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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909095/dynamic-shifts-in-large-scale-brain-network-balance-as-a-function-of-arousal
#1
Christina B Young, Gal Raz, Daphne Everaerd, Christian F Beckmann, Indira Tendolkar, Talma Hendler, Guillén Fernández, Erno J Hermans
: The ability to temporarily prioritize rapid and vigilant reactions over slower higher-order cognitive functions is essential for adaptive responding to threat. This reprioritization is believed to reflect shifts in resource allocation between large-scale brain networks that support these cognitive functions, including the salience and executive control networks. How changes in communication within and between such networks dynamically unfold as a function of threat-related arousal, however, remains unknown...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842473/a-virtual-hope-box-randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-smartphone-app-for-emotional-regulation-and-coping-with-distress
#2
Nigel E Bush, Derek J Smolenski, Lauren M Denneson, Holly B Williams, Elissa K Thomas, Steven K Dobscha
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of the Virtual Hope Box (VHB), a smartphone app to improve stress coping skills, suicidal ideation, and perceived reasons for living among patients at elevated risk of suicide and self-harm. METHODS: The authors conducted a parallel-group randomized controlled trial with two groups of U.S. service veterans in active mental health treatment who had recently expressed suicidal ideation. Between March 2014 and April 2015, 118 patients were enrolled in the study...
November 15, 2016: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690740/effect-of-trait-anxiety-on-cognitive-test-performance-in-adolescents-with-and-without-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#3
Barbara M Ruf, Katie L Bessette, Godfrey D Pearlson, Michael C Stevens
INTRODUCTION: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety are frequently comorbid disorders associated with different types of abnormal performance on neuropsychological tests. Although some studies have shown that comorbid anxiety alters ADHD test performance, results inconsistently show both improvements and worsening of different abilities, with failures to replicate across different anxiety disorders. Alternatively, trait anxiety may reflect a more stable influence on ADHD test performance than various diagnosable anxiety disorders...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670212/oxidative-stress-and-environmental-exposures-are-associated-with-multiple-system-atrophy-in-chinese-patients
#4
Linli Zhou, Ying Jiang, Cansheng Zhu, Lili Ma, Qiling Huang, Xiaohong Chen
OBJECTIVE: Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of multiple system atrophy (MSA). The aim of this study is to examine oxidant biomarkers including homocysteine (Hcys), bilirubin, uric acid, lipids, and potential environmental risk factors and to ascertain whether these data correlate with MSA in a Chinese population. METHODS: In this study, serum levels of Hcys, bilirubin, uric acid, and lipids were studied in 55 MSA patients and 76 healthy controls (HCs)...
September 2016: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598924/exploring-the-assessment-of-the-dsm-5-alternative-model-for-personality-disorders-with-the-personality-assessment-inventory
#5
Alexander J Busch, Leslie C Morey, Christopher J Hopwood
Section III of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed. [DSM-5]; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) contains an alternative model for the diagnosis of personality disorder involving the assessment of 25 traits and a global level of overall personality functioning. There is hope that this model will be increasingly used in clinical and research settings, and the ability to apply established instruments to assess these concepts could facilitate this process. This study sought to develop scoring algorithms for these alternative model concepts using scales from the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI)...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Personality Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27584962/histamine-modulates-sweating-and-affects-clinical-manifestations-of-atopic-dermatitis
#6
Aya Takahashi, Saki Tani, Hiroyuki Murota, Ichiro Katayama
Many factors such as food or environmental allergens, bacteria, fungi, and mental stress aggravate the condition of atopic dermatitis (AD) eczema. Sweating can also exacerbate AD, and patients are aware of that. In the past, it has been reported that contamination of skin surface antigens by sweat induces acute allergic reactions and that sweating functions of AD patients via axonal reflexes are decreased. Histamine demonstrably inhibits acetylcholine-induced sweating in both mice and humans via histamine H1 receptor-mediated signaling...
2016: Current Problems in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27476980/psychotropic-drugs-and-risk-of-burn-injury-in-individuals-with-mental-illness-a-10-year-population-based-case-control-study
#7
Chia-Ming Chang, Kuan-Yi Wu, Yu-Wen Chiu, Hsiao-Ting Wu, Yu-Ting Tsai, Yeuk-Lun Chau, Hui-Ju Tsai
PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate the association between psychotropic treatment and risk of burn injury in individuals with mental illness. METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted by using the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. A total of 3187 cases with burn injury under International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes 940-949 and 19 122 matched controls were identified from 2003 to 2012...
August 2016: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27439600/sex-work-and-mental-health-a-study-of-women-in-the-netherlands
#8
Elizabeth J Krumrei-Mancuso
This study examined how characteristics of prostitution and quality-of-life factors related to symptoms of depression and post-traumatic stress among 88 women engaged in prostitution in the Netherlands. Numerous factors were associated with elevated mental health concerns, including the experience of violence in prostitution, engaging in street prostitution, being motivated to engage in prostitution for financial reasons, having less confidence in one's ability to find alternative work, desiring to leave prostitution, and sense of self-transcendence...
July 20, 2016: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27435102/cognitive-and-motor-abilities-of-young-children-and-risk-of-injuries-in-the-home
#9
Jennifer Ehrhardt, Yingying Xu, Jane Khoury, Kimberly Yolton, Bruce Lanphear, Kieran Phelan
OBJECTIVE: Residential injury is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in US children. Rates and types of injury vary by child age but little is known about injury risk based on child cognitive and motor abilities. The objective of this study was to determine whether cognitive or motor development in young children is associated with residential injury. METHODS: We employed data from Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment (HOME) Study. Parent report of medically attended injury was obtained at regular intervals from 0 to 42 months...
July 19, 2016: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27427942/graphical-representations-of-adolescents-psychophysiological-reactivity-to-social-stressor-tasks-reliability-and-validity-of-the-chernoff-face-approach-and-person-centered-profiles-for-clinical-use
#10
Andres De Los Reyes, Amelia Aldao, Noor Qasmieh, Emily J Dunn, Melanie F Lipton, Catharina Hartman, Eric A Youngstrom, Lea R Dougherty, Matthew D Lerner
Low-cost methods exist for measuring physiology when clinically assessing adolescent social anxiety. Two barriers to widespread use involve lack of (a) physiological expertise among mental health professionals, and (b) techniques for modeling individual-level physiological profiles. We require a "bridge approach" for interpreting physiology that does not require users to have a physiological background to make judgments, and is amenable to developing individual-level physiological profiles. One method-Chernoff Faces-involves graphically representing data using human facial features (eyes, nose, mouth, face shape), thus capitalizing on humans' abilities to detect even subtle variations among facial features...
July 18, 2016: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27390877/treatment-experience-and-long-term-follow-up-data-in-two-severe-neonatal-hyperparathyroidism-cases
#11
Senay Savas-Erdeve, Elif Sagsak, Meliksah Keskin, Corinne Magdelaine, Anne Lienhardt-Roussie, Erdal Kurnaz, Semra Cetinkaya, Zehra Aycan
The calcium sensing receptor (CASR) is expressed most abundantly in the parathyroid glands and the kidney. CASR regulates calcium homeostasis through its ability to modulate parathormone secretion and renal calcium reabsorption. Inactivating mutations in the CASR gene may result in disorders of calcium homeostasis manifesting as familial benign hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FBHH) and neonatal severe hyperparathyroidsm (NSHPT). Two cases were referred with severe hypercalcemia in the neonatal period. Laboratory evaluation revealed severe hypercalcemia and elevated PTH...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27376948/pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-polypeptide-pacap-in-the-central-nucleus-of-the-amygdala-induces-anxiety-via-melanocortin-receptors
#12
Attilio Iemolo, Mariel Seiglie, Angelo Blasio, Pietro Cottone, Valentina Sabino
RATIONALE: Anxiety disorders are the most common mental disorders in the USA. Characterized by feelings of uncontrollable apprehension, they are accompanied by physical, affective, and behavioral symptoms. The neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and its receptor PAC1 (PAC1R) are highly expressed in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), and they have gained growing attention for their proposed role in mediating the body's response to stress. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the anxiogenic effects of PACAP in the CeA and its effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis...
September 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27311899/fetal-umbilical-artery-doppler-pulsatility-index-and-childhood-neurocognitive-outcome-at-12%C3%A2-years
#13
Fionnuala Mone, Barbara McConnell, Andrew Thompson, Ricardo Segurado, Peter Hepper, Moira C Stewart, James C Dornan, Stephen Ong, Fionnuala M McAuliffe, Michael D Shields
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether an elevated fetal umbilical artery Doppler (UAD) pulsatility index (PI) at 28 weeks' gestation, in the absence of fetal growth restriction (FGR) and prematurity, is associated with adverse neurocognitive outcome in children aged 12 years. METHODS: Prospective cohort study, comparing children with a normal fetal UAD PI (<90th centile) (n=110) and those with an elevated PI (≥90th centile) (n=40). UAD was performed at 28, 32 and 34 weeks gestation...
2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27215959/new-data-on-harmful-effects-of-trans-fatty-acids
#14
REVIEW
E Ginter, V Simko
Various margarines containing trans-fatty acids were marketed as being healthier because of the absence of cholesterol, suggesting to use margarine instead of butter. Fifteen years ago, research documented the grave health risk of trans-fats (T-fat). US FDA in 2015 finalized its decision that T-fat is not safe and set a three-year time limit for complete removal of T-fat from all foods. The greatest danger from T-fat lies in its capacity to distort the cell membranes. The primary health risk identified for T-fat consumption is an elevated risk of coronary heart disease...
2016: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27121090/online-cbt-life-skills-programme-for-low-mood-and-anxiety-study-protocol-for-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Christopher Williams, Carrie-Anne McClay, Rebeca Martinez, Jill Morrison, Caroline Haig, Ray Jones, Paul Farrand
BACKGROUND: Low mood is a common mental health problem with significant health consequences. Studies have shown that cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for low mood and anxiety when delivered one-to-one by an expert practitioner. However, access to this talking therapy is often limited and waiting lists can be long, although a range of low-intensity interventions that can increase access to services are available. These include guided self-help materials delivered via books, classes and online packages...
2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27120552/screening-for-co-occurring-conditions-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-using-the-strengths-and-difficulties-questionnaire-a-pilot-study
#16
James Findon, Tim Cadman, Catherine S Stewart, Emma Woodhouse, Hanna Eklund, Hannah Hayward, Daniel De Le Harpe Golden, Eddie Chaplin, Karen Glaser, Emily Simonoff, Declan Murphy, Patrick F Bolton, Fiona S McEwen
Adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at elevated risk of co-occurring mental health problems. These are often undiagnosed, can cause significant impairment, and place a very high burden on family and carers. Detecting co-occurring disorders is extremely important. However, there is no validated screening tool for this purpose. The aim of this pilot study is to test the utility of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) to screen for co-occurring emotional disorders and hyperactivity in adolescents and adults with ASD...
March 28, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27064443/e-cigarette-use-in-veterans-seeking-mental-health-and-or-substance-use-services
#17
Kathryn Hefner, Robert Rosenheck, Jeremy Merrel, Marcedes Coffman, Gerry Valentine, Mehmet Sofuoglu
OBJECTIVE: Individuals with mental illness and substance use disorders smoke at elevated rates and tend to have greater difficulty quitting smoking as compared to the general population. Some believe that e-cigarettes may reduce harm associated with smoking, but little is known about e-cigarette use, perceptions, and motivations for their use among individuals with mental health and/or substance use disorders. METHODS: Rates and correlates of e-cigarette use, perceptions, and sources of information about e-cigarettes among smokers seeking mental health and/or substance use services (N = 188) at the VA Connecticut Healthcare System were assessed via a brief survey...
April 2016: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26987024/extension-of-drosophila-lifespan-by-rhodiola-rosea-depends-on-dietary-carbohydrate-and-caloric-content-in-a-simplified-diet
#18
Samuel E Schriner, Volkan Coskun, Sean P Hogan, Cindy T Nguyen, Terry E Lopez, Mahtab Jafari
The root and rhizome extract of Rhodiola rosea has been extensively used in traditional medicine to improve physical and mental performance and to protect against stress. We, and others, have reported that R. rosea can extend lifespan in flies, worms, and yeast. We also previously found that the extract can act independently of dietary restriction (DR), a treatment that can extend lifespan in a range of model organisms. In flies, DR is implemented through a reduction in dietary yeast content. Here, we report that the ability of R...
March 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26832897/-a-study-of-relationship-between-occupational-stress-and-diseases-in-secondary-school-teachers
#19
Yang Zhang, Tao Zhu, Liu Tang, Jian Li, Yajia Lan
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship between occupational stress and diseases in secondary school teachers in a city of Sichuan Province, and to provide a basis for the evaluation of the long-term effects of occupational stress in teachers. METHODS: With secondary school teachers as the target population, the stratified cluster sampling was adopted to conduct three studies among 780, 119, and 689 secondary school teachers in a city of Sichuan Province in 1999, 2005, and 2009, respectively...
October 2015: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26773604/sleep-deprivation-produces-feelings-of-vicarious-agency
#20
Nicholas Hon, Jia-Hou Poh
A variety of self-related psychological constructs are supported by the fundamental ability to accurately sense either self-agency or lack of agency in some action or outcome. Agency judgments are typically studied in individuals who are well-rested and mentally-fresh; however, in our increasingly fast-paced world, such judgments often need to be made while in less optimal states. Here, we studied the effect of being in one such non-optimal state - when sleep-deprived - on judgments of agency. We found that 24h of total sleep deprivation elevated agency ratings on trials designed to produce a strong sense of non-agency...
February 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
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