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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645023/maternal-serum-pfoa-concentration-and-dna-methylation-in-cord-blood-a-pilot-study
#1
Samantha L Kingsley, Karl T Kelsey, Rondi Butler, Aimin Chen, Melissa N Eliot, Megan E Romano, Andres Houseman, Devin C Koestler, Bruce P Lanphear, Kimberly Yolton, Joseph M Braun
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a perfluoroalkyl substance, is commonly detected in the serum of pregnant women and may impact fetal development via epigenetic re-programming. In a pilot study, we explored associations between serum PFOA concentrations during pregnancy and offspring peripheral leukocyte DNA methylation at delivery in women with high (n = 22, range: 12-26ng/mL) and low (n = 22, range: 1.1-3.1ng/mL) PFOA concentrations. After adjusting for cell type, child sex, and income, we did not find differences in CpG methylation in the two exposure groups that reached epigenome-wide significance...
June 20, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645003/structure-and-gene-cluster-of-the-o-antigen-of-enterobacter-cloacae-c4115
#2
Andrei V Perepelov, Guangnan Xu, Andrei V Filatov, Xinjie Zhang, Alexander S Shashkov, Min Wang, Yuriy A Knirel
An O-polysaccharide was isolated by mild acid degradation of the lipopolysaccharide of Enterobacter cloacae C4115 and studied by sugar analysis along with 1D and 2D (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The following structure of the linear pentasaccharide repeating unit of the O-polysaccharide was established: →2)-α-l-Rhap-(1 → 2)-α-l-Rhap-(1 → 2)-α-l-Rhap-(1 → 2)-α-d-Galp-(1 → 3)-α-d-FucpNAc-(1→ The O-antigen gene cluster of E. cloacae C4115 was sequenced. The gene functions were tentatively assigned by comparison with sequences in the available databases and found to be in consistence with the O-polysaccharide structure...
June 3, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644379/physical-forces-may-cause-the-hoxd-gene-cluster-elongation
#3
Spyros Papageorgiou
Hox gene collinearity was discovered be Edward B. Lewis in 1978. It consists of the Hox1, Hox2, Hox3 ordering of the Hox genes in the chromosome from the telomeric to the centromeric side of the chromosome. Surprisingly, the spatial activation of the Hox genes in the ontogenetic units of the embryo follows the same ordering along the anterior-posterior embryonic axis. The chromosome microscale differs from the embryo macroscale by 3 to 4 orders of magnitude. The traditional biomolecular mechanisms are not adequate to comprise phenomena at so divergent spatial domains...
June 23, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644160/calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-targeted-therapies-for-migraine-and-cluster-headache-a-review
#4
Nathaniel M Schuster, Alan M Rapoport
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a signaling neuropeptide released from activated trigeminal sensory afferents in headache and facial pain disorders. There are a handful of CGRP-targeted therapies currently in phase 3 studies for migraine acute treatment or prevention. Currently, 4 monoclonal antibodies targeting either the CGRP ligand or receptor are being studied for migraine prevention: ALD403 (eptinezumab), AMG 334 (erenumab), LY2951742 (galcanezumab), and TEV-48125 (fremanezumab). Meanwhile, 1 small-molecule CGRP receptor antagonist (ubrogepant, MK-1602) is currently in phase 3 studies for the acute treatment of migraine...
June 21, 2017: Clinical Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644140/a-pathways-based-prediction-model-for-classifying-breast-cancer-subtypes
#5
Tong Wu, Yunfeng Wang, Ronghui Jiang, Xinliang Lu, Jiawei Tian
Breast cancer is highly heterogeneous and is classified into four subtypes characterized by specific biological traits, treatment responses, and clinical prognoses. We performed a systemic analysis of 698 breast cancer patient samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas project database. We identified 136 breast cancer genes differentially expressed among the four subtypes. Based on unsupervised clustering analysis, these 136 core genes efficiently categorized breast cancer patients into the appropriate subtypes. Functional enrichment based on Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis identified six functional pathways regulated by these genes: JAK-STAT signaling, basal cell carcinoma, inflammatory mediator regulation of TRP channels, non-small cell lung cancer, glutamatergic synapse, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis...
June 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643555/unexpected-detection-of-porcine-rotavirus-c-strains-carrying-human-origin-vp6-gene
#6
Jobin Jose Kattoor, Sharad Saurabh, Yashpal Singh Malik, Shubhankar Sircar, Kuldeep Dhama, Souvik Ghosh, Krisztián Bányai, Nobumichi Kobayashi, Raj Kumar Singh
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus C (RVC), a known etiological agent of diarrheal outbreaks, mainly inflicts swine population globally with sporadic incidence in human, cattle, ferret, mink and dog. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate presence of RVC in Indian swine population and characterisation of its selected structural (VP6) and non-structural (NSP4 and NSP5) genes. METHODS: A total of 108 diarrheic samples from different regions of India were used. Isolated RNA was loaded onto polyacrylamide gel to screen for the presence of RVs through the identification of specific electrophoretic genomic migration pattern...
June 23, 2017: Veterinary Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643260/a-simple-protocol-for-loss-of-function-analysis-in-xenopus-tropicalis-founders-using-the-crispr-cas-system
#7
Yuto Sakane, Ken-Ich T Suzuki, Takashi Yamamoto
Xenopus tropicalis is a versatile model organism for studying basic biology such as developmental biology and cell biology, and for biomedical research on human diseases. Current genome editing techniques enable researchers to easily perform gene targeting in various animals. Among them, gene knockout using the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated (Cas) (CRISPR-Cas) system has recently become an indispensable strategy for loss-of-function analysis in vivo. Because of its ease of use, time, and cost efficiencies, CRISPR-Cas has also been applied to X...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643257/genome-editing-mediated-by-primordial-germ-cell-in-chicken
#8
Jae Yong Han, Hong Jo Lee
Rapid development of genome editing technology has facilitated the studies on exploring specific gene functions and establishment of model animals. In livestock, the technology has contributed to create high value in industry fields, e.g., enhancing productivity or acquiring the resistance against disease. Meanwhile, genome editing in avian species has been emphasized because of their applicable possibilities in terms of highly productive chickens, disease-controlled avian lines, and development of novel biological models...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643248/computational-prediction-of-crispr-cas9-target-sites-reveals-potential-off-target-risks-in-human-and-mouse
#9
Qingbo Wang, Kumiko Ui-Tei
The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) system is a prominent genome engineering technology. In the CRISPR/Cas system, the RNA-guided endonuclease Cas protein introduces a DNA double-stranded break at the genome position recognized by a guide RNA (gRNA) based on complementary base-pairing of about 20-nucleotides in length. The 8- or 12-mer gRNA sequence in the proximal region is especially important for target recognition, and the genes with sequence complementarity to such regions are often disrupted...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642991/extensive-overlap-of-tropical-rainforest-bacterial-endophytes-between-soil-plant-parts-and-plant-species
#10
Emmanuel Haruna, Noraziah M Zin, Dorsaf Kerfahi, Jonathan M Adams
The extent to which distinct bacterial endophyte communities occur between different plant organs and species is poorly known and has implications for bioprospecting efforts. Using the V3 region of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene, we investigated the diversity patterns of bacterial endophyte communities of three rainforest plant species, comparing leaf, stem, and root endophytes plus rhizosphere soil community. There was extensive overlap in bacterial communities between plant organs, between replicate plants of the same species, between plant species, and between plant organ and rhizosphere soil, with no consistent clustering by compartment or host plant species...
June 22, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642945/nonribosomal-peptide-synthetase-biosynthetic-clusters-of-eskape-pathogens
#11
REVIEW
Andrew M Gulick
Covering: up to 2017.Natural products are important secondary metabolites produced by bacterial and fungal species that play important roles in cellular growth and signaling, nutrient acquisition, intra- and interspecies communication, and virulence. A subset of natural products is produced by nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs), a family of large, modular enzymes that function in an assembly line fashion. Because of the pharmaceutical activity of many NRPS products, much effort has gone into the exploration of their biosynthetic pathways and the diverse products they make...
June 23, 2017: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642772/assessment-of-five-chilling-tolerance-traits-and-gwas-mapping-in-rice-using-the-usda-mini-core-collection
#12
Michael R Schläppi, Aaron K Jackson, Georgia C Eizenga, Aiju Wang, Chengcai Chu, Yao Shi, Naoki Shimoyama, Debbie L Boykin
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is often exposed to cool temperatures during spring planting in temperate climates. A better understanding of genetic pathways regulating chilling tolerance will enable breeders to develop varieties with improved tolerance during germination and young seedling stages. To dissect chilling tolerance, five assays were developed; one assay for the germination stage, one assay for the germination and seedling stage, and three for the seedling stage. Based on these assays, five chilling tolerance indices were calculated and assessed using 202 O...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642745/structure-of-o-antigen-and-hybrid-biosynthetic-locus-in-burkholderia-cenocepacia-clonal-variants-recovered-from-a-cystic-fibrosis-patient
#13
A A Hassan, Rita F Maldonado, Sandra C Dos Santos, Flaviana Di Lorenzo, Alba Silipo, Carla P Coutinho, Vaughn S Cooper, Antonio Molinaro, Miguel A Valvano, Isabel Sá-Correia
Burkholderia cenocepacia is an opportunistic pathogen associated with chronic lung infections and increased risk of death in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). In this work, we investigated the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of clinical variants of B. cenocepacia that were collected from a CF patient over a period of 3.5 years, from the onset of infection until death by necrotizing pneumonia (cepacia syndrome). We report the chemical structure of the LPS molecule of various sequential isolates and the identification of a novel hybrid O-antigen (OAg) biosynthetic cluster...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642380/complete-genome-sequence-of-bacillus-paralicheniformis-mdjk30-a-plant-growth-promoting-rhizobacterium-with-antifungal-activity
#14
Yun Wang, Hu Liu, Kai Liu, Chengqiang Wang, Hailin Ma, Yuhuan Li, Qihui Hou, Fangchun Liu, Tongrui Zhang, Haide Wang, Beibei Wang, Jinjin Ma, Ruofei Ge, Baochao Xu, Gan Yao, Wenfeng Xu, Lingchao Fan, Yanqin Ding, Binghai Du
Bacillus paralicheniformis MDJK30 was isolated from the rhizosphere of a peony. It could control the pathogen of peony root rot. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of B. paralicheniformis MDJK30. Eleven secondary metabolism gene clusters were predicted.
June 22, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642376/draft-genome-sequence-of-bacillus-sp-strain-cdb3-an-arsenic-resistant-soil-bacterium-isolated-from-cattle-dip-sites
#15
Yiren Yang, Ren Zhang
Bacillus sp. strain CDB3, isolated from cattle dip sites in Australia, is highly resistant to arsenic. It contains 22 arsenic resistance (ars) genes, of which 17 are organized in 3 ars clusters. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of CDB3, which will assist us in understanding the overall ars mechanism.
June 22, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642158/genetic-diversity-of-environmental-vibrio-cholerae-o1-strains-isolated-in-northern-vietnam
#16
Taichiro Takemura, Kazunori Murase, Fumito Maruyama, Tran Thi Luong, Atsushi Ota, Ichiro Nakagawa, Nguyen Dong Tu, Ngo Tu Cuong, Nguyen Thi Hang, Asako Tokizawa, Masatomo Morita, Makoto Ohnishi, Nguyen Binh Minh, Tetsu Yamashiro
Cholera epidemics have been recorded periodically in Vietnam during the seventh cholera pandemic. Since cholera is a water-borne disease, systematic monitoring of environmental waters for Vibrio cholerae presence is important for predicting and preventing cholera epidemics. We conducted monitoring, isolation, and genetic characterization of V. cholerae strains in Nam Dinh province of Northern Vietnam from Jul 2013 to Feb 2015. In this study, four V. cholerae O1 strains were detected and isolated from 110 analyzed water samples (3...
June 19, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641923/rhodobacteraceae-on-the-marine-brown-alga-fucus-spiralis-are-abundant-and-show-physiological-adaptation-to-an-epiphytic-lifestyle
#17
Marco Dogs, Bernd Wemheuer, Laura Wolter, Nils Bergen, Rolf Daniel, Meinhard Simon, Thorsten Brinkhoff
Macroalgae harbour specific microbial communities on their surface that have functions related to host health and defence. In this study, the bacterial biofilm of the marine brown alga Fucus spiralis was investigated using 16S rRNA gene amplicon-based analysis and isolation of bacteria. Rhodobacteraceae (Alphaproteobacteria) were the predominant family constituting 23% of the epibacterial community. At the genus level, Sulfitobacter, Loktanella, Octadecabacter and a previously undescribed cluster were most abundant, and together they comprised 89% of the Rhodobacteraceae...
June 15, 2017: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641547/recent-advances-on-the-role-of-micrornas-in-both-insulin-resistance-and-cancer
#18
Adele Vivacqua, Paola De Marco, Antonino Belfiore, Marcello Maggiolini
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance is a pathological condition characterized by the failure of target cells to uptake and metabolizes glucose in response to insulin. In particular, the elevated concentrations of glucose, insulin and free insulin growth factor-1, which result from insulin resistance, may generate a pro-inflammatory and pro-tumorigenic state. These alterations may underlie the increased risk to develop various types of cancer as well as the worse cancer prognosis observed in obese and diabetic patients...
June 22, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641485/microarray-based-gene-expression-analysis-for-veterinary-pathologists-a-review
#19
Barbara B Raddatz, Ingo Spitzbarth, Katja A Matheis, Arno Kalkuhl, Ulrich Deschl, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Reiner Ulrich
High-throughput, genome-wide transcriptome analysis is now commonly used in all fields of life science research and is on the cusp of medical and veterinary diagnostic application. Transcriptomic methods such as microarrays and next-generation sequencing generate enormous amounts of data. The pathogenetic expertise acquired from understanding of general pathology provides veterinary pathologists with a profound background, which is essential in translating transcriptomic data into meaningful biological knowledge, thereby leading to a better understanding of underlying disease mechanisms...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641405/biotransformation-of-ferulic-acid-to-protocatechuic-acid-by-corynebacterium-glutamicum-atcc-21420-engineered-to-express-vanillate-o-demethylase
#20
Naoko Okai, Takaya Masuda, Yasunobu Takeshima, Kosei Tanaka, Ken-Ichi Yoshida, Masanori Miyamoto, Chiaki Ogino, Akihiko Kondo
Ferulic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid, FA) is a lignin-derived phenolic compound abundant in plant biomass. The utilization of FA and its conversion to valuable compounds is desired. Protocatechuic acid (3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, PCA) is a precursor of polymers and plastics and a constituent of food. A microbial conversion system to produce PCA from FA was developed in this study using a PCA-producing strain of Corynebacterium glutamicum F (ATCC 21420). C. glutamicum strain F grown at 30 °C for 48 h utilized 2 mM each of FA and vanillic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid, VA) to produce PCA, which was secreted into the medium...
December 2017: AMB Express
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