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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623911/moderate-mental-illness-as-a-predictor-of-chronic-disease-prevention-and-screening
#1
Ginetta Salvalaggio, Christopher Meaney, Rahim Moineddin, Eva Grunfeld, Donna Manca
BACKGROUND: Primary care plays a pivotal role in the provision of both mental health care and chronic disease prevention and screening (CDPS). Unfortunately, moderate mental illness (MMI) is associated with poorer general health outcomes. Part of this burden of illness may be due to reduced CDPS uptake. The Building on the Existing Tools to Improve Chronic Disease Prevention in Primary Care (BETTER) trial recruited 777 participants ages 40-65 from 32 family practice panels, of whom 135 (18...
June 17, 2017: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600932/investigation-of-associations-between-attachment-parenting-and-schizotypy-during-the-postnatal-period
#2
Melanie Hugill, Ian Fletcher, Katherine Berry
BACKGROUND: Parenting can be a stressful experience particularly for people with mental health problems or people who experienced abuse or attachment difficulties in their own childhoods. This study examined the relationships between earlier trauma, attachment, parenting and schizotypy in a non-clinical sample, with the specific hypothesis that parenting stress and competence would mediate any association between trauma, attachment and schizotypy. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-four first time parents with a child under 12 months old completed the following questionnaires online: the Experiences of Close Relationships Scale - Short Form (ECR-S), the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire - Brief, Revised (SPQ-BR) the Parenting Stress Scale, the Parenting Sense of Competence Scale (PSOC) and the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Questionnaire...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592458/localized-and-systemic-variations-in-central-motor-drive-at-different-local-skin-and-muscle-temperatures
#3
Alex Lloyd, Lewis Picton, Margherita Raccuglia, Simon Hodder, George Havenith
This study investigated the ability to sustain quadriceps central motor drive while subjected to localized heat and metaboreceptive feedback from the contralateral leg. Eight active males each completed two counter-balanced trials, in which muscle temperature (Tm) of a single-leg (TEMP-LEG) was altered to 29.4 (COOL) or 37.6°C (WARM), while the contralateral leg (CL-LEG) remained thermoneutral; 35.3 and 35.2°C Tm in COOL and WARM respectively. To activate metaboreceptive feedback, participants first performed one 120-s isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the knee extensors in the TEMP-LEG, immediately followed by post-exercise muscle ischemia (PEMI) via femoral blood flow occlusion...
June 7, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499901/antioxidant-and-anti-inflammatory-nutrient-status-supplementation-and-mechanisms-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#4
REVIEW
Sumedha Mitra, Radhika Natarajan, Douglas Ziedonis, Xiaoduo Fan
Over 50 million people around the world suffer from schizophrenia, a severe mental illness characterized by misinterpretation of reality. Although the exact causes of schizophrenia are still unknown, studies have indicated that inflammation and oxidative stress may play an important role in the etiology of the disease. Pro-inflammatory cytokines are crucial for normal central nervous development and proper functioning of neural networks and neurotransmitters. Patients with schizophrenia tend to have abnormal immune activation resulting in elevated pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, ultimately leading to functional brain impairments...
May 9, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395209/maternal-depression-and-personality-traits-in-association-with-child-neuropsychological-and-behavioral-development-in-preschool-years-mother-child-cohort-rhea-study-in-crete-greece
#5
Katerina Koutra, Theano Roumeliotaki, Andriani Kyriklaki, Mariza Kampouri, Katerina Sarri, Maria Vassilaki, Panos Bitsios, Manolis Kogevinas, Leda Chatzi
BACKGROUND: Poor perinatal maternal mental health has been linked with negative outcomes on early child development; however, the importance of maternal personality has been neglected thus far. We aimed to examine the effects of antenatal and postnatal maternal mental health, including assessment of maternal personality characteristics, on child neuropsychological and behavioral development at preschool years in a population based mother-child cohort (Rhea Study) in Crete, Greece. METHOD: Self-reported measures of maternal depression (EPDS), trait anxiety (STAI-Trait) and personality traits (EPQ-R) were assessed in a sample of 288 women at 28-32 weeks of gestation...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394222/exploring-the-impact-of-living-with-dyslexia-the-perspectives-of-children-and-their-parents
#6
Suze Leitão, Peta Dzidic, Mary Claessen, Joanne Gordon, Kate Howard, Mandy Nayton, Mark E Boyes
PURPOSE: A small but growing body of literature indicates that children with dyslexia are at elevated risk of internalising and externalising mental health problems. However, little research addresses why this might be the case, particularly from the point of view of the children or their parents. This study therefore aimed to explore the lived experiences of children with dyslexia, and their parents. METHOD: Drawing on a phenomenological approach, 13 children with dyslexia and 21 parents were interviewed...
April 10, 2017: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290942/increased-postdeployment-use-of-medication-for-common-mental-disorders-in-danish-gulf-war-veterans
#7
Lars Ravnborg Nissen, Christian Stoltenberg, Mia Sadowa Vedtofte, Anni Brit Sternhagen Nielsen, Jacob Louis Marott, Finn Gyntelberg, Bernadette Guldager
BACKGROUND: Gulf War veterans (GWVs) have an elevated risk of reporting symptoms of mental disorders as compared with nondeployed military controls. A difficulty in the Gulf War health research is that most health outcomes are self-reported; therefore, it is highly relevant to study objective outcomes in this line of research. The Danish National Prescription Registry provides an opportunity to use the prescription of drugs as an objective evaluation of the impact of mental health disorders at the individual level...
March 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253079/noradrenergic-stimulation-impairs-memory-generalization-in-women
#8
Lisa Marieke Kluen, Agorastos Agorastos, Klaus Wiedemann, Lars Schwabe
Memory generalization is essential for adaptive decision-making and action. Our ability to generalize across past experiences relies on medial-temporal lobe structures, known to be highly sensitive to stress. Recent evidence suggests that stressful events may indeed interfere with memory generalization. Yet, the mechanisms involved in this generalization impairment are unknown. We tested here whether a pharmacological elevation of major stress mediators-noradrenaline and glucocorticoids-is sufficient to disrupt memory generalization...
July 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223158/aminoguanidine-alleviated-mma-induced-impairment-of-cognitive-ability-in-rats-by-downregulating-oxidative-stress-and-inflammatory-reaction
#9
Qiliang Li, Wenqi Song, Ze Tian, Peichang Wang
Methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) is the most common organic acidemia in childhood. Many "treated" patients continued to display various degrees of mental retardation and psychomotor delay, which could be caused by brain damage from elevated oxidative stress. Aminoguanidine (AG), a synthetic antioxidant, was tested in a MMA rat model for its potential therapeutic effects on memory impairment. The effects of AG on MMA-induced cognitive impairment in Wistar rats were evaluated with Morris Water Maze. The levels of nerve cell apoptosis and microglial activation were investigated to illustrate the mechanisms of the improvement of cognition with AG treatment in MMA rats...
February 13, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094191/functional-results-of-bilateral-reverse-total-shoulder-arthroplasty
#10
Chris R Mellano, Noam Kupfer, Robert Thorsness, Peter N Chalmers, Terrence F Feldheim, Patrick O'Donnell, Brian J Cole, Nikhil N Verma, Anthony A Romeo, Gregory P Nicholson
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to analyze a population of patients with bilateral reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) to evaluate their ability to perform activities of daily living and personal hygiene tasks. METHODS: At a minimum 2-year follow-up, we retrospectively reviewed 50 patients (100 shoulders) with a mean age of 72 years who underwent staged bilateral RTSA. The average follow-up period was 61 months (range, 24-121 months), with a minimum 2-year follow-up after the second surgical procedure...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077708/dynamic-shifts-in-large-scale-brain-network-balance-as-a-function-of-arousal
#11
Christina B Young, Gal Raz, Daphne Everaerd, Christian F Beckmann, Indira Tendolkar, Talma Hendler, Guillén Fernández, Erno J Hermans
The ability to temporarily prioritize rapid and vigilant reactions over slower higher-order cognitive functions is essential for adaptive responding to threat. This reprioritization is believed to reflect shifts in resource allocation between large-scale brain networks that support these cognitive functions, including the salience and executive control networks. However, how changes in communication within and between such networks dynamically unfold as a function of threat-related arousal remains unknown. To address this issue, we collected functional MRI data and continuously assessed the heart rate from 120 healthy human adults as they viewed emotionally arousing and ecologically valid cinematographic material...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066108/neuroprotective-effect-of-celastrus-paniculatus-on-chronic-stress-induced-cognitive-impairment
#12
V Bhagya, Thomas Christofer, B S Shankaranarayana Rao
OBJECTIVE: Several studies report that chronic stress results in impaired spatial learning and working memory and enhanced anxiety-like behavior. However, not many studies have looked into the possible ways of reversing stress-induced deficits. Celastrus paniculatus (CP), a traditional ayurvedic herbal medicine, was used to treat cognitive deficits in mentally retarded children. CP oil has been reported to have neuroprotective and antioxidant activities. However, the effects of CP oil on chronic stress-induced cognitive deficits are unclear...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909095/dynamic-shifts-in-large-scale-brain-network-balance-as-a-function-of-arousal
#13
Christina B Young, Gal Raz, Daphne Everaerd, Christian F Beckmann, Indira Tendolkar, Talma Hendler, Guillén Fernández, Erno J Hermans
The ability to temporarily prioritize rapid and vigilant reactions over slower higher-order cognitive functions is essential for adaptive responding to threat. This reprioritization is believed to reflect shifts in resource allocation between large-scale brain networks that support these cognitive functions, including the salience and executive control networks. How changes in communication within and between such networks dynamically unfold as a function of threat-related arousal, however, remains unknown...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842473/a-virtual-hope-box-randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-smartphone-app-for-emotional-regulation-and-coping-with-distress
#14
Nigel E Bush, Derek J Smolenski, Lauren M Denneson, Holly B Williams, Elissa K Thomas, Steven K Dobscha
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of the Virtual Hope Box (VHB), a smartphone app to improve stress coping skills, suicidal ideation, and perceived reasons for living among patients at elevated risk of suicide and self-harm. METHODS: The authors conducted a parallel-group randomized controlled trial with two groups of U.S. service veterans in active mental health treatment who had recently expressed suicidal ideation. Between March 2014 and April 2015, 118 patients were enrolled in the study...
April 1, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690740/effect-of-trait-anxiety-on-cognitive-test-performance-in-adolescents-with-and-without-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#15
Barbara M Ruf, Katie L Bessette, Godfrey D Pearlson, Michael C Stevens
INTRODUCTION: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety are frequently comorbid disorders associated with different types of abnormal performance on neuropsychological tests. Although some studies have shown that comorbid anxiety alters ADHD test performance, results inconsistently show both improvements and worsening of different abilities, with failures to replicate across different anxiety disorders. Alternatively, trait anxiety may reflect a more stable influence on ADHD test performance than various diagnosable anxiety disorders...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670212/oxidative-stress-and-environmental-exposures-are-associated-with-multiple-system-atrophy-in-chinese-patients
#16
Linli Zhou, Ying Jiang, Cansheng Zhu, Lili Ma, Qiling Huang, Xiaohong Chen
OBJECTIVE: Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of multiple system atrophy (MSA). The aim of this study is to examine oxidant biomarkers including homocysteine (Hcys), bilirubin, uric acid, lipids, and potential environmental risk factors and to ascertain whether these data correlate with MSA in a Chinese population. METHODS: In this study, serum levels of Hcys, bilirubin, uric acid, and lipids were studied in 55 MSA patients and 76 healthy controls (HCs)...
September 2016: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598924/exploring-the-assessment-of-the-dsm-5-alternative-model-for-personality-disorders-with-the-personality-assessment-inventory
#17
Alexander J Busch, Leslie C Morey, Christopher J Hopwood
Section III of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed. [DSM-5]; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) contains an alternative model for the diagnosis of personality disorder involving the assessment of 25 traits and a global level of overall personality functioning. There is hope that this model will be increasingly used in clinical and research settings, and the ability to apply established instruments to assess these concepts could facilitate this process. This study sought to develop scoring algorithms for these alternative model concepts using scales from the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI)...
March 2017: Journal of Personality Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27584962/histamine-modulates-sweating-and-affects-clinical-manifestations-of-atopic-dermatitis
#18
REVIEW
Aya Takahashi, Saki Tani, Hiroyuki Murota, Ichiro Katayama
Many factors such as food or environmental allergens, bacteria, fungi, and mental stress aggravate the condition of atopic dermatitis (AD) eczema. Sweating can also exacerbate AD, and patients are aware of that. In the past, it has been reported that contamination of skin surface antigens by sweat induces acute allergic reactions and that sweating functions of AD patients via axonal reflexes are decreased. Histamine demonstrably inhibits acetylcholine-induced sweating in both mice and humans via histamine H1 receptor-mediated signaling...
2016: Current Problems in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27476980/psychotropic-drugs-and-risk-of-burn-injury-in-individuals-with-mental-illness-a-10-year-population-based-case-control-study
#19
Chia-Ming Chang, Kuan-Yi Wu, Yu-Wen Chiu, Hsiao-Ting Wu, Yu-Ting Tsai, Yeuk-Lun Chau, Hui-Ju Tsai
PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate the association between psychotropic treatment and risk of burn injury in individuals with mental illness. METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted by using the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. A total of 3187 cases with burn injury under International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes 940-949 and 19 122 matched controls were identified from 2003 to 2012...
August 2016: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27439600/sex-work-and-mental-health-a-study-of-women-in-the-netherlands
#20
Elizabeth J Krumrei-Mancuso
This study examined how characteristics of prostitution and quality-of-life factors related to symptoms of depression and post-traumatic stress among 88 women engaged in prostitution in the Netherlands. Numerous factors were associated with elevated mental health concerns, including the experience of violence in prostitution, engaging in street prostitution, being motivated to engage in prostitution for financial reasons, having less confidence in one's ability to find alternative work, desiring to leave prostitution, and sense of self-transcendence...
July 20, 2016: Archives of Sexual Behavior
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