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Joe S Smith, Matthew Sheley, Munashe Chigerwe
Among members of the genus Bos, aspiration pneumonia has been described in domestic cattle ( Bos taurus and Bos indicus). In these species, aspiration pneumonia is most commonly a sequelae to oral administration of fluids or medications, as well as aspiration during procedures under anesthesia. Management of aspiration pneumonia secondary to complications from anesthesia for short duration surgical procedures is minimally reported in the Tibetan yak ( Bos grunniens). Although regurgitation under anesthesia has been reported in the yak, there are no reports of aspiration pneumonia treatment...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Rebecca C Reader, Bruce A Barton, Amanda L Abelson
Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the quality of sedation and recovery, and ease of venepuncture following sedation for feline blood donation using two intramuscular (IM) sedation protocols: alfaxalone/butorphanol (AB) and dexmedetomidine/butorphanol (DB). Methods This was an experimental randomized, blinded, crossover study. Ten client-owned healthy cats were recruited to participate in the study. Cats were sedated with AB (alfaxalone 2 mg/kg and butorphanol 0.2 mg/kg) for one donation and DB (dexmedetomidine 10 μg/kg and butorphanol 0...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Sarah L Withey, Carol A Paronis, Jack Bergman
Although the clinical application of opioids for pain management is often hindered by undesired behavioral impairment, preclinical assays of antinociception typically do not provide information regarding the behaviorally disruptive effects of opioids that may accompany their antinociceptive effects. To address this, we modified a warm water tail withdrawal procedure to determine concurrently the effects of opioids on tail withdrawal latency (antinociception) and indices of food-maintained operant behavior (rates of responding and reinforcement density) in squirrel monkeys...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
Lilian T Nishimura, Adam Auckburally, Juliana Santilli, Beatriz H B Vieira, Debora O Garcia, Cristiane S Honsho, Ewaldo de Mattos-Junior
OBJECTIVE To evaluate cardiopulmonary, sedative, and antinociceptive effects of dexmedetomidine combined with commonly administered opioids in dogs. ANIMALS 8 healthy Beagles. PROCEDURES Dogs were sedated by IM administration of each of 7 treatments. Treatments comprised dexmedetomidine (0.01 mg/kg; Dex) and the same dose of dexmedetomidine plus butorphanol (0.15 mg/kg; Dex-But), meperidine (5 mg/kg; Dex-Mep), methadone (0.5 mg/kg; Dex-Meth), morphine (0.5 mg/kg; Dex-Mor), nalbuphine (0.5 mg/kg; Dex-Nal), or tramadol (5 mg/kg; Dex-Tram)...
March 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Caroline V Fulkerson, Chee Kin Lim, Aubrey N Baird, Ann B Weil, Hock Gan Heng, Beatrice Gutierrez-Crespo, George E Moore
OBJECTIVE To determine the optimal protocol for acquisition of CT images of the dentition in alpacas. ANIMALS 3 healthy adult male alpacas. PROCEDURES Each alpaca was anesthetized with an IM injection of a combination of ketamine, xylazine, and butorphanol and positioned in sternal recumbency on the CT couch with its legs folded in a natural cush position and its head positioned within the isocenter of the gantry of a 64-slice CT scanner. Images were acquired by means of 6 protocols (sequential and helical modes at slice thicknesses of 1...
March 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Avishag Tuval, Liora Las, Yael Shilo-Benjamini
Egyptian fruit bats are increasingly used as model animals in neuroscience research. Our aim was to characterize suitable injectable anaesthesia for this species, possibly replacing inhalant anaesthesia, thus minimizing occupational health hazards. Eight bats were randomly assigned by a crossover design for subcutaneously administered combinations of medetomidine-midazolam with: saline (MM-Sal), ketamine (MM-Ket), fentanyl (MM-Fen), morphine (MM-Mor), or butorphanol (MM-But). The anaesthetic depth and vital signs were monitored at baseline and every 10 min until bats recovered...
January 1, 2018: Laboratory Animals
Atsushi Tsukamoto, Natsuko Niino, Mizuho Sakamoto, Risa Ohtani, Tomo Inomata
To achieve surgical anesthesia in animal experimentation, it is necessary to select the appropriate anesthetic protocol by considering its pharmacological properties and the surgical procedure to be performed. However, few studies have investigated the validity of anesthetic protocols under surgical conditions in small rodents. The present study aimed to clarify the pharmacological properties of 4 anesthetic protocols during the surgical procedure of castration in rats. Eight-week-old male Wistar rats were anesthetized with anesthetics, including the combination of ketamine and xylazine (K/X), the combination of medetomidine, midazolam, and butorphanol (M/M/B), and isoflurane, and sevoflurane...
February 14, 2018: Experimental Animals
Denise I Radkey, Robert J Hardie, Lesley J Smith
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of alfaxalone and propofol, with and without acepromazine and butorphanol followed by doxapram, on laryngeal motion and quality of laryngeal examination in dogs. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized, crossover, blinded study. ANIMALS: Ten female Beagle dogs, aged 11-13 months and weighing 7.2-8.6 kg. METHODS: The dogs were administered four intravenous (IV) treatments: alfaxalone (ALF), alfaxalone+acepromazine and butorphanol (ALF-AB), propofol (PRO) and propofol+AB (PRO-AB)...
February 3, 2018: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
Khoirun Nisa, Sue Yee Lim, Tatsuyuki Osuga, Nozomu Yokoyama, Masahiro Tamura, Noriyuki Nagata, Kazuyoshi Sasaoka, Angkhana Dermlim, Rommaneeya Leela-Arporn, Tomoya Morita, Noboru Sasaki, Keitaro Morishita, Kensuke Nakamura, Hiroshi Ohta, Mitsuyoshi Takiguchi
Quantitative contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) enables non-invasive and objective evaluation of intestinal perfusion by quantifying the intensity of enhancement on the intestine after microbubble contrast administration. During CEUS scanning, sedation is sometimes necessary to maintain animal cooperation. Nevertheless, the effect of sedative administration on the canine intestinal CEUS is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect of sedation with a combination of butorphanol and midazolam on the duodenal CEUS-derived perfusion parameters of healthy dogs...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Jean-Yves Douet, Alain Regnier, Agnès Dongay, Sophie Jugant, Géraldine Jourdan, Didier Concordet
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether sedation with intramuscular butorphanol can interfere with different variables of the ocular examination in dogs. ANIMALS: Twenty-two beagles without ophthalmic abnormalities. PROCEDURES: Each dog was examined 20 min prior to and again just before administration of butorphanol to establish baseline data. The globe and nictitating membrane position was evaluated, and the following were recorded: menace response, dazzle reflex, corneal blink reflex, phenol red thread tear test (PRT), Schirmer tear test-1 (STT-1), pupil size (PS) measurement, and rebound tonometry...
January 19, 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Jane E Quandt, Michele Barletta, Karen K Cornell, Steeve Giguère, Erik H Hofmeister
OBJECTIVE: To assess agreement between a point-of-care glucometer (POCG) and a laboratory chemistry analyzer for blood glucose measurements in goats. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: University teaching hospital. ANIMALS: Eighteen healthy adult goats. INVESTIGATIONS: Whole blood samples were obtained via jugular venipuncture prior to premedication with xylazine and butorphanol (T0), following premedication (T20), and after 1 hour of inhalant anesthesia (T60)...
January 2018: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
Kathryn L Perrin, Jesper B Nielsen, Anders F Thomsen, Mads F Bertelsen
The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of alfaxalone in a small passerine species. A dose-response trial was conducted whereby 10, 30, and 50 mg/kg alfaxalone was administered subcutaneously (SC) to 10 Bengalese finches ( Lonchura domestica) in a randomized complete crossover study design. Subsequently, a similar protocol was used to compare 30 mg/kg alfaxalone alone or combined with either 0.7 mg/kg midazolam or 1 mg/kg butorphanol SC. Induction and recovery times were recorded and depth of anesthesia monitored at 5-min intervals throughout each procedure...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Mark Jeon, Khursheed R Mama, Jeffrey R Zuba, Nadine Lamberski, James E Oosterhuis, Meredith M Clancy, Katie W Delk, Matthew E Kinney, Patrick J Morris, Francisco Olea-Popelka
Rhinoceros conservation efforts are essential to the survival of the species. One such effort is focused on using advanced reproductive technologies to produce viable northern white rhinoceros ( Ceratotherium simum cottoni) embryos for implantation into southern white rhinoceros ( Ceratotherium simum simum) surrogates. Anesthesia may be required to facilitate necessary procedures in these surrogate rhinoceros, but commonly reported side effects including hypercapnia and hypoxemia limit anesthetic recumbency time due to animal safety concerns...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Yuichiro Ochiai, Atushi Baba, Mio Hiramatsu, Naoto Toyota, Toshihiko Watanabe, Kazuto Yamashita, Hiroshi Yokota, Hidetomo Iwano
Currently, given the concerns regarding animal welfare, it is required that anesthesia or analgesia be used during surgery in experimental animals. Therefore, it is important to understand how anesthesia affects the health conditions of experimental animals. In this study, rat blood biochemistry and hematological changes were examined following administration of a mixture of three anesthetic agents-medetomidine, midazolam, and butorphanol (MMB). One of three MMB dose combinations was subcutaneously administered to rats...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Peter Buss, Michele Miller, Andrea Fuller, Anna Haw, Eliza Stout, Francisco Olea-Popelka, Leith Meyer
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of postinduction butorphanol administration in etorphine-immobilized white rhinoceros on respiration and blood gases. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized crossover study. ANIMALS: A group of six sub-adult male white rhinoceros. METHODS: Etorphine, or etorphine followed by butorphanol 12 minutes after recumbency, was administered intramuscularly [2.5 mg etorphine, 25 mg butorphanol (1000-1250 kg), or 3...
April 17, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
Theresa Maria Müller, Klaus Hopster, Astrid Bienert-Zeit, Karl Rohn, Sabine B R Kästner
BACKGROUND: Standing surgery, especially dental procedures, are commonly performed in horses. This leads to an increasing demand for reliable sedation protocols. Therefore, it was the purpose of this study to investigate the influence of butorphanol, midazolam or ketamine on romifidine based sedation in horses during cheek tooth removal. METHODS: Forty horses presented for tooth extraction were divided in four groups using matched pair randomization. Group R was sedated with romifidine (bolus 0...
December 6, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
Jeannette Cremer, Carolina H Riccó
Objectives The aim of the study was to evaluate the cardiorespiratory effects, quality of sedation and recovery of intramuscular alfaxalone-dexmedetomidine-butorphanol (ADB) and ketamine-dexmedetomidine-butorphanol (KDB), in cats. Methods Nine adult, healthy cats (6.63 ± 1.42 kg) were enrolled in a blinded, randomized, crossover experimental design. Cats were sedated twice intramuscularly, once with ADB (alfaxalone 1 mg/kg, dexmedetomidine 0.005 mg/kg, butorphanol 0.2 mg/kg), and once with KDB (ketamine 5 mg/kg, dexmedetomidine 0...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Anderson Gitari, James Nguhiu, Vijay Varma, Eddy Mogoa
Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the treatments and their outcomes in horses with colic in Nairobi County, Kenya. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study to determine the occurrence, treatments, pain management, and outcomes of colic in horses in Nairobi County. Association between pain management protocols and the outcomes of colic with regard to recovery or death was also determined. Data collected from four equine practitioners were organized manually and given numerical codes as appropriate to facilitate entry into the computer...
October 2017: Veterinary World
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