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Arvind Kumar, Ritesh Kumar, Vinod Kumar Verma, Chandrakant Prasad, Rajesh Kumar, Shashi Kant, Gunjan Kumar, Neha Singh, Rupam Kumari
INTRODUCTION: Opioids are widely used in conjunction with local anesthetics as they permit the use of lower dose of local anesthetics while providing adequate anesthesia and analgesia. It both provides adequate anesthesia as well as lower drug toxicity neuraxial administration of opioids in conjunction with local anesthetics improves the quality of intraoperative analgesia and prolongs the duration of postoperative analgesia. Bupivacaine is the most commonly used drug for subarachnoid block due to its lesser side effects...
September 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
N Swathi, N Ashwini, Mukesh I Shukla
INTRODUCTION: To compare the efficacy of combination of epidural local anesthetic with tramadol and butorphanol in major abdominal surgeries. AIMS: To evaluate duration of analgesia, analgesic efficacy, and safety profile of two groups of drugs-epidural butorphanol with bupivacaine and epidural tramadol with bupivacaine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective, randomized controlled, double-blinded study was undertaken in 50 patients scheduled for major abdominal surgeries...
September 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Radhe Sharan, Brij Mohan, Harkomal Kaur, Anju Bala
BACKGROUND: Fiberoptic intubation is a technique commonly used for difficult airways. Conscious sedation is desirable to make this procedure tolerable, and it is essential that patients are cooperative, relaxed, and comfortable especially when difficult airway anatomy or pathology is encountered. OBJECTIVE: To compare the safety and efficacy of propofol versus midazolam in oral fiberoptic endotracheal intubation in terms of hemodynamic changes, level of sedation, ease of intubation, and patient comfort and complications...
September 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Cameron Ratliff, Rebecca S Sayre, Mauricio Lepiz
A hand-reared, 53-kg, female, 30-day-old black rhinoceros ( Diceros bicornis ) calf presented for magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography after demonstrating neurologic signs. The rhino was premedicated intramuscularly with butorphanol and midazolam, yielding satisfactory sedation. Induction was achieved using intravenous propofol until the trachea could be intubated. Anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane in 100% oxygen (mean end-tidal concentration of 2 ± 0.5%). Mean values recorded during anesthesia included were heart rate, end-tidal carbon dioxide, respiratory rate, noninvasive blood pressure, and pulse oximetry...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Peter Buss, Michele Miller, Andrea Fuller, Anna Haw, Rachel Wanty, Francisco Olea-Popelka, Leith Meyer
Chemical capture is an essential tool in the management and conservation of white rhinoceros ( Ceratotherium simum ); however, cardiovascular responses in immobilized megaherbivores are poorly understood. Blood pressure and heart rate responses in rhinoceros immobilized with etorphine or etorphine plus azaperone, and the effects of subsequent i.v. butorphanol administration were investigated. Six white rhinoceros were used in a randomized crossover study design with four interventions: 1) etorphine i.m.; 2) etorphine plus azaperone i...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Martine van Zijll Langhout, Charles G B Caraguel, Jacobus P Raath, Wayne S J Boardman
Nineteen white rhinoceroses ( Ceratotherium simum ) were anesthetized with 4 mg of etorphine hydrochloride; 35-40 mg of midazolam; and 7,500 international units of hyaluronidase for dehorning purposes at a game ranch in South Africa, to investigate this anesthetic combination. Median time to recumbency was 548 sec (range 361-787 sec). Good muscle relaxation and no muscle rigidity or tremors were observed in 18 animals, and only 1 individual showed slight tremors. In addition, all animals received butorphanol i...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Mingjian Kong, Li Yang, Jing Li, Zheng Zhong, Yanqiang Cheng, Zhen Wu, Ran Guo
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of low-dose butorphanol on hyperalgesia induced by high-dose remifetanil in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. DESIGN: Randomized double-blind clinical trial. SETTING: Intraoperative. PATIENTS: Seventy-five patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were enrolled. INTERVENTIONS: Randomly allocated into 3 groups, low dose of remifentanil (LR) group and high dose of remifentanil (HR) group received low (0...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Stephen King, Elizabeth S Roberts, Jonathan N King
BACKGROUND: Few pharmaceuticals are registered in cats for the management of post-operative pain and inflammation. The objective of this study was to assess the field efficacy and safety of an injectable formulation of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug robenacoxib in cats undergoing surgery. The study was a multi-center, prospective, randomized, masked, parallel-group, placebo-controlled clinical trial. A total of 349 cats were enrolled and underwent surgery comprising forelimb onychectomy, as an example of orthopedic surgery, plus either ovariohysterectomy or castration...
September 29, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
Yasuhiro Tsubokura, Toshio Kobayashi, Yutaka Oshima, Naoki Hashizume, Makoto Nakai, Shozo Ajimi, Nobuya Imatanaka
Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) is commonly examined for pulmonary toxicity in animal studies. Two common means of anesthesia before euthanasia and bronchoalveolar lavage in rats are intraperitoneal injection of pentobarbital and inhalation of isoflurane. Medetomidine-midazolam-butorphanol is an alternative anesthesia to pentobarbital for animal welfare; however, the effect of this combination on BALF and blood chemistry is unknown. Here, we compared the effects of anesthesia by intraperitoneal injection of pentobarbital or one of two combinations of medetomidine-midazolam-butorphanol (dose, 0...
2016: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Yasutaka Yanagawa, Hisayuki Osanai, Takashi Tateno
The effects of anesthesia on the functional auditory characteristics of cortical neurons, such as spatial and temporal response properties, vary between an anesthetized and an awake subject. However, studies have shown that an appropriate anesthetic method that approaches the awake condition is still useful because of its greater stability and controllability. The present study compared neural response properties from two core fields of the mouse auditory cortex under three anesthetic conditions: urethane; ketamine and xylazine hydrochloride (KX) mixture; and a combination of medetomidine, midazolam, and butorphanol (MMB)...
October 28, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Luca Bellini, Marta Vadori, Giulia Maria De Benedictis, Roberto Busetto
This study investigated the effect of morphine, fentanyl, butorphanol and buprenorphine on viability and caspase-3 activity in renal proximal tubular cells exposed to opioids for 2 h before or 12 h after chemical anoxia. Cell viability decreased regardless the treatment although intracellular ATP content was elevated in morphine and fentanyl pre-treated cells at 12 h. Anoxia increased caspase activity but this effect was significantly reduced in cells treated before or after with morphine, fentanyl and in cell treated with butorphanol for 12 h...
August 2016: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Shota Higuchi, Riku Yamada, Asami Hashimoto, Kenjiro Miyoshi, Kazuto Yamashita, Takeo Ohsugi
The anesthetic effects of alfaxalone were investigated in mice. Mice were administered alfaxalone (100 mg/kg) alone or the combinations of 0.3 mg/kg of medetomidine and 5 mg/kg of butorphanol with alfaxalone at doses of 20 mg/kg (M/B/A20), 40 mg/kg (M/B/A40), 60 mg/kg (M/B/A60), or 80 mg/kg (M/B/A80). Control mice received 0.3 mg/kg of medetomidine, 4 mg/kg of midazolam, and 5 mg/kg of butorphanol (M/M/B). Each drug was administrated by intraperitoneal (IP) or subcutaneous (SC) routes. M/M/B IP did not achieve surgical anesthesia but M/M/B SC achieved surgical anesthesia within 10 min after administration and maintained anesthesia for 45 min...
May 2016: Japanese Journal of Veterinary Research
Pawel K Olszewski, Oscar A Klockars, Anica Klockars, Allen S Levine
Butorphanol tartrate (BT), a mixed µ/κ/δ opioid receptor agonist, is one of the most potent orexigens known to date. The central mechanisms through which BT causes hyperphagia are largely unknown. Interestingly, BT suppresses meal-end activation of neurons synthesizing anorexigenic neuropeptide, oxytocin (OT), which suggests that BT promotes hyperphagia by silencing OT-derived satiety signaling. As OT terminates consumption by acting by distinct hindbrain and forebrain circuits, we investigated whether stimulation of the OT receptor in the forebrain or the hindbrain [through lateral ventricular (LV) and fourth ventricular (4V) OT injections] leads to termination of food intake induced by BT...
September 28, 2016: Neuroreport
Lais M Malavasi, Stephen A Greene, John M Gay, Tammy L Grubb
Lidocaine is commonly used in ruminants but has an anecdotal history of being toxic to goats. To evaluate lidocaine's effects on selected cardiopulmonary parameters. Isoflurane-anesthetized adult goats (n = 24) undergoing abdominal surgery received a loading dose of lidocaine (2.5 mg/kg) over 20 min followed by constant-rate infusion of lidocaine (100 μg/kg/min); control animals received saline instead of lidocaine. Data collected at predetermined time points during the 60-min surgery included heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, pO2, and pCO2...
2016: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
Latifa Khenissi, Olga Nikolayenkova-Topie, Ségolène Broussaud, Gwenola Touzot-Jourde
OBJECTIVES: Cardiorespiratory parameters and anaesthesia quality in cats anaesthetised with either intramuscular (IM) alfaxalone or ketamine both combined with dexmedetomidine and butorphanol for castration were evaluated. METHODS: Thirty-two client-owned cats were randomly assigned to receive either alfaxalone (A; 3 mg/kg IM) or ketamine (K; 5 mg/kg IM), combined with dexmedetomidine (10 μg/kg) and butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg). Heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR) and rectal temperature (T°) were recorded prior to drug administration...
July 11, 2016: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Xiao-Yan Cheng, Xiao-Qin Lun, Hong-Bo Li, Zhi-Jie Zhang
Fentanyl-induced cough (FIC) is unwanted in the patients requiring stable induction of general anesthesia. This study was designed to evaluate the suppressive effects of butorphanol pretreatment on the incidence and severity of FIC during the induction of general anesthesia. A total of 315 patients of American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I and II, scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia were randomized into 3 equally sized groups (n = 0105). Two minutes before fentanyl bolus, group I received intravenously 5 mL normal saline, groups II and III received butorphanol 0...
June 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Hong-Xiu Diao, Shuai Zhang, Xue-Yuan Hu, Wei Guan, Li Luan, Hai-Yu Liu, Hong-Gang Fan
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the behavior and some cardiopulmonary variables of dexmedetomidine-midazolam or dexmedetomidine-midazolam-butorphanol in the silver fox (Vulpes vulpes). STUDY DESIGN: Blinded, randomized design. ANIMALS: Sixteen adult silver foxes, aged 7-9 months, weighing 6.0-9.2 kg. METHODS: Animals were randomly assigned to dexmedetomidine (50 μg kg(-1) ) and midazolam (0.45 mg kg(-1) ) (group DM) or to dexmedetomidine (30 μg kg(-1) ), midazolam (0...
June 28, 2016: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
James L Carmalt, Tanya Duke-Novakovski, Harold C Schott, Johannes H van der Kolk
OBJECTIVE To determine effects of anesthesia on plasma concentrations and pulsatility of ACTH in samples obtained from the cavernous sinus and jugular vein of horses. ANIMALS 6 clinically normal adult horses. PROCEDURES Catheters were placed in a jugular vein and into the cavernous sinus via a superficial facial vein. The following morning (day 1), cavernous sinus blood samples were collected every 5 minutes for 1 hour (collection of first sample = time 0) and jugular venous blood samples were collected at 0, 30, and 60 minutes...
July 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Hisayuki Osanai, Takashi Tateno
Anesthesia affects central auditory processing. However, it is unclear to what extent the choice of anesthetic agent affects neural responses to sound stimulation. A mixture of three anesthetics (medetomidine, midazolam and butorphanol; MMB) was recently developed as an alternative to ketamine owing to the latter's addictive potential, yet the effect of this combination of anesthetics on neural responses is not known. Here, we compared the spontaneous activity, tuning properties and temporal responses of primary auditory cortical neurons under these two anesthetic conditions, using electrophysiological and flavoprotein autofluorescence imaging methods...
September 2016: Hearing Research
Roxanne K Buck, Leith Rc Meyer, George F Stegmann, Sabine Br Kästner, Maya Kummrow, Christina Gerlach, Geoffrey T Fosgate, Gareth E Zeiler
OBJECTIVE: To characterize a propofol-medetomidine-ketamine total intravenous anaesthetic in impala (Aepyceros melampus). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective clinical study. ANIMALS: Ten adult female impala. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Impala were immobilized at 1253 m above sea level with 2.0 mg thiafentanil and 2.2 mg medetomidine via projectile darts. Propofol was given to effect (0.5 mg kg(-1) boluses) to allow endotracheal intubation, following which oxygen was supplemented at 2 L minute(-1) ...
June 15, 2016: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
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