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secondary metabolite

Ruthellen H Anderson, Cody J Lensing, Benjamin J Forred, Michael W Amolins, Cassandra L Aegerter, Peter F Vitiello, Jared R Mays
Consumption of Brassica vegetables provides beneficial effects due to organic isothiocyanates (ITCs), a resultant product of the enzymatic hydrolysis of glucosinolate secondary metabolites. The ITC L-sulforaphane (L-SFN) is the principle agent in broccoli that demonstrates several modes of anticancer action. While the anticancer properties of ITCs like L-SFN have been extensively studied and L-SFN has been the subject of multiple human clinical trials, the scope of this work has largely been limited to those derivatives found in nature...
June 20, 2018: ChemMedChem
D M Pilatti, A M T Fortes, T C M Jorge, N P Boiago
The expression of chemical compounds by individual plants of the same species in different locations may be affected by abiotic factors resulting in differences in the production of allelopathic compounds. The objective of this study was to compare the phytochemical profiles of plant species from two different forest formations in the state of Paraná, Brazil. The forest formations were Seasonal Semideciduous Forest (SSF) and Lowland Ombrophilous Dense Forest (LODF), and the five study species were Jacaranda micrantha, Cecropia pachystachya, Mimosa bimucronata, Schinus terebinthifolius and Cedrela fissilis...
June 14, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Y L Long, F Qiao, X F Jiang, H Q Cong, M L Sun, Z J Xu
Synthetic polyploids are key breeding materials for watermelon. Compared with diploid watermelon, the tetraploid watermelon often exhibit wide phenotypic differences and differential gene expression. Digital gene expression (DGE) profile technique was performed in this study to present gene expression patterns in an autotetraploid and its progenitor diploid watermelon, and deferentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to the abiotic and biotic stress were also addressed. Altogether, 4,985 DEGs were obtained in the autotetraploid against its progenitor diploid, and 66...
June 14, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Evy Paulsen, Rime B El-Houri, Klaus E Andersen, Lars P Christensen
BACKGROUND: The sunflower family of plants (Compositae = Asteraceae) is currently the most allergenic plant family worldwide, according to the number of sensitizing species. Secondary plant metabolites, including the allergenic sesquiterpene lactones present in Compositae plants, may occur in food items either through their presence in, or through contamination of, plant-based raw materials, or through their occurrence in products of non-plant origin. OBJECTIVE: To analyse biodynamic, organic and conventional milk for the presence of the sesquiterpene lactone parthenolide...
June 20, 2018: Contact Dermatitis
Roger J Hart, Hanne Frederiksen, Dorota A Doherty, Jeffrey A Keelan, Niels E Skakkebaek, Noviani S Minaee, Robert McLachlan, John P Newnham, Jan E Dickinson, Craig E Pennell, Robert J Norman, Katharina M Main
Phthalates are ubiquitous environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals suspected to interfere with developmental androgen action leading to adverse effects on male reproductive function. Prenatal exposure studies in rodents show cryptorchidism, hypospadias and reduced testicular volume (TV), testosterone and anogenital distance in males. It is postulated that there is a developmental window in utero when phthalate exposure has the most potent adverse effects. Some human studies show associations between prenatal phthalate exposure and reduced calculated "free" serum testosterone in infant boys and shorter anogenital distance...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Mansour Sobeh, Mona F Mahmoud, Ganna Petruk, Samar Rezq, Mohamed L Ashour, Fadia S Youssef, Assem M El-Shazly, Daria M Monti, Ashraf B Abdel-Naim, Michael Wink
Syzygium aqueum is widely used in folk medicine. A polyphenol-rich extract from its leaves demonstrated a plethora of substantial pharmacological properties. The extract showed solid antioxidant properties in vitro and protected human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) against UVA damage. The extract also reduced the elevated levels of ALT, AST, total bilirubin (TB), total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) in rats with acute CCl4 intoxication. In addition to reducing the high MDA level, the extract noticeably restored GSH and SOD to the normal control levels in liver tissue homogenates and counteracted the deleterious histopathologic changes in liver after CCl4 injection...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Mansour Sobeh, Mona F Mahmoud, Rehab A Hasan, Mohamed A O Abdelfattah, Omar M Sabry, Mosad A Ghareeb, Assem M El-Shazly, Michael Wink
The potential hepatoprotective activities of two Lannea species were explored in vivo. Furthermore, the binding activities of their main polyphenols to the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 were investigated. Based on HPLC-MS/MS results, 22 secondary metabolites were characterized in L. stuhlmannii (mainly tannins), while 20 secondary metabolites (mainly sulphated tannins) were identified in L. humilis. Both extracts exhibited substantial antioxidant activities in vitro and counteracted D-galactosamine induced intoxication in rats in vivo and increased the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of liver tissues...
June 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Juan F Masello, Javier Martínez, Luciano Calderón, Michael Wink, Petra Quillfeldt, Virginia Sanz, Jörn Theuerkauf, Luis Ortiz-Catedral, Igor Berkunsky, Dianne Brunton, José A Díaz-Luque, Mark E Hauber, Valeria Ojeda, Antoine Barnaud, Laura Casalins, Bethany Jackson, Alfredo Mijares, Romel Rosales, Gláucia Seixas, Patricia Serafini, Adriana Silva-Iturriza, Elenise Sipinski, Rodrigo A Vásquez, Peter Widmann, Indira Widmann, Santiago Merino
BACKGROUND: Parasites can exert selection pressure on their hosts through effects on survival, on reproductive success, on sexually selected ornament, with important ecological and evolutionary consequences, such as changes in population viability. Consequently, hemoparasites have become the focus of recent avian studies. Infection varies significantly among taxa. Various factors might explain the differences in infection among taxa, including habitat, climate, host density, the presence of vectors, life history and immune defence...
June 19, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Karoline Herget, Hajo Frerichs, Felix Pfitzner, Muhammad Nawaz Tahir, Wolfgang Tremel
Transition-metal oxide nanoparticles and molecular coordination compounds are highlighted as functional mimics of halogenating enzymes. These enzymes are involved in halometabolite biosynthesis. Their activity is based upon the formation of hypohalous acids from halides and hydrogen peroxide or oxygen, which form bioactive secondary metabolites of microbial origin with strong antibacterial and antifungal activities in follow-up reactions. Therefore, enzyme mimics and halogenating enzymes may be valuable tools to combat biofilm formation...
June 19, 2018: Advanced Materials
Nirmal K Chaudhary, John I Pitt, Ernest Lacey, Andrew Crombie, Daniel Vuong, Andrew M Piggott, Peter Karuso
Chemical investigation of an Australian fungus, Aspergillus banksianus, led to the isolation of the major metabolite banksialactone A (1), eight new isochromanones, banksialactones B-I (2-9), two new isocoumarins, banksiamarins A and B (10 and 11), and the reported compounds, clearanol I (12), dothideomynone A (13), questin (14), and endocrocin (15). The structures of 1-11 were established by NMR spectroscopic data analysis, and the absolute configurations were determined from optical rotations and ECD spectra in conjunction with TD-DFT calculations...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
Xinlong Dai, Guifu Zhao, Tianming Jiao, Yingling Wu, Xinmin Li, Kan Zhou, Liping Gao, Tao Xia
UDP-rhamnose synthase (RHM), the branch-point enzyme controlling the nucleotide sugar interconversion pathway, converts UDP-D-glucose into UDP-rhamnose. As a rhamnose residue donor, UDP-L-rhamnose is essential for the biosynthesis of pectic polysaccharides and secondary metabolites in plants. In this study, three CsRHM genes from tea plants (Camellia sinensis) were cloned and characterized. Enzyme assays showed that three recombinant proteins displayed RHM activity and were involved in the biosynthesis of UDP-rhamnose in vitro...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Bruno Peixoto, Susana Pereira, Cláudia Pereira, José Pissarra
As it serves an important function in the compartmentalization of a series of components, from secondary metabolites to proteins, the vacuole is a central organelle in plant cell biology and development. One of the most important mechanisms regulating not only vacuolar biogenesis but also its luminal content, is the vacuolar sorting of proteins. This sorting mechanism is based upon the recognition of specific signal sequences, vacuolar sorting determinants, by sorting receptors, which then act by redirecting vacuolar cargo away from the default secretory pathway, and into the vacuolar lumen...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Leonard Katz, Yvonne Y Chen, Ramon Gonzalez, Todd C Peterson, Huimin Zhao, Richard H Baltz
Synthetic biology is a logical extension of what has been called recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology or genetic engineering since the 1970s. As rDNA technology has been the driver for the development of a thriving biotechnology industry today, starting with the commercialization of biosynthetic human insulin in the early 1980s, synthetic biology has the potential to take the industry to new heights in the coming years. Synthetic biology advances have been driven by dramatic cost reductions in DNA sequencing and DNA synthesis; by the development of sophisticated tools for genome editing, such as CRISPR/Cas9; and by advances in informatics, computational tools, and infrastructure to facilitate and scale analysis and design...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Ke-Ting Li, Jie Zhang, Yan-Hui Kang, Meng-Chen Chen, Ting-Ting Song, Hui Geng, Ji Tian, Yun-Cong Yao
In higher plants, anthocyanins are protective secondary metabolites, which contribute to the color of leaves, stems, flowers, and fruits, and have been found to have an antioxidant role in human health. In this study, we determined the expression of McMYB10 and its specific E3 ubiquitin ligase, McCOP1, in crabapple leaves during the course of a day and in five leaf development stages. Interestingly, the results showed that the transcription level of McCOP1 genes was higher in daylight than at night, and the transcripts of McMYB10 presented a positive correlation with the transcription of McCOP1-1 and McCOP1-2 and anthocyanin accumulation in a crabapple cultivar with red-colored leaves...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Shihua Zhang, Liang Zhang, Yuling Tai, Xuewen Wang, Chi-Tang Ho, Xiaochun Wan
Characteristic secondary metabolites, including flavonoids, theanine and caffeine, in the tea plant ( Camellia sinensis ) are the primary sources of the rich flavors, fresh taste, and health benefits of tea. The decoding of genes involved in these characteristic components is still significantly lagging, which lays an obstacle for applied genetic improvement and metabolic engineering. With the popularity of high-throughout transcriptomics and metabolomics, 'omics'-based network approaches, such as gene co-expression network and gene-to-metabolite network, have emerged as powerful tools for gene discovery of plant-specialized (secondary) metabolism...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
A Bouam, N Armstrong, A Levasseur, M Drancourt
Three slowly growing mycobacteria named strain AB308, strain AB215 and strain AB57 were isolated from the tomato plant roots. The 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequence analyses suggested that each strain was representative of one hitherto unidentified slowly-growing Mycobacterium species of the Mycobacterium simiae complex. Genome sequencing indicated that each strain contained one chromosome of 6.015-6.029 Mbp. A total of 1,197, 1,239 and 1,175 proteins were found to be associated with virulence and 107, 76 and 82 proteins were associated with toxin/antitoxin systems for strains AB308, AB215 and AB57, respectively...
June 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yu-Cheng Chen, Mei-Chin Lu, Mohamed El-Shazly, Kuei-Hung Lai, Tung-Ying Wu, Yu-Ming Hsu, Yi-Lun Lee, Yi-Chang Liu
Heteronemin, the most abundant secondary metabolite in the sponge Hippospongia sp., exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against several cancer cell lines. It increased the percentage of apoptotic cells and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in Molt4 cells. The use of ROS scavenger, N -acetyl cysteine (NAC), suppressed both the production of ROS from mitochondria and cell apoptosis that were induced by heteronemin treatment. Heteronemin upregulated talin and phosphorylated talin expression in Molt4 cells but it only upregulated the expression of phosphorylated talin in HEK293 cells...
June 17, 2018: Marine Drugs
Yuxing Deng, Caili Li, Heqin Li, Shanfa Lu
Flavonoids are a class of important secondary metabolites with a broad spectrum of pharmacological functions. Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Danshen) is a well-known traditional Chinese medicinal herb with a broad diversity of flavonoids. However, flavonoid biosynthetic enzyme genes have not been systematically and comprehensively analyzed in S. miltiorrhiza . Through genome-wide prediction and molecular cloning, twenty six flavonoid biosynthesis-related gene candidates were identified, of which twenty are novel...
June 16, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Bruna Medeiros-Neves, Helder Ferreira Teixeira, Gilsane Lino von Poser
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Species of the genus Pterocaulon (Asteraceae) are used in different parts of the world for mainly to treat skin and liver diseases, as well as disorders of the respiratory system, among others. AIM OF THE STUDY: This review aims to discuss the present state of the art concerning the ethnobotanical uses, secondary metabolites and biological effects of Pterocaulon species and their chemical components. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The available information on the genus Pterocaulon was gathered from scientific databases (Web of Science, Pubmed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, ChemSpider, SciFinder ACS Publications, Wiley Online Library)...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
De-Sheng Liu, Xian-Guo Rong, Hui-Hui Kang, Li-Ying Ma, Mark T Hamann, Wei-Zhong Liu
Three new diastereomers of polyketides (PKs), raistrickiones A−C ( 1 ⁻ 3 ), together with two new analogues, raistrickiones D and E ( 4 and 5 ), were isolated from a highly productive strain of Penicillium raistrickii , which was subjected to an experimental thermo-change strategy to tap its potential of producing new secondary metabolites. Metabolites 1 and 2 existed in a diastereomeric mixture in the crystal packing according to the X-ray data, and were laboriously separated by semi-preparative HPLC on a chiral column...
June 18, 2018: Marine Drugs
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