification of species of interest is an important part of an imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) experiment. The high resolution accurate mass capabilities of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) have recently been shown to facilitate the identification of proteins in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) IMS. However, these experiments are typically limited to proteins giving rise to ions of relatively low m/z due to difficulties transmitting and measuring large molecular weight ions of low charge states...
February 14, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441289/high-density-in-spinal-cord-stimulation-virtual-expert-registry-discover-study-protocol-for-a-prospective-observational-trial
#11
Mats De Jaeger, Robbert-Jan van Hooff, Lisa Goudman, Alexis Valenzuela Espinoza, Raf Brouns, Martine Puylaert, Wim Duyvendak, Maarten Moens
Background: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a proven and effective treatment for neuropathic pain conditions such as failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). The hypothesis that different settings for SCS parameters activate unique, pain-relieving mechanisms has boosted the development of various SCS paradigms. High density spinal cord stimulation (HD-SCS) is one of those promising, novel stimulation forms characterized by subthreshold stimulation, delivering more pulses per second and a higher pulse density to the spinal cord than conventional SCS...
June 2017: Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440765/baicalin-induces-cellular-senescence-in-human-colon-cancer-cells-via-upregulation-of-depp-and-the-activation-of-ras-raf-mek-erk-signaling
#12
Zhou Wang, Lingman Ma, Mengqi Su, Yiran Zhou, Ke Mao, Chengqin Li, Guangyong Peng, Changlin Zhou, Baiyong Shen, Jie Dou
Baicalin is a natural flavonoid glycoside which has potent anti-tumor and antioxidant activity in cancer cells. In the present study, we found that baicalin treatment significantly induced senescence in colon cancer cells. Furthermore, baicalin upregulated the expression of decidual protein induced by progesterone (DEPP) in HCT116 colon cancer cells, which accompanied with the activation of Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK and p16 INK4A /Rb signaling pathways. Meanwhile, these phenomena also appeared under the anti-oxidation effect exerted by baicalin...
February 13, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440631/inhibition-of-kras-dependent-lung-cancer-cell-growth-by-deltarasin-blockage-of-autophagy-increases-its-cytotoxicity
#13
Elaine Lai Han Leung, Lian Xiang Luo, Zhong Qiu Liu, Vincent Kam Wai Wong, Lin Lin Lu, Ying Xie, Ni Zhang, Yuan Qing Qu, Xing Xing Fan, Ying Li, Min Huang, Dai Kai Xiao, Jun Huang, Yan Ling Zhou, Jian Xing He, Jian Ding, Xiao Jun Yao, David C Ward, Liang Liu
Deltarasin is a recently identified small molecule that can inhibit KRAS-PDEδ interactions by binding to a hydrophobic pocket on PDEδ, resulting in the impairment of cell growth, KRAS activity, and RAS/RAF signaling in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cell lines. Since KRAS mutations are the most common oncogene mutations in lung adenocarcinomas, implicated in over 30% of all lung cancer cases, we examined the ability of deltarasin to inhibit KRAS-dependent lung cancer cell growth. Here, for the first time, we document that deltarasin produces both apoptosis and autophagy in KRAS-dependent lung cancer cells in vitro and inhibits lung tumor growth in vivo...
February 13, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438690/c-raf-in-kras-mutant-cancers-a-moving-target
#14
Frank McCormick
Therapies for KRas cancers remain a major clinical need. In the current issue of Cancer Cell, Sanclemente and coworkers in Mariano Barbacid's group validate c-Raf as a prime target for these cancers. c-Raf ablation caused regression of advanced KRas G12V /Trp53 tumors, without obvious systemic toxicity and without affecting MAPK signaling.
February 12, 2018: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436674/the-targeted-inhibition-of-hsp90-by-a-synthetic-small-molecule-dpide-offers-an-effective-treatment-strategy-against-tnbcs
#15
Yong Jin Oh, Sun You Park, Young Ho Seo
Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are the most aggressive and metastatic subtype of breast cancers and exhibit poor clinical outcome due to the lack of drug target receptors such as estrogen receptors (ER), progesterone receptors (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2). The limited effectiveness of therapeutic options and the poor prognosis of TNBC patients emphasize the urgent need for identifying new therapeutic agents. In this regard, heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) has emerged as a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of TNBCs...
February 7, 2018: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436591/downregulation-of-secreted-clusterin-potentiates-the-lethality-of-sorafenib-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-association-with-the-inhibition-of-erk1-2-signals
#16
Jingtao Zhong, Xiaoming Yu, Xiaofeng Dong, Hong Lu, Wuyuan Zhou, Lei Li, Zhongchao Li, Pengfei Sun, Xuetao Shi
Secretory clusterin (sCLU) is overexpressed in cancer and is associated with resistance to chemotherapy in several types of cancer, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Sorafenib (SOR), a multikinase inhibitor of Raf/mitogen‑activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK) signaling and the receptor tyrosine kinase, is recognized as the standard therapeutic strategy for patients with advanced HCC. However, the role of sCLU in the resistance of HCC to SOR remains to be fully elucidated...
February 6, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435178/inhibition-of-the-mek-erk-pathway-augments-nab-paclitaxel-based-chemotherapy-effects-in-preclinical-models-of-pancreatic-cancer
#17
Niranjan Awasthi, Sheena Monahan, Alexis Stefaniak, Margaret A Schwarz, Roderich E Schwarz
Nab-paclitaxel (NPT) combination with gemcitabine (Gem) represents the standard chemotherapy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Genetic alterations of the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK (MAPK) signaling pathway yielding constitutive activation of the ERK cascade have been implicated as drivers of PDAC. Inhibition of downstream targets in the RAS-MAPK cascade such as MEK remains a promising therapeutic strategy. The efficacy of trametinib (Tra), a small molecule inhibitor of MEK1/2 kinase activity, in combination with nab-paclitaxel-based chemotherapy was evaluated in preclinical models of PDAC...
January 12, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435053/rkip-and-peroxiredoxin-2-expression-predicts-the-proliferative-potential-of-gastric-cancer-stem-cells
#18
Shao-Feng Yang, Ran Ma, Li-Li Pan, Jing Cao, Nan Sheng
Gastric cancer is associated with a high mortality rate, with the development of gastric cancer stem cells underlying this. Gastric cancer stem cells are responsible for tumor initiation, progression and recurrence. However, the link between gastric cancer and gastric cancer stem cells remains to be fully understood. Murine models mimic a human microenvironment more accurately than in vitro studies and are useful models for understanding the behavior of different markers. The present study compared the expression of cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), a stem cell marker, with the expression of other cancer-associated markers, including Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) and peroxiredoxin 2, in different pathological conditions of gastric cancer development using histological, immunohistological and western blot analyses...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435002/tert-promoter-mutations-and-their-correlation-with-braf-and-ras-mutations-in-a-consecutive-cohort-of-145-thyroid-cancer-cases
#19
Andrea Cacciato Insilla, Agnese Proietti, Nicla Borrelli, Elisabetta Macerola, Cristina Niccoli, Paolo Vitti, Paolo Miccoli, Fulvio Basolo
Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of endocrine malignancy and accounts for ~80% of thyroid carcinomas in adults and 90% in children. Risk stratification is important for identifying patients at higher risk and, for this reason, recent advances in molecular genetics of thyroid cancer can be applied to provide novel biomarkers useful in understanding tumor behavior. B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase (BRAF) and rat sarcoma (RAS) mutations have been widely studied and appear to have an important role in thyroid tumorigenesis...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433126/mek-drives-braf-activation-through-allosteric-control-of-ksr-proteins
#20
Hugo Lavoie, Malha Sahmi, Pierre Maisonneuve, Sara A Marullo, Neroshan Thevakumaran, Ting Jin, Igor Kurinov, Frank Sicheri, Marc Therrien
RAF family kinases have prominent roles in cancer. Their activation is dependent on dimerization of their kinase domains, which has emerged as a hindrance for drug development. In mammals, RAF family kinases include three catalytically competent enzymes (ARAF, BRAF and CRAF) and two pseudokinases (KSR1 and KSR2) that have been described as scaffolds owing to their apparent ability to bridge RAF isoforms and their substrate, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK). Kinase suppressor of Ras (KSR) pseudokinases were also shown to dimerize with kinase-competent RAFs to stimulate catalysis allosterically...
February 12, 2018: Nature
keyword
keyword
3358
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"