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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822486/adaptation-to-toxic-hosts-as-a-factor-in-the-evolution-of-insecticide-resistance
#1
REVIEW
Andrei Alyokhin, Yolanda H Chen
Insecticide resistance is a serious economic problem that jeopardizes sustainability of chemical control of herbivorous insects and related arthropods. It can be viewed as a specific case of adaptation to toxic chemicals, which has been driven in large part, but not exclusively, by the necessity for insect pests to tolerate defensive compounds produced by their host plants. Synthetic insecticides may simply change expression of specific sets of detoxification genes that have evolved due to ancestral associations with host plants...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822163/-mechanism-of-treatment-effect-of-huanglian-huangqin-herb-pairs-on-cerebral-ischemia-rats-based-on-metabolomic-approach
#2
Hui-Ting Cao, Hua-Xu Zhu, Qi-Chun Zhang, Li-Wei Guo
The metabolic effect of Huanglian-Huangqin herb pairs on cerebral ischemia rats was studied by using metabolomic method. The rat model of ischemia reperfusion injury induced by introduction of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by reperfusion. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography-series four pole time of flight mass spectrometry method(UPLC-Q-TOF/MS), Markerlynx software, and principal component analysis and partial least-squares discriminant analysis were used to analyze the different endogenous metabolites among the urine samples of sham rats, cerebral ischemia model rats, Huanglian groups (HL), Huangqin groups (HQ) and Huanglian-Huangqin herb pairs groups (LQ) was achieved, combined with accurate information about the endogenous metabolites level and secondary fragment ions, retrieval and identification of possible biological markers, metabolic pathway which build in MetPA database...
June 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822143/-research-progress-of-rapid-detection-of-ochratoxin-a-and-its-application-prospect-in-traditional-chinese-medicine
#3
REVIEW
Shu-Rong Hu, Guang-Yao Ying, Yu-Li Hu, Shi-Hai Yang, Mei-Hua Yang
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a toxic secondary metabolite mainly produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium species, with strong renal toxicity, teratogenic, carcinogenic, mutagenic effect. Studies have shown that OTA is not only widely contaminated in food and feed crops, but also has been widely contaminated in Chinese herbal medicines such as spices, licorice and so on. In view of OTA's universality and harmfulness, this paper summarizes the flow visualization test strip, microsphere, electrochemical sensor, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy technology in OTA rapid detection, which provides reference for the research and application of high throughout detection instrument miniaturization in order to achieve OTA quick detection and simple operation...
June 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822035/identification-and-functional-characterization-of-a-p-coumaroyl-coa-2-hydroxylase-involved-in-the-biosynthesis-of-coumarin-skeleton-from-peucedanum-praeruptorum-dunn
#4
Ruolan Yao, Yucheng Zhao, Tingting Liu, Chuanlong Huang, Sheng Xu, Ziwei Sui, Jun Luo, Lingyi Kong
A p-coumaroyl CoA 2'-hydroxylase responsible for the formation of coumarin lactone ring was identified from Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn and functionally characterized in vitro. Coumarins are important plant secondary metabolites with a variety of biological activities. Ortho-hydroxylation of cinnamates leads to the formation of coumarin lactone ring and is generally thought to be a key step in coumarin biosynthesis. However, ortho-hydroxylases, especially p-coumaroyl CoA 2'-hydroxylase (C2'H) responsible for the biosynthesis of the most common coumarin skeleton, have received insufficient attention...
August 18, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821838/biogeography-shaped-the-metabolome-of-the-genus-espeletia-a-phytochemical-perspective-on-an-andean-adaptive-radiation
#5
Guillermo F Padilla-González, Mauricio Diazgranados, Fernando B Da Costa
The páramo ecosystem has the highest rate of diversification across plant lineages on earth, of which the genus Espeletia (Asteraceae) is a prime example. The current distribution and molecular phylogeny of Espeletia suggest the influence of Andean geography and past climatic fluctuations on the diversification of this genus. However, molecular markers have failed to reveal subtle biogeographical trends in Espeletia diversification, and metabolomic evidence for allopatric segregation in plants has never been reported...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821734/transcriptional-transitions-in-alphonso-mango-mangifera-indica-l-during-fruit-development-and-ripening-explain-its-distinct-aroma-and-shelf-life-characteristics
#6
Ashish B Deshpande, Krishanpal Anamika, Vineet Jha, Hemangi G Chidley, Pranjali S Oak, Narendra Y Kadoo, Keshav H Pujari, Ashok P Giri, Vidya S Gupta
Alphonso is known as the "King of mangos" due to its unique flavor, attractive color, low fiber pulp and long shelf life. We analyzed the transcriptome of Alphonso mango through Illumina sequencing from seven stages of fruit development and ripening as well as flower. Total transcriptome data from these stages ranged between 65 and 143 Mb. Importantly, 20,755 unique transcripts were annotated and 4,611 were assigned enzyme commission numbers, which encoded 142 biological pathways. These included ethylene and flavor related secondary metabolite biosynthesis pathways, as well as those involved in metabolism of starch, sucrose, amino acids and fatty acids...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821548/the-transcriptional-regulator-phlh-modulates-2-4-diacetylphloroglucinol-biosynthesis-in-response-to-the-biosynthetic-intermediate-and-end-product
#7
Xu Yan, Rui Yang, Rui-Xue Zhao, Jian-Ting Han, Wen-Juan Jia, Di-Yin Li, Yong Wang, Nannan Zhang, Yi Wu, Li-Qun Zhang, Yong-Xing He
Certain strains of biocontrol Pseudomonas fluorescens produce the secondary metabolite 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG) to antagonize the soil-borne phytopathogens in the rhizosphere. The gene cluster responsible for the biosynthesis of 2,4-DAPG is named phlACBDEFGH and it is still unclear how the pathway-specific regulator phlH within this gene cluster regulates the metabolism of 2,4-DAPG. Here, we found that PhlH in Pseudomonas fluorescens strain 2P24 represses the expression of the phlG gene encoding the 2,4-DAPG hydrolase by binding to a sequence motif overlapping with the -35 site recognized by σ(70) factors...
August 18, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820614/protective-effects-of-cryoprotectants-and-lyoprotectants-on-the-survival-of-persipeptide-producing-streptomyces-zagrosensis-utmc-1154
#8
Fatemeh Mohammadipanah, Leila Parvizi, Javad Hamedi, Farzaneh Azizmohseni
Streptomyces sp. are bacteria recognized as the producers of more than half of the known bioactive compounds. Developing appropriate preservation methods for industrial strains of Streptomyces is necessary, as continuous subculture could have significant negative effects on their characteristics, including their potential to produce secondary metabolites. The effects of two common preservation methods on a bioactive metabolite producer, Streptomyces zagrosensis UTMC 1154, were studied. In the cryopreservation method, glycerol and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) were evaluated as cryoprotectants...
August 18, 2017: Biopreservation and Biobanking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820481/studies-on-the-presence-of-mycotoxins-in-biological-samples-an-overview
#9
REVIEW
Laura Escrivá, Guillermina Font, Lara Manyes, Houda Berrada
Mycotoxins are fungal secondary metabolites with bioaccumulation levels leading to their carry-over into animal fluids, organs, and tissues. As a consequence, mycotoxin determination in biological samples from humans and animals has been reported worldwide. Since most mycotoxins show toxic effects at low concentrations and considering the extremely low levels present in biological samples, the application of reliable detection methods is required. This review summarizes the information regarding the studies involving mycotoxin determination in biological samples over the last 10 years...
August 18, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820068/known-triterpenes-and-their-derivatives-as-scaffolds-for-the-development-of-new-therapeutic-agents-for-cancer
#10
Gregorio Peron, Giovanni Marzaro, Stefano Dall'Acqua
Plants produce several bioactive secondary metabolites whose are used as therapeutic agents to treat various diseases, among them cancer. Triterpenes are a category of secondary metabolites that exert inhibitory activity against multiple intracellular and extracellular targets in euchariotic cells. These targets are proteins involved in apoptosis, cell development and differentiation, angiogenesis, metastasis and inflammatory processes. The inhibition of their functions leads to decreased cellular growth, differentiation and migration, resulting in antitumor activity, as shown by the numerous published experimental results...
August 17, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819233/biology-physiology-and-gene-expression-of-grasshopper-oedaleus-asiaticus-exposed-to-diet-stress-from-plant-secondary-compounds
#11
Xunbing Huang, Jingchuan Ma, Xinghu Qin, Xiongbing Tu, Guangchun Cao, Guangjun Wang, Xiangqun Nong, Zehua Zhang
We studied the role of plant primary and secondary metabolites in mediating plant-insect interactions by conducting a no-choice single-plant species field experiment to compare the suitability, enzyme activities, and gene expression of Oedaleus asiaticus grasshoppers feeding on four host and non-host plants with different chemical traits. O. asiaticus growth showed a positive relationship to food nutrition content and a negative relationship to secondary compounds content. Grasshopper amylase, chymotrypsin, and lipase activities were positively related to food starch, crude protein, and lipid content, respectively...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818052/proteomic-analysis-during-of-spore-germination-of-moniliophthora-perniciosa-the-causal-agent-of-witches-broom-disease-in-cacao
#12
Joise Hander Mares, Karina Peres Gramacho, Everton Cruz Santos, André da Silva Santiago, Juliano Oliveira Santana, Aurizângela Oliveira de Sousa, Fátima Cerqueira Alvim, Carlos Priminho Pirovani
BACKGROUND: Moniliophthora perniciosa is a phytopathogenic fungus responsible for witches' broom disease of cacao trees (Theobroma cacao L.). Understanding the molecular events during germination of the pathogen may enable the development of strategies for disease control in these economically important plants. In this study, we determined a comparative proteomic profile of M. perniciosa basidiospores during germination by two-dimensional SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry. RESULTS: A total of 316 proteins were identified...
August 17, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818040/in-silico-prediction-and-characterization-of-secondary-metabolite-biosynthetic-gene-clusters-in-the-wheat-pathogen-zymoseptoria-tritici
#13
Timothy Cairns, Vera Meyer
BACKGROUND: Fungal pathogens of plants produce diverse repertoires of secondary metabolites, which have functions ranging from iron acquisition, defense against immune perturbation, to toxic assaults on the host. The wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici causes Septoria tritici blotch, a foliar disease which is a significant threat to global food security. Currently, there is limited knowledge of the secondary metabolite arsenal produced by Z. tritici, which significantly restricts mechanistic understanding of infection...
August 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817718/elevated-carboxylesterase-activity-contributes-to-the-lambda-cyhalothrin-insensitivity-in-quercetin-fed-helicoverpa-armigera-h%C3%A3-bner
#14
Chengyu Chen, Ying Liu, Xueyan Shi, Nicolas Desneux, Peng Han, Xiwu Gao
Quercetin as one of the key plant secondary metabolite flavonol is ubiquitous in terrestrial plants. In this study, the decrease in sensitivity to lambda-cyhalothrin was observed in quercetin-fed Helicoverpa armigera larvae. In order to figure out the mechanisms underlying the decreased sensitivity of H. armigera larvae to lambda-cyhalothrin by quercetin induction, the changes in carboxylesterase activity and in-vitro hydrolytic metabolic capacity to lambda-cyhalothrin were examined. The LC50 value of quercetin-fed H...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817102/anticancer-activity-of-ramalin-a-secondary-metabolite-from-the-antarctic-lichen-ramalina-terebrata-against-colorectal-cancer-cells
#15
Sung-Suk Suh, Tai Kyoung Kim, Jung Eun Kim, Ju-Mi Hong, Trang Thu Thi Nguyen, Se Jong Han, Ui Joung Youn, Joung Han Yim, Il-Chan Kim
Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and occurs through the highly complex coordination of multiple cellular pathways, resulting in carcinogenesis. Recent studies have increasingly revealed that constituents of lichen extracts exhibit potent pharmaceutical activities, including anticancer activity against various cancer cells, making them promising candidates for new anticancer therapeutic drugs. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the anticancer capacities of ramalin, a secondary metabolite from the Antarctic lichen Ramalina terebrata, in the human colorectal cancer cell line HCT116...
August 17, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816607/investigation-of-a-green-process-for-the-polymerization-of-catechin
#16
Ayşe Ezgi Ünlü, Brinda Prasad, Kishan Anavekar, Paul Bubenheim, Andreas Liese
Flavonoids are polyphenolic secondary plant metabolites which possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Besides, they have been shown to exhibit increased antioxidant properties in their polymerized form. Catechins are one of the attractive class of flavonoids which belong to the group of flavan-3-ols. Polymerization of catechins have been investigated in numerous studies indicating the requirement of certain amount of organic solvent to provide the solubility of the monomer. However, many research projects have been conducted recently in order to replace toxic organic contaminants of the processes with environmentally friendly solvents...
August 17, 2017: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815615/trans-methylation-reactions-in-plants-focus-on-the-activated-methyl-cycle
#17
Moona Rahikainen, Sara Alegre, Andrea Trotta, Jesús Pascual, Saijaliisa Kangasjärvi
Trans-methylation reactions are vital in basic metabolism, epigenetic regulation, RNA metabolism, and post-translational control of protein function, and therefore fundamental in determining physiological processes in all living organisms. The plant kingdom is additionally characterized by production of secondary metabolites that undergo specific hydroxylation, oxidation and methylation reactions to obtain a wide array of different chemical structures. Increasing research efforts have started to reveal the enzymatic pathways underlying the biosynthesis of complex metabolites in plants...
August 16, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814712/secondary-compound-hypothesis-revisited-selected-plant-secondary-metabolites-promote-bacterial-degradation-of-cis-1-2-dichloroethylene-cdce
#18
Serena Fraraccio, Michal Strejcek, Iva Dolinova, Tomas Macek, Ondrej Uhlik
Cis-1,2-dichloroethylene (cDCE), which is a common hazardous compound, often accumulates during incomplete reductive dechlorination of higher chlorinated ethenes (CEs) at contaminated sites. Simple monoaromatics, such as toluene and phenol, have been proven to induce biotransformation of cDCE in microbial communities incapable of cDCE degradation in the absence of other carbon sources. The goal of this microcosm-based laboratory study was to discover non-toxic natural monoaromatic secondary plant metabolites (SPMEs) that could enhance cDCE degradation in a similar manner to toluene and phenol...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814300/increasing-on-target-cleavage-efficiency-for-crispr-cas9-induced-large-fragment-deletion-in-myxococcus-xanthus
#19
Ying-Jie Yang, Ye Wang, Zhi-Feng Li, Ya Gong, Peng Zhang, Wen-Chao Hu, Duo-Hong Sheng, Yue-Zhong Li
BACKGROUND: The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a powerful tool for genome editing, in which the sgRNA binds and guides the Cas9 protein for the sequence-specific cleavage. The protocol is employable in different organisms, but is often limited by cell damage due to the endonuclease activity of the introduced Cas9 and the potential off-target DNA cleavage from incorrect guide by the 20 nt spacer. RESULTS: In this study, after resolving some critical limits, we have established an efficient CRISPR/Cas9 system for the deletion of large genome fragments related to the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in Myxococcus xanthus cells...
August 16, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814265/a-genome-wide-transcriptome-map-of-pistachio-pistacia-vera-l-provides-novel-insights-into-salinity-related-genes-and-marker-discovery
#20
Maryam Moazzzam Jazi, Seyed Mahdi Seyedi, Esmaeil Ebrahimie, Mansour Ebrahimi, Gianluca De Moro, Christopher Botanga
BACKGROUND: Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) is one of the most important commercial nut crops worldwide. It is a salt-tolerant and long-lived tree, with the largest cultivation area in Iran. Climate change and subsequent increased soil salt content have adversely affected the pistachio yield in recent years. However, the lack of genomic/global transcriptomic sequences on P. vera impedes comprehensive researches at the molecular level. Hence, whole transcriptome sequencing is required to gain insight into functional genes and pathways in response to salt stress...
August 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
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