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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141742/characterizing-the-last-latrine-nonowners-in-rural-malawi
#1
Jurgita Slekiene, Hans-Joachim Mosler
Open defecation is a public health problem worldwide. NGOs in developing countries use various approaches to increase latrine coverage, but for little-understood reasons, some of the population does not adopt latrine construction. The objective of our research was to uncover which of the factors predicting latrine construction are relevant to the last nonowners of latrines, termed laggards in the diffusion of innovations theory. In a cross-sectional study, quantitative face-to-face interviews were conducted in households in rural Malawi (N = 824) to assess the behavioral determinants of latrine construction, mental health, and leadership...
October 23, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137668/advancing-theory-development-exploring-the-leadership-climate-relationship-as-a-mechanism-of-the-implementation-of-cultural-competence
#2
Erick G Guerrero, Karissa Fenwick, Yinfei Kong
BACKGROUND: Leadership style and specific organizational climates have emerged as critical mechanisms to implement targeted practices in organizations. Drawing from relevant theories, we propose that climate for implementation of cultural competence reflects how transformational leadership may enhance the organizational implementation of culturally responsive practices in health care organizations. METHODS: Using multilevel data from 427 employees embedded in 112 addiction treatment programs collected in 2013, confirmatory factor analysis showed adequate fit statistics for our measure of climate for implementation of cultural competence (Cronbach's alpha = ...
November 14, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123497/leadership-and-presenteeism-among-scientific-staff-the-role-of-accumulation-of-work-and-time-pressure
#3
Carolin Dietz, Tabea Scheel
The present study examines the joint roles of leadership and stressors for presenteeism of scientific staff. Leaders may have an impact on employees' health, both directly through interpersonal interactions and by shaping their working conditions. In the field of science, this impact could be special because of the mentoring relationships between the employees (e.g., PhD students) and their supervisors (e.g., professors). Based on the job demands-resources framework (JD-R), we hypothesized that the pressure to be present at the workplace induced by supervisors (supervisorial pressure) is directly related to employees' presenteeism as well as indirectly via perceptions of time pressure...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122048/evaluation-of-patient-and-public-involvement-initiatives-in-health-technology-assessment-a-survey-of-international-agencies
#4
Laura Weeks, Julie Polisena, Anna Mae Scott, Anke-Peggy Holtorf, Sophie Staniszewska, Karen Facey
OBJECTIVES: Although there is increased awareness of patient and public involvement (PPI) among health technology assessment (HTA) organizations, evaluations of PPI initiatives are relatively scarce. Our objective as members of Health Technology Assessment International's (HTAi's) Patient and Citizen Involvement Group (PCIG) was to advance understanding of the range of evaluation strategies adopted by HTA organizations and their potential usefulness. METHODS: In March 2016, a survey was sent to fifty-four HTA organizations through the International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA) and contacts of members of HTAi's PCIG...
November 10, 2017: International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120312/a-strategic-approach-to-workforce-development-for-local-public-health
#5
Beverley Bryant, Megan Ward
SETTING: In 2009, Peel Public Health set a vision to transform the work of public health from efficient delivery of public health services as defined by provincial mandate to the robust analysis of the health status of the local population and selection and implementation of programming to achieve best health outcomes. A strategic approach to the workforce was a key enabler. PPH is a public health unit in Ontario that serves 1.4 million people. INTERVENTION: An organization-wide strategic workforce development program was instituted...
November 9, 2017: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110730/a-meta-science-for-a-global-bioethics-and-biomedicine
#6
David S Basser
BACKGROUND: As suggested by Shook and Giordano, understanding and therefore addressing the urgent international governance issues around globalizing bio-medical/technology research and applications is limited by the perception of the underlying science. METHODS: A philosophical methodology is used, based on novel and classical philosophical reflection upon existent literature, clinical wisdoms and narrative theory to discover a meta-science and telos of humankind for the development of a relevant and defendable global biomedical bioethics...
November 7, 2017: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077619/perceptions-of-risk-and-safety-in-the-icu-a-qualitative-study-of-cognitive-processes-relating-to-staffing
#7
Danielle M D'Lima, Eleanor J Murray, Stephen J Brett
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to 1) examine individual professionals' perceptions of staffing risks and safe staffing in intensive care and 2) identify and examine the cognitive processes that underlie these perceptions. DESIGN: Qualitative case study methodology with nurses, doctors, and physiotherapists. SETTING: Three mixed medical and surgical adult ICUs, each on a separate hospital site within a 1,200-bed academic, tertiary London hospital group...
October 26, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069335/uncovering-the-wisdom-hidden-between-the-lines-the-collaborative-reflexive-deliberative-approach
#8
Benjamin F Crabtree, William L Miller, Jane M Gunn, William E Hogg, Cathie M Scott, Jean-Frederic Levesque, Mark F Harris, Sabrina M Chase, Jenny R Advocat, Lisa M Halma, Grant M Russell
Background: Meta-analysis and meta-synthesis have been developed to synthesize results across published studies; however, they are still largely grounded in what is already published, missing the tacit 'between the lines' knowledge generated during many research projects that are not intrinsic to the main objectives of studies. Objective: To develop a novel approach to expand and deepen meta-syntheses using researchers' experience, tacit knowledge and relevant unpublished materials...
October 23, 2017: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049158/advanced-nursing-education-critical-factors-that-influence-diploma-and-associate-degree-nurses-to-advance
#9
Rose Lavine McGhie-Anderson
AIM: The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the social processes associated with the decision of diploma and associate degree nurses to advance academically. BACKGROUND: Advanced nursing education needs to be pursued along the continuum of the nursing career path. This education process is indispensable to the role of nurses as educator, manager, nurse leader, and researcher who will effect policy changes, assume leadership roles as revolutionary thinkers, and implement paradigmatic shifts...
November 2017: Nursing Education Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048981/women-and-the-decision-to-leave-linger-or-lean-in-predictors-of-intent-to-leave-and-aspirations-to-leadership-and-advancement-in-academic-medicine
#10
Elizabeth H Ellinas, Nadya Fouad, Angela Byars-Winston
BACKGROUND: The Association of American Medical Colleges reports continued low rates of female faculty as professors and in leadership positions. While attrition and discrimination have both been proposed as explanations, recent literature has suggested that women's professional motivations, ingrained behavior, and perceptions of organizational support may also play a role. METHODS: The authors employed a series of scales informed by the turnover theory (which predicts intent to leave an organization), previously validated and used in business and engineering studies, but rarely used in academic medicine...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040303/continuing-professional-development-for-medical-nursing-and-midwifery-cadres-in-malawi-tanzania-and-south-africa-a-qualitative-evaluation
#11
Caryl Feldacker, Jillian Pintye, Sheena Jacob, Michael H Chung, Lyn Middleton, Jill Iliffe, H Nina Kim
BACKGROUND: As innovations in the prevention and treatment of HIV and TB advance, continuing professional development (CPD) of health care workers (HCWs) remains a high priority, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa where dual TB/HIV epidemics are compounded by severe HCW shortages. There is further need to examine CPD programs to identify challenges and effective solutions to strengthen HIV/TB-related CPD. METHODS: Qualitative evaluations in Malawi, Tanzania and South Africa (RSA) were conducted using key informant interviews (KIIs) and focus group discussions (FGDs) in each country to identify barriers and enablers of effective HIV/TB-related CPD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020840/self-determining-medical-leadership-needs-of-occupational-health-physicians
#12
Prosenjit Giri, Jill Aylott, Karen Kilner
Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore which factors motivate doctors to engage in leadership roles and to frame an inquiry of self-assessment within Self-Determination Theory (SDT) to identify the extent to which a group of occupational health physicians (OHPs) was able to self-determine their leadership needs, using a National Health Service (NHS) England competency approach promoted by the NHS England Leadership Academy as a self-assessment leadership diagnostic. Medical leadership is seen as crucial to the transformation of health-care services, yet leadership programmes are often designed with a top-down and centrally commissioned "one-size-fits-all" approach...
October 12, 2017: Leadership in Health Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016164/linking-job-relevant-personality-traits-transformational-leadership-and-job-performance-via-perceived-meaningfulness-at-work-a-moderated-mediation-model
#13
Rachel E Frieder, Gang Wang, In-Sue Oh
By integrating the fundamental principles of the theory of purposeful work behavior (TPWB; Barrick, Mount, & Li, 2013) with cognitive-affective personality system (CAPS) theory (Mischel, 1977; Mischel & Shoda, 1995), we examine how and when salespeople's job-relevant personality traits relate to their performance. We argue that individuals with personality traits that fit outdoor sales jobs (i.e., conscientious, extraversion, openness to experience) will perceive their work as more meaningful and as a result achieve heightened performance...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016162/do-women-ceos-face-greater-threat-of-shareholder-activism-compared-to-male-ceos-a-role-congruity-perspective
#14
Vishal K Gupta, Seonghee Han, Sandra C Mortal, Sabatino Dino Silveri, Daniel B Turban
We examine the glass cliff proposition that female CEOs receive more scrutiny than male CEOs, by investigating whether CEO gender is related to threats from activist investors in public firms. Activist investors are extraorganizational stakeholders who, when dissatisfied with some aspect of the way the firm is being managed, seek to change the strategy or operations of the firm. Although some have argued that women will be viewed more favorably than men in top leadership positions (so-called "female leadership" advantage logic), we build on role congruity theory to hypothesize that female CEOs are significantly more likely than male CEOs to come under threat from activist investors...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991842/medical-school-factors-that-prepare-students-to-become-leaders-in-medicine
#15
Louise Arnold, Paul G Cuddy, Susan B Hathaway, Jennifer L Quaintance, Steven L Kanter
PURPOSE: To identify medical school factors graduates in major leadership positions perceive as contributing to their leadership development. METHOD: Using a phenomenological, qualitative approach, in August-November 2015 the authors conducted semistructured interviews with 48 medical leaders who were 1976-1999 baccalaureate-MD graduates of the University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine (UMKC). At UMKC, they participated in longitudinal learning communities, the centerpiece for learning professional values and behaviors plus clinical skills, knowledge, and judgment, but received no formal leadership instruction...
October 3, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987210/application-of-kotter-s-theory-of-change-to-achieve-baby-friendly-designation
#16
Laura S Henry, M Christine Hansson, Vivian C Haughton, Alyssa Livengood Waite, Margi Bowers, Vickie Siegrist, Elizabeth J Thompson
Creating an environment that optimally supports exclusive breastfeeding can require a cultural transformation. Our initial attempt at obtaining Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) designation was unsuccessful when surveyors determined insufficient enculturation of BFHI practices. Using Kotter's theory of change, we overcame the barriers, enhanced our practices, and effectively transformed the culture, and our facility ultimately became the first maternity hospital in Pennsylvania to obtain BFHI designation...
October 2017: Nursing for Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977229/critical-incidents-connected-to-nurses-leadership-in-intensive-care-units
#17
Elaine Cantarella Lima, Andrea Bernardes, Priscila Lapaz Baldo, Vanessa Gomes Maziero, Silvia Helena Henriques Camelo, Alexandre Pazetto Balsanelli
Objective: The goal of this study is to analyze nurses' leadership in intensive care units at hospitals in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in the face of positive and negative critical incidents. Method: Exploratory, descriptive study, conducted with 24 nurses by using the Critical Incident Technique as a methodological benchmark. Results: Results were grouped into 61 critical incidents distributed into categories. Researchers came to the conclusion that leadership-related situations interfere with IC nurses' behaviors...
September 2017: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971392/psychodynamic-leadership-approach-and-leader-member-exchange-lmx-a-psychiatric-perspective-on-two-leadership-theories-and-implications-for-training-future-psychiatrist-leaders
#18
Christos Plakiotis
An increased emphasis in recent years on psychiatrists as healthcare leaders has not only drawn attention to the skills they can bring to this role but has also raised questions about how to best train and prepare them to assume leadership responsibilities. Such training should not be conducted in isolation from, and oblivious to, the wide-ranging expertise in human behaviour and relationships that psychiatrists can bring to the leadership arena. The aim of this theoretical paper is to draw attention to how psychiatrists can use their existing knowledge and skill set to inform their understanding of leadership theory and practice...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957868/the-relationship-between-and-factors-influencing-staff-nurses-perceptions-of-nurse-manager-caring-and-exposure-to-workplace-bullying-in-multiple-healthcare-settings
#19
Lynda Olender
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between, and factors influencing, staff nurse perceptions of nurse manager caring (NMC) and the perceived exposure to workplace bullying (WPB) in multiple healthcare settings. BACKGROUND: Workplace bullying is commonplace, increasing, and detrimental to the health and availability of our nursing workforce. Positive relationships between a nurse manager (NM) and staff increase staff satisfaction and reduce turnover...
October 2017: Journal of Nursing Administration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957865/enhanced-influence-through-advancing-scope-of-practice-policy-research-an-interview-with-alex-hoyt
#20
Jeffrey M Adams
This department highlights emerging nursing leaders who have demonstrated leadership in advancing innovation and patient care in practice policy, research, education, and theory. This interview profiles Alex Hoyt, assistant professor at Massachusetts Institute for Health Professions.
October 2017: Journal of Nursing Administration
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