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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036599/carbon-allocation-and-partitioning-in-populus-tremuloides-are-modulated-by-ectomycorrhizal-fungi-under-phosphorus-limitation
#1
Shalaka Shinde, Dhiraj Naik, Jonathan R Cumming
The fate of carbon (C) captured by forest trees during photosynthesis is influenced by the supply of other resources. Fixed C may be partitioned among biomolecules within the leaf and/or allocated throughout the tree to growth, storage and maintenance activities. Phosphorus (P) availability often limits tree productivity due to its high biological demand and strong interactions with soil minerals. As ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi play critical roles in enhancing phosphate (Pi) acquisition by their hosts, these symbioses will influence the fate of C within trees and forested ecosystems...
September 28, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035304/introduction-to-the-toxins-special-issue-on-lc-ms-ms-methods-for-mycotoxin-analysis
#2
EDITORIAL
Aldo Laganà
Various filamentous fungi can produce secondary metabolites, whose biochemical significance in fungal growth and development has not always been fully clarified; however, some of these metabolites can cause deleterious effects on other organisms and are classified as mycotoxins [...].
October 16, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034745/withanolide-production-by-fungal-endophyte-isolated-from-withania-somnifera
#3
Muthukrishnan Sathiyabama, Ramalingam Parthasarathy
Withanolides, the secondary metabolite from Withania species is used in Ayurvedic medicine and now proved to have potential use in treating cardiovascular, Alzheimer's disease, etc. Its production in plants varies between genotypes with very low yield. For improved industrial commercialisation, there is a need to increase its production. Endophytic fungi are symbiotically associated with plants and can synthesise the same bioactive compounds and natural products as their host plant. There are no reports available on withanolide-producing (endophytic) fungi...
October 16, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034630/-transcriptome-analysis-and-gene-function-annotation-of-bambusa-emeiensis-shoots-based-on-high-throughput-sequencing-technology
#4
Yupeng Chen, Ying Cao, Shanglian Hu, Yan Huang, Xueqin Lu, Gang Xu, Zhijian Long
Bambusa emeiensis is one of the preponderant species of sympodial bamboos in Sichuan province of China, and has excellent fiber length and quality as raw materials for papermaking, textile and other industries. In this study, with the application of Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform, we analyzed transcriptome in B. emeiensis with different heights of 10, 50, 100 and 150 cm. A total of 69.28 M reads were obtained, and a sum up of 111 137 bands of Unigenes were acquired following de novo stitching, assembly and clustering, among which there were 63 094 bands that had been integrated in the COG, GO, KEGG, Swiss-Prot and Nr databases using annotated methods...
November 25, 2016: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034186/medicinal-biological-and-phytochemical-properties-of-gentiana-species
#5
REVIEW
Fatemeh Mirzaee, Amirsaeed Hosseini, Hossein Bakhshi Jouybari, Ali Davoodi, Mohammad Azadbakht
Gentiana, a cosmopolitan and important genus of the Gentianaceae family, comprises 400 species distributed among the world. Based on the studies of Iranian traditional medicine texts, there are some promising bioactivities for this genus that is unknown in modern medicine and some of them are still the basis of new remedies. In traditional medicine texts, Gentiana's different exclusive forms of preparations are effective for treatment of some disorders such as menstrual over-bleeding, conjunctivitis, vitiligo, animals venom poisoning, injuries, infected wounds, pain and swelling of liver, spleen, stomach and sprains of muscles...
October 2017: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033969/intercropping-induces-changes-in-specific-secondary-metabolite-concentration-in-ethiopian-kale-brassica-carinata-and-african-nightshade-solanum-scabrum-under-controlled-conditions
#6
Benard Ngwene, Susanne Neugart, Susanne Baldermann, Beena Ravi, Monika Schreiner
Intercropping is widespread in small-holder farming systems in tropical regions and is also practiced in the cultivation of indigenous vegetables, to alleviate the multiple burdens of malnutrition. Due to interspecific competition and/or complementation between intercrops, intercropping may lead to changes in plants accumulation of minerals and secondary metabolites and hence, alter nutritional quality for consumers. Intercropping aims to intensify land productivity, while ensuring that nutritional quality is not compromised...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032469/itraq-based-proteomic-profiling-of-a-microbacterium-sp-strain-during-benzo-a-pyrene-removal-under-anaerobic-conditions
#7
Junfeng Dou, Wei Qin, Aizhong Ding, Xiang Liu, Yi Zhu
This study focused on the protein expression of a Microbacterium sp. strain that utilized various concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) as the sole source of carbon and energy under anaerobic conditions. A total of 1539 protein species were quantified by isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) coupled with LC-MS/MS. GO, COG, and pathway enrichment analysis showed that most proteins demonstrated catalytic and binding functions and were mainly involved in metabolic processes, cellular processes, and single-organism processes...
October 14, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030688/neurotrophic-function-of-phytochemicals-for-neuroprotection-in-aging-and-neurodegenerative-disorders-modulation-of-intracellular-signaling-and-gene-expression
#8
REVIEW
Makoto Naoi, Keiko Inaba-Hasegawa, Masayo Shamoto-Nagai, Wakako Maruyama
Bioactive compounds in food and beverages have been reported to promote health and prevent age-associated decline in cognitive, motor and sensory activities, and emotional function. Phytochemicals, a ubiquitous class of plant secondary metabolites, protect neuronal cells by interaction with cellular activities, in addition to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory function. In aging and age-associated neurodegenerative disorders, phytochemicals protect neuronal cells by neurotrophic factor-mimic activity, in addition to suppression of apoptosis signaling in mitochondria...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030640/insights-into-grapevine-defense-response-against-drought-as-revealed-by-biochemical-physiological-and-rna-seq-analysis
#9
Muhammad Salman Haider, Cheng Zhang, Mahantesh M Kurjogi, Tariq Pervaiz, Ting Zheng, Chaobo Zhang, Chen Lide, Lingfie Shangguan, Jinggui Fang
Grapevine is an important and extensively grown fruit crop, which is severely hampered by drought worldwide. So, comprehending the impact of drought on grapevine genetic resources is necessary. In the present study, RNA-sequencing was executed using cDNA libraries constructed from both drought-stress and control plants. Results generated 12,451 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), out of which 8,021 genes were up-regulated, and 4,430 were down-regulated. Further physiological and biochemical investigations were also performed to validate the biological processes associated with the development of grapevine in response to drought stress...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030163/metabolites-related-to-renal-function-immune-activation-and-carbamylation-are-associated-with-muscle-composition-in-older-adults
#10
Michael S Lustgarten, Roger A Fielding
Reduced skeletal muscle density in older adults is associated with insulin resistance, decreased physical function, and an increased all-cause mortality risk. To elucidate mechanisms that may underlie the maintenance of skeletal muscle density, we conducted a secondary analysis of previously published muscle composition and serum metabolomic data in 73 older adults (average age, 78y). Multivariable-adjusted linear regression was used to examine associations between 321 metabolites with muscle composition, defined as the ratio between normal density (NDM) with low density (LDM) thigh muscle cross sectional area (NDM/LDM)...
October 10, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029703/comparative-genomics-of-maize-ear-rot-pathogens-reveals-expansion-of-carbohydrate-active-enzymes-and-secondary-metabolism-backbone-genes-in-stenocarpella-maydis
#11
Alex Z Zaccaron, Charles P Woloshuk, Burton H Bluhm
Stenocarpella maydis is a plant pathogenic fungus that causes Diplodia ear rot, one of the most destructive diseases of maize. To date, little information is available regarding the molecular basis of pathogenesis in this organism, in part due to limited genomic resources. In this study, a 54.8 Mb draft genome assembly of S. maydis was obtained with Illumina and PacBio sequencing technologies, and analyzed. Comparative genomic analyses with the predominant maize ear rot pathogens Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium verticillioides, and Fusarium graminearum revealed an expanded set of carbohydrate-active enzymes for cellulose and hemicellulose degradation in S...
November 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028844/a-polyphenol-enriched-diet-and-ascaris-suum-infection-modulate-mucosal-immune-responses-and-gut-microbiota-composition-in-pigs
#12
Andrew R Williams, Lukasz Krych, Hajar Fauzan Ahmad, Peter Nejsum, Kerstin Skovgaard, Dennis S Nielsen, Stig M Thamsborg
Polyphenols are a class of bioactive plant secondary metabolites that are thought to have beneficial effects on gut health, such as modulation of mucosal immune and inflammatory responses and regulation of parasite burdens. Here, we examined the interactions between a polyphenol-rich diet supplement and infection with the enteric nematode Ascaris suum in pigs. Pigs were fed either a basal diet or the same diet supplemented with grape pomace (GP), an industrial by-product rich in polyphenols such as oligomeric proanthocyanidins...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027971/chemotaxonomic-classification-applied-to-the-identification-of-two-closely-related-citrus-tcms-using-uplc-q-tof-ms-based-metabolomics
#13
Si-Yu Zhao, Zhen-Li Liu, Yi-Song Shu, Meng-Lei Wang, Dan He, Zhi-Qian Song, Hong-Lian Zeng, Zhang-Chi Ning, Cheng Lu, Ai-Ping Lu, Yuan-Yan Liu
This manuscript elaborates on the establishment of a chemotaxonomic classification strategy for closely-related Citrus fruits in Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs). UPLC-Q-TOF-MS-based metabolomics was applied to depict the variable chemotaxonomic markers and elucidate the metabolic mechanism of Citrus TCMs from different species and at different ripening stages. Metabolomics can capture a comprehensive analysis of small molecule metabolites and can provide a powerful approach to establish metabolic profiling, creating a bridge between genotype and phenotype...
October 13, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027954/marine-sponge-natural-products-with-anticancer-potential-an-updated-review
#14
REVIEW
Cinzia Calcabrini, Elena Catanzaro, Anupam Bishayee, Eleonora Turrini, Carmela Fimognari
Despite the huge investment into research and the significant effort and advances made in the search for new anticancer drugs in recent decades, cancer cure and treatment continue to be a formidable challenge. Many sources, including plants, animals, and minerals, have been explored in the oncological field because of the possibility of identifying novel molecular therapeutics. Marine sponges are a prolific source of secondary metabolites, a number of which showed intriguing tumor chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic properties...
October 13, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027474/on-the-metabolites-produced-by-colletotrichum-gloeosporioides-a-fungus-proposed-for-the-ambrosia-artemisiifolia-biocontrol-spectroscopic-data-and-absolute-configuration-assignment-of-colletochlorin-a
#15
Marco Masi, Maria Chiara Zonno, Alessio Cimmino, Pierluigi Reveglia, Alexander Berestetskiy, Angela Boari, Maurizio Vurro, Antonio Evidente
Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. is responsible for serious allergies induced on humans. Different approaches for its control were proposed during the COST Action FA1203 "Sustainable management of Ambrosia artemisiifolia in Europe" (SMARTER). Fungal secondary metabolites often show potential herbicidal activity. Three phytotoxins were purified from the fungal culture filtrates of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, isolated from infected leaves of A. artemisiifolia. They were identified by spectroscopic and chemical methods as colletochlorin A, orcinol and tyrosol (1, 2 and 3)...
October 13, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027444/-progress-in-microbial-production-of-prodigiosin
#16
Zhongyu You, Yujie Wang, Shiqing Sun, Xiaoxia Liu
Prodigiosin is an important natural red pigment that is produced as a secondary metabolite by microorganisms, and has great potential applications in the field of pharmaceutical development, environmental management and dye preparation. This paper reviews recent research progress in the production of prodigiosin by microbial fermentation, including discovery and modification of the prodigiosin-producing microorganisms, regulation and optimization of prodigiosin fermentation and extraction process, and resolution of biosynthetic pathway of prodigiosin and related transcriptional regulation...
October 25, 2016: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027286/investigating-the-bifunctionality-of-cyclizing-and-classical-5-aminolevulinate-synthases
#17
Joyce Liu, James Kaganjo, Wenjun Zhang, Jill Zeilstra-Ryalls
The precursor to all tetrapyrroles is 5-aminolevulinic acid, which is made either via the condensation of glycine and succinyl-CoA catalyzed by an ALA synthase (the C4 or Shemin pathway) or by a pathway that uses glutamyl-tRNA as a precursor and involves other enzymes (the C5 pathway). Certain ALA synthases also catalyze the cyclization of ALA-CoA to form 2-amino-3-hydroxycyclopent-2-en-1-one. Organisms with synthases that possess this second activity nevertheless rely upon the C5 pathway to supply ALA for tetrapyrrole biosynthesis...
October 13, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023405/the-aspergillus-flavus-homeobox-gene-hbx1-is-required-for-development-and-aflatoxin-production
#18
Jeffrey W Cary, Pamela Harris-Coward, Leslie Scharfenstein, Brian M Mack, Perng-Kuang Chang, Qijian Wei, Matthew Lebar, Carol Carter-Wientjes, Rajtilak Majumdar, Chandrani Mitra, Sourav Banerjee, Anindya Chanda
Homeobox proteins, a class of well conserved transcription factors, regulate the expression of targeted genes, especially those involved in development. In filamentous fungi, homeobox genes are required for normal conidiogenesis and fruiting body formation. In the present study, we identified eight homeobox (hbx) genes in the aflatoxin-producing ascomycete, Aspergillus flavus, and determined their respective role in growth, conidiation and sclerotial production. Disruption of seven of the eight genes had little to no effect on fungal growth and development...
October 12, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023367/effect-of-cadmium-and-copper-exposure-on-growth-secondary-metabolites-and-antioxidant-activity-in-the-medicinal-plant-sambung-nyawa-gynura-procumbens-lour-merr
#19
Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim, Yap Chee Kong, Nurul Amalina Mohd Zain
A randomized complete block (RCBD) study was designed to investigate the effects of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) on the growth, bioaccumulation of the two heavy metals, metabolite content and antibacterial activities in Gyanura procumbens (Lour.) Merr. Nine treatments including (1) control (no Cd and Cu); (2) Cd 2 = cadmium 2 mg/L; (3) Cd 4 = cadmium 4 mg/L; (4) Cu 70 = copper 70 mg/L; (5) Cu 140 = copper 140 mg/L); (6) Cd 2 + Cu 70 = cadmium 2 mg/L + copper 70 mg/L); (7) Cd 2 + Cu 140 = cadmium 2 mg/L + copper 70 mg/L); (8) Cd 4 + Cu 70 = cadmium 4 mg/L+ copper 70 mg/L and (9) Cd 4 + Cu 140 = cadmium 4 mg/L + copper 140 mg/L) were evaluated in this experiment...
October 12, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023056/ameliorative-effect-of-arctium-lappa-against-cadmium-genotoxicity-and-histopathology-in-kidney-of-wistar-rat
#20
Asma Suliman Al-Gebaly
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential metal whose dispersion in the environment has increased recently, Cd may enhance cell oxidative stress that leads to DNA damage and apoptotic cell death. The study aimed to evaluate the antioxidative capability of Burdock root 'Arctium lappa' on cadmium-induced oxidative stress and histopathology of the kidney of Wistar rats. METHODOLOGY: Cadmium was applied in a form of cadmium chloride to three groups (15 mg Cd kg-1) for five weeks with two groups pre-treated with 'Arctium lappa' administration, 100 and 200 mg kg-1 b...
2017: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
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