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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742460/low-grade-inflammation-decreases-emotion-recognition-evidence-from-the-vaccination-model-of-inflammation
#1
Leonie Jt Balter, Sasha Hulsken, Sarah Aldred, Mark T Drayson, Suzanne Higgs, Jet Jcs Veldhuijzen van Zanten, Jane E Raymond, Jos A Bosch
The ability to adequately interpret the mental state of another person is key to complex human social interaction. Recent evidence suggests that this ability, considered a hallmark of 'theory of mind' (ToM), becomes impaired by inflammation. However, extant supportive empirical evidence is based on experiments that induce not only inflammation but also induce discomfort and sickness, factors that could also account for temporary social impairment. Hence, an experimental inflammation manipulation was applied that avoided this confound, isolating effects of inflammation and social interaction...
May 6, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672095/concurrent-validity-of-the-personality-assessment-screener-in-a-large-sample-of-offenders
#2
Shannon E Kelley, John F Edens, Kevin S Douglas
Mental health problems are disproportionately prevalent in forensic and correctional settings, and there have been numerous attempts to develop screening tools to evaluate individuals in such contexts. This study investigates the clinical utility of the Personality Assessment Screener (PAS; Morey, 1997), a brief self-report measure of risk for emotional and behavioral dysfunction, in a large mixed-gender offender sample (N = 1,658). The PAS is a 22-item measure derived from the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991, 2007), a more comprehensive self-report instrument widely used to assess for psychological disturbances among forensic and correctional populations...
April 2018: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628501/excitatory-and-inhibitory-synaptic-dysfunction-in-mania-an-emerging-hypothesis-from-animal-model-studies
#3
REVIEW
Yeunkum Lee, Yinhua Zhang, Shinhyun Kim, Kihoon Han
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a common psychiatric disorder characterized by recurrent mood swings between depression and mania, and is associated with high treatment costs. The existence of manic episodes is the defining feature of BD, during which period, patients experience extreme elevation in activity, energy, and mood, with changes in sleep patterns that together severely impair their ability to function in daily life. Despite some limitations in recapitulating the complex features of human disease, several rodent models of mania have been generated and characterized, which have provided important insights toward understanding its underlying pathogenic mechanisms...
April 9, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503039/implementing-the-international-committee-on-mental-health-in-cystic-fibrosis-icmh-guidelines-screening-accuracy-and-referral-treatment-pathways
#4
Marieke Verkleij, Derek de Winter, Margaret Anne Hurley, Janice Abbott
BACKGROUND: The International Committee on Mental Health (ICMH) published screening guidelines in Cystic Fibrosis (CF). This work 1) evaluated the sensitivity of the recommended screening tools against the 'gold standard' clinical psychological assessment and 2) investigated referral and treatment pathways. METHODS: Ninety-six participants (79 caregivers; 17 adolescents with CF) completed the screening tools prior to formal assessment. Agreement between screening data and psychological assessment was evaluated, sensitivity analyses performed and referral pathways tracked...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471677/association-between-coping-strategies-social-support-and-depression-and-anxiety-symptoms-among-rural-ugandan-women-living-with-hiv-aids
#5
Victoria Seffren, Itziar Familiar, Sarah M Murray, Jura Augustinavicius, Michael J Boivin, Noeline Nakasujja, Robert Opoka, Judith Bass
Poor mental health detrimentally affects quality of life among women living with HIV/AIDS. An improved understanding of how coping and social support relate to depression and anxiety in this population can facilitate the design and implementation of appropriate mental health treatment and support services. Secondary analysis was conducted on baseline data from 288 HIV-positive women enrolled in a parenting intervention in Uganda. Depression and anxiety symptoms, social support, and coping were assessed with the Hopkins Symptom Checklist and adapted versions of the Multidimensional Scale for Perceived Social Support and Ways of Coping Questionnaire...
February 22, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460358/role-of-social-environmental-protective-factors-on-anxiety-and-depressive-symptoms-among-midwestern-homeless-youth
#6
Kimberly A Tyler, Rachel M Schmitz, Colleen M Ray
We employ a social stress framework, which examines the influence of multiple stressors (e.g., physical abuse, foster care placement) on an individual's ability to function (e.g., mental well-being), to longitudinally examine the effects of stressful life events on mental health and the role of the social environment in this process among 150 homeless youth. Results revealed that numerous stressors, such as physical abuse and running away from home more frequently, were associated with greater depressive symptoms and elevated anxiety...
March 2018: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450842/mental-health-during-residency-training-assessing-the-barriers-to-seeking-care
#7
Alexandra L Aaronson, Katherine Backes, Gaurava Agarwal, Joshua L Goldstein, Joan Anzia
OBJECTIVES: Resident and fellow physicians are at elevated risk for developing depression compared to the general population; however, they are also less likely to utilize mental health services. We sought to identify the barriers to seeking mental health treatment among residents across all specialties at a large academic medical center in Chicago, IL. METHODS: Residents and fellows from all programs were asked to complete an anonymous self-report questionnaire...
February 14, 2018: Academic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435558/association-between-amyloid-and-tau-accumulation-in-young-adults-with-autosomal-dominant-alzheimer-disease
#8
Yakeel T Quiroz, Reisa A Sperling, Daniel J Norton, Ana Baena, Joseph F Arboleda-Velasquez, Danielle Cosio, Aaron Schultz, Molly Lapoint, Edmarie Guzman-Velez, John B Miller, Leo A Kim, Kewei Chen, Pierre N Tariot, Francisco Lopera, Eric M Reiman, Keith A Johnson
Importance: It is critically important to improve our ability to diagnose and track Alzheimer disease (AD) as early as possible. Individuals with autosomal dominant forms of AD can provide clues as to which and when biological changes are reliably present prior to the onset of clinical symptoms. Objective: To characterize the associations between amyloid and tau deposits in the brains of cognitively unimpaired and impaired carriers of presenilin 1 (PSEN1) E280A mutation...
February 12, 2018: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350124/a-dimensional-approach-to-assessing-psychiatric-risk-in-adults-born-very-preterm
#9
Jasmin Kroll, Sean Froudist-Walsh, Philip J Brittain, Chieh-En J Tseng, Vyacheslav Karolis, Robin M Murray, Chiara Nosarti
BACKGROUND: Individuals who were born very preterm have higher rates of psychiatric diagnoses compared with term-born controls; however, it remains unclear whether they also display increased sub-clinical psychiatric symptomatology. Hence, our objective was to utilize a dimensional approach to assess psychiatric symptomatology in adult life following very preterm birth. METHODS: We studied 152 adults who were born very preterm (before 33 weeks' gestation; gestational range 24-32 weeks) and 96 term-born controls...
January 19, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317066/an-exploration-of-the-hypothesis-that-testosterone-is-implicated-in-the-psychological-functioning-of-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-pcos
#10
J A Barry, F Qu, P J Hardiman
One of the diagnostic features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is elevation of the androgen, testosterone. It is known that women with PCOS are more likely to suffer from psychological problems, especially anxiety and depression, than other women. However, little is known of how much of this is due to testosterone, and if so, what the mechanism(s) might be. This study explores the hypothesis that testosterone impacts women with PCOS both directly and indirectly, via testosterone currently in the bloodstream and through prenatal exposure...
January 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298990/gsk3%C3%AE-negatively-regulates-trax-a-scaffold-protein-implicated-in-mental-disorders-for-nhej-mediated-dna-repair-in-neurons
#11
Ting Chien, Yu-Ting Weng, Shu-Yung Chang, Hsing-Lin Lai, Feng-Lan Chiu, Hung-Chih Kuo, De-Maw Chuang, Yijuang Chern
Translin-associated protein X (TRAX) is a scaffold protein with various functions and has been associated with mental illnesses, including schizophrenia. We have previously demonstrated that TRAX interacts with a Gsα protein-coupled receptor, the A2A adenosine receptor (A2A R), and mediates the function of this receptor in neuritogenesis. In addition, stimulation of the A2A R markedly ameliorates DNA damage evoked by elevated oxidative stress in neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Here, we report that glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β) and disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) are two novel interacting proteins of TRAX...
January 3, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189895/acceptance-and-barriers-to-access-of-occupational-e-mental-health-cross-sectional-findings-from-a-health-risk-population-of-employees
#12
Severin Hennemann, Michael Witthöft, Matthias Bethge, Katja Spanier, Manfred E Beutel, Rüdiger Zwerenz
PURPOSE: Occupational e-mental-health (OEMH) may extend existing instruments for preservation or restoration of health and work ability. As a key precondition to efficient implementation, this study examined acceptance and person-centered barriers to potential uptake of OEMH for work-related distress in employees with an elevated risk of early retirement. METHODS: Within the framework of the "Third German Sociomedical Panel of Employees", 1829 employees with prior sickness absence payments filled out a self-administered questionnaire...
November 30, 2017: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183406/coping-strategies-in-mothers-of-children-with-intellectual-disabilities-showing-multiple-forms-of-challenging-behaviour-associations-with-maternal-mental-health
#13
D Adams, J Rose, N Jackson, E Karakatsani, C Oliver
BACKGROUND: It is well documented that mothers of children with intellectual disabilities experience elevated mental health difficulties and that these are exacerbated by the presence of challenging behaviour. However, comparatively little is known about the effect of specific coping strategies for managing such behaviours. AIMS: This paper aims to document coping strategies used by mothers of children showing multiple forms of challenging behaviour and to explore how these relate to positive and negative maternal mental health...
November 29, 2017: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137682/cefepime-induced-neurotoxicity-a-systematic-review
#14
Lauren E Payne, David J Gagnon, Richard R Riker, David B Seder, Elizabeth K Glisic, Jane G Morris, Gilles L Fraser
BACKGROUND: Cefepime is a widely used antibiotic with neurotoxicity attributed to its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier and exhibit concentration-dependent ϒ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) antagonism. Neurotoxic symptoms include depressed consciousness, encephalopathy, aphasia, myoclonus, seizures, and coma. Data suggest that up to 15% of ICU patients treated with cefepime may experience these adverse effects. Risk factors include renal dysfunction, excessive dosing, preexisting brain injury, and elevated serum cefepime concentrations...
November 14, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084093/acute-effects-of-the-elevation-training-mask-on-strength-performance-in-recreational-weight-lifters
#15
Andrew R Jagim, Trevor A Dominy, Clayton L Camic, Glenn Wright, Scott Doberstein, Margaret T Jones, Jonathan M Oliver
Jagim, AR, Dominy, TA, Camic, CL, Wright, G, Doberstein, S, Jones, MT, and Oliver, JM. Acute effects of the elevation training mask on strength performance in recreational weightlifters. J Strength Cond Res 32(2): 482-489, 2018-The Elevation Training Mask 2.0 (ETM) is a novel device that purportedly simulates altitude training. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of the ETM on resistance exercise performance, metabolic stress markers, and ratings of mental fatigue. Twenty male recreational weight lifters completed 2 training sessions of back squat and bench press (6 sets of 10 repetitions at 85% of 5-repetition maximum and seventh set to failure) as well as a maximal effort sprint test (18% body mass) with the mask (ETM) and without the mask (NM)...
February 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031468/gunslingers-poker-players-and-chickens-1-decision-making-under-physical-performance-pressure-in-elite-athletes
#16
Beth L Parkin, Katie Warriner, Vincent Walsh
BACKGROUND: The cognitive skills required during sport are highly demanding; accurate decisions based on the processing of dynamic environments are made in a fraction of a second (Walsh, 2014). Optimal decision-making abilities are crucial for success in sporting competition (Bar-Eli et al., 2011; Kaya, 2014). Moreover, for the elite athlete, decision making is required under conditions of intense mental and physical pressure (Anshel and Wells, 2000), yet much of the work in this area has largely ignored the highly stressful context in which athletes operate...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016693/driving-simulator-scenarios-and-measures-to-faithfully-evaluate-risky-driving-behavior-a-comparative-study-of-different-driver-age-groups
#17
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Jesse Michaels, Romain Chaumillon, David Nguyen-Tri, Donald Watanabe, Pierro Hirsch, Francois Bellavance, Guillaume Giraudet, Delphine Bernardin, Jocelyn Faubert
To investigate the links between mental workload, age and risky driving, a cross-sectional study was conducted on a driving simulator using several established and some novel measures of driving ability and scenarios of varying complexity. A sample of 115 drivers was divided into three age and experience groups: young inexperienced (18-21 years old), adult experienced (25-55 years old) and older adult (70-86 years old). Participants were tested on three different scenarios varying in mental workload from low to high...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977664/trajectories-of-perceived-workplace-age-discrimination-and-long-term-associations-with-mental-self-rated-and-occupational-health
#18
Lisa A Marchiondo, Ernest Gonzales, Larry J Williams
Objective: This study addresses older employees' trajectories of perceived workplace age discrimination, and the long-term associations among perceived age discrimination and older workers' mental and self-rated health, job satisfaction, and likelihood of working past retirement age. We evaluate the strength and vulnerability integration (SAVI) model. Method: Three waves of data from employed participants were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study (N = 3,957)...
July 12, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964293/emotional-and-behaviour-difficulties-in-teenagers-with-permanent-childhood-hearing-loss
#19
Jim Stevenson, Hannah Pimperton, Jana Kreppner, Sarah Worsfold, Emmanouela Terlektsi, Colin Kennedy
OBJECTIVES: It is known that during the middle childhood years those with permanent childhood hearing loss (PCHL) are at increased risk of showing emotional and behaviour difficulties (EBD). It has yet to be established whether this risk continues into the late teenage years. There is a paucity of longitudinal studies on the association between PCHL and EBD. METHODS: The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used to measure EBD based on parent, teacher and self-ratings in 76 teenagers with PCHL and 38 in a hearing comparison group (HCG) from a population sample of children that was followed up from birth to adolescence...
October 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915470/emotional-and-behavioural-problems-in-children-with-developmental-coordination-disorder-exploring-parent-and-teacher-reports
#20
Laura Crane, Emma Sumner, Elisabeth L Hill
BACKGROUND: Although characterised by motor impairments, children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) also show high rates of psychopathology (anxiety, depression, low self-esteem). Such findings have led to calls for the screening of mental health problems in this group. AIMS: To investigate patterns and profiles of emotional and behavioural problems in children with and without DCD, using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Teachers and parents completed SDQs for 30 children with DCD (7-10 years)...
September 12, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
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