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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641017/nanpdb-a-resource-for-natural-products-from-northern-african-sources
#1
Fidele Ntie-Kang, Kiran K Telukunta, Kersten Döring, Conrad V Simoben, Aurélien F A Moumbock, Yvette I Malange, Leonel E Njume, Joseph N Yong, Wolfgang Sippl, Stefan Günther
Natural products (NPs) are often regarded as sources of drugs or drug leads or simply as a "source of inspiration" for the discovery of novel drugs. We have built the Northern African Natural Products Database (NANPDB) by collecting information on ∼4500 NPs, covering literature data for the period from 1962 to 2016. The data cover compounds isolated mainly from plants, with contributions from some endophyte, animal (e.g., coral), fungal, and bacterial sources. The compounds were identified from 617 source species, belonging to 146 families...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640968/the-impact-of-andean-patagonian-mycoflora-in-the-search-for-new-lead-molecules
#2
REVIEW
Pedro M Aqueveque, Carlos L Cespedes, Isao Kubo, David S Seigler, Olov Sterner
Secondary metabolites from fungi have become a major source of chemical innovation in programs searching for lead molecules with bioactivities, especially over the last 50 years. In this review, we discuss the fundamental considerations in the discovery of molecules for agricultural and medicinal uses. This group of organisms possesses a strong potential for scientific and industrial communities. Recently, the incorporation of new technologies for the artificial cultivation of fungi and the use of better equipment to isolate and identify active metabolites has allowed the discovery of leading molecules for the design of new and safer drugs and pesticides...
June 22, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637194/high-iron-supply-inhibits-the-synthesis-of-the-genotoxin-colibactin-by-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-through-a-non-canonical-fur-ryhb-mediated-pathway
#3
Sophie Tronnet, Christophe Garcie, Alexander O Brachmann, Jörn Piel, Eric Oswald, Patricia Martin
The genotoxin colibactin is a secondary metabolite produced by a variety of pathogenic Enterobacteria, and is associated with colon cancer development and acute systemic infections. The colibactin biosynthesis requires the enzymatic activity of the phosphopantetheinyl transferase ClbA. We recently evidenced that two master regulators of bacterial iron homeostasis, i.e. the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) and the small regulatory non-coding RNA RyhB, were involved in the regulation of the clbA transcription and of the colibactin production...
June 20, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635676/comment-on-melanisation-of-aspergillus-terreus-is-butyrolactone-i-involved-in-the-regulation-of-both-dopa-and-dhn-types-of-pigments-in-submerged-culture-microorganisms-2017-5-22
#4
Elena Geib, Matthias Brock
A recent article by Palonen et al. describes the effect of butyrolactone I on the expression of a secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene cluster from Aspergillus terreus that shows similarities to fusarubin biosynthesis gene clusters from Fusarium species. The authors claim that two different types of pigments are formed in Aspergillus terreus conidia, whereby one pigment is termed a DOPA-type melanin and the second a DHN-type melanin. Unfortunately, the terminology of the classification of melanin-types requires revision as Asp-melanin present in A...
June 21, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635658/asperentin-b-a-new-inhibitor-of-the-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-1b
#5
Jutta Wiese, Hülya Aldemir, Rolf Schmaljohann, Tobias A M Gulder, Johannes F Imhoff
In the frame of studies on secondary metabolites produced by fungi from deep-sea environments we have investigated inhibitors of enzymes playing key roles in signaling cascades of biochemical pathways relevant for the treatment of diseases. Here we report on a new inhibitor of the human protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), a target in the signaling pathway of insulin. A new asperentin analog is produced by an Aspergillussydowii strain isolated from the sediment of the deep Mediterranean Sea. Asperentin B (1) contains an additional phenolic hydroxy function at C-6 and exhibits an IC50 value against PTP1B of 2 μM in vitro, which is six times stronger than the positive control, suramin...
June 21, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634478/transcriptional-and-antagonistic-responses-of-biocontrol-strain-lysobacter-enzymogenes-oh11-to-the-plant-pathogenic-oomycete-pythium-aphanidermatum
#6
Yangyang Zhao, Guoliang Qian, Yuan Chen, Liangcheng Du, Fengquan Liu
Lysobacter enzymogenes is a ubiquitous, beneficial, plant-associated bacterium emerging as a novel biological control agent. It has the potential to become a new source of antimicrobial secondary metabolites such as the Heat-Stable Antifungal Factor (HSAF), which is a broad-spectrum antimycotic with a novel mode of action. However, very little information about how L. enzymogenes detects and responds to fungi or oomycetes has been reported. An in vitro confrontation bioassay between the pathogenic oomycete Pythium aphanidermatum and the biocontrol bacterial strain L...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634080/nong-a-constituent-of-the-nonactin-biosynthetic-gene-cluster-regulates-nocardamine-synthesis-in-streptomyces-albus-j1074
#7
Wanki Park, Jung-Kyun Woo, Jongheon Shin, Ki-Bong Oh
Many factors regulate the expression of specialised secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters, which have been recognised as important for the discovery of novel microbial natural products. A cosmid library based on genomic DNA of the marine-derived Streptomyces puniceus Act1085 was constructed and screened to identify a short gene cluster similar to the nonactin biosynthetic cluster. The ORFs of the gene cluster isolated had high amino acid sequence identity, from 82% to 96%, with corresponding ORFs of the nonactin biosynthetic gene cluster from S...
June 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633414/an-extended-model-of-heartwood-secondary-metabolism-informed-by-functional-genomics
#8
Jose M Celedon, Jörg Bohlmann
The development of heartwood (HW) and the associated accumulation of secondary metabolites, which are also known as 'specialized metabolites' or 'extractives', is an important feature of tree biology. Heartwood development can affect tree health with broader implications for forest health. Heartwood development also defines a variety of wood quality traits that are important in the forest industry such as durability and colour of wood products. In the bioproducts industry, HW provides a source of high-value small molecules such as fragrances and antimicrobials...
June 14, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633367/cortical-glutamate-in-migraine
#9
Ronald Zielman, Jannie P Wijnen, Andrew Webb, Gerrit L J Onderwater, Itamar Ronen, Michel D Ferrari, Hermien E Kan, Gisela M Terwindt, Mark C Kruit
Cortical hyperexcitability due to enhanced glutamatergic activity has been implicated in migraine pathophysiology but direct evidence is lacking. Here we assessed glutamate levels and intracellular mobility of glutamate in the visual cortex of migraineurs in-between attacks. We included 50 migraineurs (23 with aura and 27 without aura) and 24 age- and gender-matched non-headache controls. We used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and diffusion weighted spectroscopy at 7 T with a single volume of interest (2 × 2 × 3 cm) located in the primary and secondary visual cortex...
June 14, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633114/do-glucosinolate-hydrolysis-products-reduce-nitrous-oxide-emissions-from-urine-affected-soil
#10
S F Balvert, J Luo, L A Schipper
New Zealand agriculture is predominantly comprised of pastoral grazing systems and deposition of animal excreta during grazing has been identified as a major source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Nitrification inhibitors have been shown to significantly reduce nitrous oxide emissions from grazing pastoral systems, and some plants have been identified as having nitrification inhibiting properties. Brassica crops are one such example as they contain the secondary metabolite glucosinolate (GLS) whose hydrolysis products are thought to slow soil nitrogen cycling...
June 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632991/uncovering-the-repertoire-of-fungal-secondary-metabolites-from-fleming-s-lab-to-the-international-space-station
#11
Tomasz Boruta
Fungi produce a variety of secondary metabolites (SMs), low-molecular weight compounds associated with many potentially useful biological activities. The examples of biotechnologically relevant fungal metabolites include penicillin, a beta-lactam antibiotic, and lovastatin, a cholesterol-lowering drug. The discovery of pharmaceutical lead compounds within the microbial metabolic pools relies on the selection and biochemical characterization of promising strains. Not all SMs are produced under standard cultivation conditions, hence the uncovering of chemical potential of investigated strains often requires the use of induction strategies to awake the associated biosynthetic genes...
June 20, 2017: Bioengineered
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632186/insights-into-penicillium-brasilianum-secondary-metabolism-and-its-biotechnological-potential
#12
REVIEW
Jaqueline Moraes Bazioli, Luciana Da Silva Amaral, Taícia Pacheco Fill, Edson Rodrigues-Filho
Over the past few years Penicillium brasilianum has been isolated from many different environmental sources as soil isolates, plant endophytes and onion pathogen. All investigated strains share a great ability to produce bioactive secondary metabolites. Different authors have investigated this great capability and here we summarize the metabolic potential and the biological activities related to P. brasilianum's metabolites with diverse structures. They include secondary metabolites of an alkaloid nature, i...
June 20, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631319/herbivory-induced-jasmonates-constrain-plant-sugar-accumulation-and-growth-by-antagonizing-gibberellin-signaling-and-not-by-promoting-secondary-metabolite-production
#13
Ricardo A R Machado, Ian T Baldwin, Matthias Erb
Plants respond to herbivory by reconfiguring hormonal networks, increasing secondary metabolite production and decreasing growth. Furthermore, some plants display a decrease in leaf energy reserves in the form of soluble sugars and starch, leading to the hypothesis that herbivory-induced secondary metabolite production and growth reduction may be linked through a carbohydrate-based resource trade-off. In order to test the above hypothesis, we measured leaf carbohydrates and plant growth in seven genetically engineered Nicotiana attenuata genotypes that are deficient in one or several major herbivore-induced, jasmonate-dependent defensive secondary metabolites and proteins...
July 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630351/evolutionary-radiation-of-lanthipeptides-in-marine-cyanobacteria
#14
Andres Cubillos-Ruiz, Jessie W Berta-Thompson, Jamie W Becker, Wilfred A van der Donk, Sallie W Chisholm
Lanthipeptides are ribosomally derived peptide secondary metabolites that undergo extensive posttranslational modification. Prochlorosins are a group of lanthipeptides produced by certain strains of the ubiquitous marine picocyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus Unlike other lanthipeptide-producing bacteria, picocyanobacteria use an unprecedented mechanism of substrate promiscuity for the production of numerous and diverse lanthipeptides using a single lanthionine synthetase. Through a cross-scale analysis of prochlorosin biosynthesis genes-from genomes to oceanic populations-we show that marine picocyanobacteria have the collective capacity to encode thousands of different cyclic peptides, few of which would display similar ring topologies...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629882/quantification-of-fungal-growth-and-destruxin-a-during-infection-of-galleria-mellonella-larvae-by-metarhizium-brunneum
#15
A Ríos-Moreno, I Garrido-Jurado, M C Raya-Ortega, E Quesada-Moraga
Destruxin A is among the major secondary metabolites produced by the entomopathogenic ascomycete Metarhizium sp., and the lack of studies concerning production of destruxin A by the fungus is most likely the biggest obstacle for the registration of new fungal strains. Although several studies focus on the production of destruxin A in culture media, few studies examine destruxin A in vivo during host infection. In the current work, Galleria mellonella was used as an insect model to develop for the first time in vivo real-time PCR- and HPLC-MS-based quantification of fungal growth and metabolite production, respectively, during infection by two strains of M...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629530/novel-natural-product-therapeutics-targeting-both-inflammation-and-cancer
#16
Jiangjiang Qin, Wei Wang, Ruiwen Zhang
Inflammation is recently recognized as one of the hallmarks of human cancer. Chronic inflammatory response plays a critical role in cancer development, progression, metastasis, and resistance to chemotherapy. Conversely, the oncogenic aberrations also generate an inflammatory microenvironment, enabling the development and progression of cancer. The molecular mechanisms of action that are responsible for inflammatory cancer and cancer-associated inflammation are not fully understood due to the complex crosstalk between oncogenic and pro-inflammatory genes...
June 2017: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629219/thermally-induced-generation-of-desirable-aroma-active-compounds-from-the-glucosinolate-sinigrin
#17
Eva Ortner, Michael Granvogl
Glucosinolates are the most abundant secondary sulfur-containing plant metabolites in the plant family of Brassicaceae. These phytochemicals are well-known for their enzymatic degradation induced by the enzyme myrosinase resulting in pungent odor impressions derived from their respective degradation products. However, up to now, only little attention has been paid to non-enzymatic thermal degradation and the release of additional aroma-active compounds. Thermal treatment is particularly important in the processing of Brassica vegetables, and, thereby, glucosinolates as precursors can act as a natural source of odorants...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629120/metabolomics-characterization-of-two-apocynaceae-plants-catharanthus-roseus-and-vinca-minor-using-gc-ms-and-lc-ms-methods-in-combination
#18
Qi Chen, Xueyan Lu, Xiaorui Guo, Qingxi Guo, Dewen Li
Catharanthus roseus (C. roseus) and Vinca minor (V. minor) are two common important medical plants belonging to the family Apocynaceae. In this study, we used non-targeted GC-MS and targeted LC-MS metabolomics to dissect the metabolic profile of two plants with comparable phenotypic and metabolic differences. A total of 58 significantly different metabolites were present in different quantities according to PCA and PLS-DA score plots of the GC-MS analysis. The 58 identified compounds comprised 16 sugars, eight amino acids, nine alcohols and 18 organic acids...
June 17, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628970/a-randomized-double-blind-clinical-study-on-blood-pressure-reduction-and-blood-lipid-profile-amelioration-on-treatment-with-ankascin-568
#19
Chien-Li Chen, Jen-Ho Tseng, Tzu-Ming Pan, Sheng-Huang Hsiao
Hypertension and cardiovascular complications are the leading causes of death worldwide. Antihypertensive drugs often cause various side effects, and improper use of antihypertensive medications can result in irreparable damage. Edible fungi of the Monascus species have been used as traditional Chinese medicines in Southeast Asia for several centuries. The fermented products of Monascus purpureus NTU 568 (ANKASCIN 568) possess a number of functional secondary metabolites including the anti-inflammatory pigments monascin and ankaflavin...
June 30, 2017: Chinese Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628333/coupling-targeted-and-untargeted-mass-spectrometry-for-metabolome-microbiome-wide-association-studies-of-human-fecal-samples
#20
Alexey V Melnik, Pieter C Dorrestein, Ricardo R da Silva, Embriette R Hyde, Alexander A Aksenov, Fernando Vargas, Amina Bouslimani, Ivan Protsyuk, Alan Jarmusch, Anupriya Tripathi, Theodore Alexandrov, Rob Knight
Increasing appreciation of the gut microbiome's role in health motivates understanding the molecular composition of human feces. To analyze such complex samples, we developed a platform coupling targeted and untargeted metabolomics. The approach is facilitated through split flow from one UPLC, joint timing triggered by contact closure relays and a script to retrieve the data. It is designed to detect specific metabolites of interest with high sensitivity, allows for correction of targeted information, enables better quantitation thus providing an advanced analytical tool for exploratory studies...
June 19, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
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