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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346750/from-healthcare-to-warfare-and-reverse-how-should-we-regulate-dual-use-neurotechnology
#1
Marcello Ienca, Fabrice Jotterand, Bernice S Elger
Recent advances in military-funded neurotechnology and novel opportunities for misusing neurodevices show that the problem of dual use is inherent to neuroscience. This paper discusses how the neuroscience community should respond to these dilemmas and delineates a neuroscience-specific biosecurity framework. This neurosecurity framework involves calibrated regulation, (neuro)ethical guidelines, and awareness-raising activities within the scientific community.
January 17, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345997/trends-in-health-insurance-and-type-among-military-veterans-united-states-2000-2016
#2
Carla E Zelaya, Colleen N Nugent
OBJECTIVES: To describe long-term national trends in health insurance coverage among US veterans from 2000 to 2016 in the context of recent health care reform. METHODS: We used 2000 to 2016 National Health Interview Survey data on veterans aged 18 to 64 years to examine trends in insurance coverage and uninsurance by year, income, and state Medicaid expansion status. We also explored the current proportions of veterans with each type of insurance by age group. RESULTS: The percentage of veterans with private insurance decreased from 70...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345305/detection-of-mitochondrial-haplogroups-in-a-small-avar-slavic-population-from-the-eigth-ninth-century-ad
#3
Lukáš Šebest, Marian Baldovič, Adam Frtús, Csaba Bognár, Klaudia Kyselicová, Ľudevít Kádasi, Radoslav Beňuš
OBJECTIVES: In the sixth century AD, Avars came to Central Europe from middle Eurasian steppes and founded a strong Empire called the Avar Khagante (568-799/803 AD) in the Pannonian basin. During the existence of this empire, they undertook many military and pugnacious campaigns. In the seventh century, they conquered the northern territory inhabited by Slavs, who were further recruited in Avar military and were commissioned with obtaining food supplies. During almost 200 years of Avar domination, a significant influence by the Avar culture (especially on the burial rite) and assimilation with indigenous population (occurrence of "East Asian"cranial features) could be noticed in this mixed area, which is supported by achaeological and anthropologcal research...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344974/utilizing-selected-social-determinants-and-behaviors-to-predict-obesity-in-military-personnel
#4
Gordon F West, Diana D Jeffery
OBJECTIVE: Like the general population, the military is experiencing an increase in the number of obese personnel. This study aimed to identify predictors of obesity by assessing social determinants of health and behaviors in relation to Body Mass Index (BMI), and to use these variables to build a model to predict obesity in Active Duty Military Personnel (ADMP). Predicting obesity would allow early intervention of at risk personnel, potentially reducing the number of ADMP who are separated from the service for failing to meet weight standards...
January 18, 2018: Public Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344055/non-organic-vision-loss-in-the-afghanistan-and-iraq-conflicts
#5
Kevin M Broderick, Thomas B Ableman, Eric D Weber, Robert W Enzenauer, Harold J Wain, Keith J Wroblewski
Non-organic visual loss (NOVL), defined as a decrease in visual acuity or field without an identifiable organic cause, can be challenging to diagnose, especially in patients whose NOVL is superimposed on some component of true organic pathology. Exposure to combat puts soldiers at risk of emotional distress and physical trauma, which can contribute to the development of NOVL with conversion disorder or malingering. This case series describes six patients with NOVL who sustained ocular or non-ocular injuries while serving in combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, and highlights diagnostic pearls and components of inter-disciplinary management in the unique military context...
August 2017: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342191/changes-in-balance-and-joint-position-sense-during-a-12-day-high-altitude-trek-the-british-services-dhaulagiri-medical-research-expedition
#6
Sarah B Clarke, Kevin Deighton, Caroline Newman, Gareth Nicholson, Liam Gallagher, Christopher J Boos, Adrian Mellor, David R Woods, John P O'Hara
Postural control and joint position sense are essential for safely undertaking leisure and professional activities, particularly at high altitude. We tested whether exposure to a 12-day trek with a gradual ascent to high altitude impairs postural control and joint position sense. This was a repeated measures observational study of 12 military service personnel (28±4 years). Postural control (sway velocity measured by a portable force platform) during standing balance, a Sharpened Romberg Test and knee joint position sense were measured, in England (113m elevation) and at 3 research camps (3619m, 4600m and 5140m) on a 12-day high altitude trek in the Dhaulagiri region of Nepal...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340725/decision-making-in-management-of-the-complex-trauma-patient-changing-the-mindset-of-the-non-trauma-surgeon
#7
Linda Sonesson, Kenneth Boffard, Lars Lundberg, Martin Rydmark, Klas Karlgren
BACKGROUND: European surgeons are frequently subspecialized and trained primarily in elective surgical techniques. As trauma leaders, they may occasionally have to deal with complex polytrauma, advanced management techniques, differing priorities, and the need for multidisciplinary care. There is a lack of expertise, experience, and a low trauma volume, as well as a lack of research, with limited support as to the decision-making and teaching challenges present. We studied what experienced trauma experts describe as the challenges that are specific to the advanced surgical decision-making required, whether civilian, humanitarian, or military...
January 16, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339223/leishmania-infections-in-austrian-soldiers-returning-from-military-missions-abroad-a-cross-sectional-study
#8
Adelheid G Obwaller, Martina Köhsler, Wolfgang Poeppl, Harald Herkner, Gerhard Mooseder, Horst Aspöck, Julia Walochnik
OBJECTIVES: The incidence of leishmaniasis is known to increase in conflict areas. The aim of this study was to determine the exposure to Leishmania species in Austrian soldiers returning from missions abroad also assessing possible risk factors. METHODS: A retrospective explorative cross-sectional serological study was conducted in 225 healthy Austrian soldiers returning from UN or EU peace-keeping missions in Syria, the Lebanon and Bosnia and Herzegovina (BIH), respectively...
January 12, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339007/suicides-homicides-accidents-and-undetermined-deaths-in-the-u-s-military-comparisons-to-the-u-s-population-and-by-military-separation-status
#9
Mark A Reger, Derek J Smolenski, Nancy A Skopp, Melinda J Metzger-Abamukang, Han K Kang, Tim A Bullman, Gregory A Gahm
PURPOSE: To compare rates of external causes of mortality among individuals who served in the military (before and after separation from the military) to the U.S. POPULATION: HASH(0x4dcf3c8) METHODS: This retrospective cohort study examined all 3.9 million service members who served from 2002 to 2007. External cause mortality data from 2002 to 2009 were used to calculate standardized mortality ratios. Negative binomial regression compared differences in the mortality rates for pre- and post-separation...
December 22, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338659/enfranchising-grief-following-suicide-a-case-study-of-an-israeli-social-organization
#10
Zohar Gazit
Researchers have yet to explore suicide survivors' activities in social organizations, which was the present purpose. I studied an Israeli organization, Path to Life, by interviewing 16 members, attending 11 events, and examining media, online, and print information. Although mainly comprised of activists whose loss occurred in civilian circumstances, frame analysis revealed that the organization emphasizes connections between suicide and esteemed military-related death. By relying on a legitimate model of dealing with death, the activists provided meaning to suicide and promoted a socio-cultural change through drawing attention to a silenced death, upgrading the suicide victims' status, and enfranchising survivors' grief...
January 17, 2018: Death Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338612/gene-profiling-of-nucleus-basalis-tau-containing-neurons-in-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-a-chronic-effects-of-neurotrauma-consortium-study
#11
Elliott Jay Mufson, Bin He, Stephen D Ginsberg, Benjamin A Carper, Gayle S Bieler, Fiona C Crawford, Victor E Alverez, Bernard R Huber, Thor D Stein, Ann C McKee, Sylvia E Perez
Military personnel and athletes exposed to traumatic brain injury may develop chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Brain pathology in CTE includes intracellular accumulation of abnormally phosphorylated tau proteins (p-tau), the main constituent of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). Recently, we found that cholinergic basal forebrain (CBF) neurons within the nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM), which provide the major cholinergic innervation to the cortex, display an increasing number of NFTs across the pathological stages of CTE...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337762/tinnitus-and-auditory-perception-after-a-history-of-noise-exposure-relationship-to-auditory-brainstem-response-measures
#12
Naomi F Bramhall, Dawn Konrad-Martin, Garnett P McMillan
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether auditory brainstem response (ABR) wave I amplitude is associated with measures of auditory perception in young people with normal distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) and varying levels of noise exposure history. DESIGN: Tinnitus, loudness tolerance, and speech perception ability were measured in 31 young military Veterans and 43 non-Veterans (19 to 35 years of age) with normal pure-tone thresholds and DPOAEs. Speech perception was evaluated in quiet using Northwestern University Auditory Test (NU-6) word lists and in background noise using the words in noise (WIN) test...
January 15, 2018: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337583/sudden-death-aversion-avoiding-superior-options-because-they-feel-riskier
#13
Jesse Walker, Jane L Risen, Thomas Gilovich, Richard Thaler
We present evidence of sudden-death aversion (SDA)-the tendency to avoid "fast" strategies that provide a greater chance of success, but include the possibility of immediate defeat, in favor of "slow" strategies that reduce the possibility of losing quickly, but have lower odds of ultimate success. Using a combination of archival analyses and controlled experiments, we explore the psychology behind SDA. First, we provide evidence for SDA and its cost to decision makers by tabulating how often NFL teams send games into overtime by kicking an extra point rather than going for the 2-point conversion (Study 1) and how often NBA teams attempt potentially game-tying 2-point shots rather than potentially game-winning 3-pointers (Study 2)...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337213/military-surgeon-volume-and-stress-incontinence-surgery-complications-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#14
David L Howard, Andrea McGlynn, Joy A Greer
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare 12-month post-operative complication rates in women who underwent sling procedures by high-volume versus low-volume surgeons at US military treatment facilities (MTFs). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2) SETTING: US military treatment facilities PATIENTS: Female military beneficiaries enrolled in TRICARE INTERVENTIONS: Sling surgery for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2012...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336599/femoral-neck-stress-injuries-analysis-of-156-cases-in-a-u-s-military-population-and-proposal-of-a-new-mri-classification-system
#15
Iván R Rohena-Quinquilla, Fabian J Rohena-Quinquilla, William F Scully, J Richard Lee Evanson
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to formulate a new MRI classification system for fatigue-type femoral neck stress injuries (FNSIs) that is based on patient management and return-to-duty (RTD) time. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of 156 consecutive FNSIs in 127 U.S. Army soldiers over a 24-month period was performed. The width of marrow edema for low-grade FNSIs and the measurement of macroscopic fracture as a percentage of femoral neck width for high-grade FNSIs were recorded...
January 16, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335663/improving-mental-health-treatment-utilization-in-military-veterans-examining-the-effects-of-perceived-need-for-care-and-social-support
#16
Robert Graziano, Eric B Elbogen
Objective: Many veterans with mental health problems do not adequately utilize needed care. Research has focused on identifying barriers to mental health care in veterans. Method: The current study adds to existing literature by examining whether perceived need for treatment and social support affect treatment utilization in a national longitudinal survey of Iraq and Afghanistan veterans (n = 1090). Results: The Health Beliefs Model (HBM) postulates that a key reason why patients fail to obtain needed care is their belief "it's up to me to handle my own problems...
September 2017: Military Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334848/the-effect-of-social-support-gratitude-resilience-and-satisfaction-with-life-on-depressive-symptoms-among-police-officers-following-hurricane-katrina
#17
Erin C McCanlies, Ja Kook Gu, Michael E Andrew, John M Violanti
BACKGROUND: Police officers in the New Orleans geographic area faced a number of challenges following Hurricane Katrina. AIM: This cross-sectional study examined the effect of social support, gratitude, resilience and satisfaction with life on symptoms of depression. METHOD: A total of 86 male and 30 female police officers from Louisiana participated in this study. Ordinary least-square (OLS) regression mediation analysis was used to estimate direct and indirect effects between social support, gratitude, resilience, satisfaction with life and symptoms of depression...
February 2018: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334757/high-prevalence-of-non-b-hiv-1-subtypes-in-overseas-sailors-and-prostitutes-in-korea
#18
Young-Keol Cho, Jung Eun Kim, Brian Thomas Foley
There have been no studies related to groups at the highest risk for HIV-1 infection in Korea before 1993. Here, for the first time, we report the distribution of HIV subtypes in overseas sailors (OSs), and prostitutes who worked in brothels near US military bases in Korea. We retrospectively determined the sequences of nef in 131 patients using RT-PCR. These patients comprised of 102 OSs, 14 OS spouses, and 15 prostitutes. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using 128 Korean OSs, OS spouses, and prostitutes...
January 15, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334571/use-of-french-lyophilized-plasma-transfusion-in-severe-trauma-patients-is-associated-with-an-early-plasma-transfusion-and-early-transfusion-ratio-improvement
#19
Cédric Nguyen, Julien Bordes, Pierre-Julien Cungi, Pierre Esnault, Michael Cardinale, Quentin Mathais, Jean Cotte, Sébastien Beaume, Anne Sailliol, Bertrand Prunet, Eric Meaudre
BACKGROUND: Early transfusion of high ratio of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and red blood cells (RBC) is associated with mortality reduction. However, time to reach high ratio is limited by the need to thaw the FFP. French lyophilized plasma (FLYP) used by French army and available in military teaching hospital does not need to be thawed and is immediately available. We hypothesize that the use of FLYP may reduce time to reach a plasma:RBC ratio of 1/1. METHODS: A retrospective study performed in a Level 1 trauma center between January 2012 and December 2015...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334570/the-effect-of-prehospital-transport-time-injury-severity-and-blood-transfusion-on-survival-of-us-military-casualties-in-iraq
#20
Russ S Kotwal, Laura L F Scott, Jud C Janak, Bruce W Tarpey, Jeffrey T Howard, Edward L Mazuchowski, Frank K Butler, Stacy A Shackelford, Jennifer M Gurney, Zsolt T Stockinger
BACKGROUND: Reducing time from injury to care can optimize trauma patient outcomes. A previous study of prehospital transport of US military casualties during the Afghanistan conflict demonstrated the importance of time and treatment capability for combat casualty survival. METHODS: A retrospective descriptive analysis was conducted to analyze battlefield data collected on US military combat casualties during the Iraq conflict from March 19, 2003 to August 31, 2010...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
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