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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690549/astaxanthin-in-skin-health-repair-and-disease-a-comprehensive-review
#1
REVIEW
Sergio Davinelli, Michael E Nielsen, Giovanni Scapagnini
Astaxanthin, a xanthophyll carotenoid, is a secondary metabolite naturally synthesized by a number of bacteria, microalgae, and yeasts. The commercial production of this pigment has traditionally been performed by chemical synthesis, but the microalga Haematococcus pluvialis appears to be the most promising source for its industrial biological production. Due to its collective diverse functions in skin biology, there is mounting evidence that astaxanthin possesses various health benefits and important nutraceutical applications in the field of dermatology...
April 22, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690516/evaluation-of-manganese-chloride-s-effect-on-biosynthetic-properties-of-in-vitro-cultures-of-eschscholzia-californica-cham
#2
Andrea Balažová, Júlia Urdová, František Bilka, Ivana Holková, Branislav Horváth, Vladimír Forman, Pavel Mučaji
The basal production of secondary metabolites in medicinal plants is limited. One of the effective approaches that encourages plants to produce a remarkable amount of precious compounds is an application of elicitors. Our work was focused on the elicitation of Eschscholzia californica Cham. suspension cultures using various concentrations of MnCl₂ (5; 10; 15 mg/L) with the aim of evaluating its effect on sanguinarine, chelerythrine, and macarpine production and gene expression of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of mentioned secondary metabolites (BBE, 4′-OMT, CYP80B1) or in defense processes (LOX)...
April 21, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690511/anti-parasitic-activities-of-allium-sativum-and-allium-cepa-against-trypanosoma-b-brucei-and-leishmania-tarentolae
#3
Sonja Krstin, Mansour Sobeh, Markus Santhosh Braun, Michael Wink
Background: Garlics and onions have been used for the treatment of diseases caused by parasites and microbes since ancient times. Trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis are a concern in many areas of the world, especially in poor countries. Methods: Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Leishmania tarentolae were used to investigate the anti-parasitic effects of dichloromethane extracts of Allium sativum (garlic) and Allium cepa (onion) bulbs. As a confirmation of known antimicrobial activities, they were studied against a selection of G-negative, G-positive bacteria and two fungi...
April 21, 2018: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689291/dynamic-gene-amplification-and-function-diversification-of-grass-specific-o-methyltransferase-gene-family
#4
Zhen Liu, Miao Fan, Chao Li, Jian-Hong Xu
The plant O-methyltransferases are dependent on S-Adenosyl-l-methionine, which can catalyze a variety of secondary metabolites. Here we identified different number of OMT genes from the respective grass genomes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that this OMT gene family is a grass-specific gene family that is different from COMT. Most of genes were expanded by tandem and segment duplication after the species split from their progenitor. Furthermore, genes from Group I and two clusters from group II are only present in Panicoideae, which included Bx10 and Bx7 involved in the benzoxazinoids pathway, suggesting these genes could participate in insect resistance in Panicoideae...
April 21, 2018: Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689077/zebrafish-based-identification-of-the-antiseizure-nucleoside-inosine-from-the-marine-diatom-skeletonema-marinoi
#5
Théo Brillatz, Chiara Lauritano, Maxime Jacmin, Supitcha Khamma, Laurence Marcourt, Davide Righi, Giovanna Romano, Francesco Esposito, Adrianna Ianora, Emerson F Queiroz, Jean-Luc Wolfender, Alexander D Crawford
With the goal of identifying neuroactive secondary metabolites from microalgae, a microscale in vivo zebrafish bioassay for antiseizure activity was used to evaluate bioactivities of the diatom Skeletonema marinoi, which was recently revealed as being a promising source of drug-like small molecules. A freeze-dried culture of S. marinoi was extracted by solvents with increasing polarities (hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water) and these extracts were screened for anticonvulsant activity using a larval zebrafish epilepsy model with seizures induced by the GABAA antagonist pentylenetetrazole...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687144/phytochemical-and-biotechnological-studies-on-schisandra-chinensis-cultivar-sadova-no-1-a-high-utility-medicinal-plant
#6
Agnieszka Szopa, Marta Klimek-Szczykutowicz, Adam Kokotkiewicz, Anna Maślanka, Agata Król, Maria Luczkiewicz, Halina Ekiert
In the presented work, raw materials (fruits and leaves) and in vitro biomass of a highly productive Schisandra chinensis Sadova No. 1 cultivar (SchS) were evaluated for the production of therapeutically useful schisandra lignans (SL). In vitro cultures of SchS were initiated, followed by extensive optimization studies focused on maximizing secondary metabolite production, with the aim of establishing a sustainable source of SL. Different cultivation systems (agar, agitated, bioreactor), experiment times (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 days) and plant growth regulators (6-benzyladenine-BA and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid-NAA, from 0 to 3 mg/l) in Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium were tested...
April 23, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686587/profiling-of-the-major-phenolic-compounds-and-their-biosynthesis-genes-in-sophora-flavescens-aiton
#7
Jeongyeo Lee, Jaeeun Jung, Seung-Hyun Son, Hyun-Bi Kim, Young-Hee Noh, Sung Ran Min, Kun-Hyang Park, Dae-Soo Kim, Sang Un Park, Haeng-Soon Lee, Cha Young Kim, Hyun-Soon Kim, Hyeong-Kyu Lee, HyeRan Kim
Sophorae Radix ( Sophora flavescens Aiton) has long been used in traditional medicine in East Asia due to the various biological activities of its secondary metabolites. Endogenous contents of phenolic compounds (phenolic acid, flavonol, and isoflavone) and the main bioactive compounds of Sophorae Radix were analyzed based on the qualitative HPLC analysis and evaluated in different organs and at different developmental stages. In total, 11 compounds were detected, and the composition of the roots and aerial parts (leaves, stems, and flowers) was significantly different...
2018: TheScientificWorldJournal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685276/silage-review-mycotoxins-in-silage-occurrence-effects-prevention-and-mitigation
#8
REVIEW
I M Ogunade, C Martinez-Tuppia, O C M Queiroz, Y Jiang, P Drouin, F Wu, D Vyas, A T Adesogan
Ensiled forage, particularly corn silage, is an important component of dairy cow diets worldwide. Forages can be contaminated with several mycotoxins in the field pre-harvest, during storage, or after ensiling during feed-out. Exposure to dietary mycotoxins adversely affects the performance and health of livestock and can compromise human health. Several studies and surveys indicate that ruminants are often exposed to mycotoxins such as aflatoxins, trichothecenes, ochratoxin A, fumonisins, zearalenone, and many other fungal secondary metabolites, via the silage they ingest...
May 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683354/characterization-and-bioactive-potentials-of-secondary-metabolites-from-mollusks-crassostrea-madrasensis-and-amphioctopus-marginatus
#9
Kajal Chakraborty, Minju Joy
Chemical investigations of the ethyl acetate-methanol (EtOAc-MeOH) extract of the selected mollusks from the south-west coast of Arabian Sea led to the isolation of methyl-3-(26-phenylacetyloxy)-icosahydro-19-hydroxy-4,4,20-trimethylpicene-23-carboxylate (1) and methyl-3-(26-phenylacetyloxy)-icosahydro-1,19-dihydroxy-4,4,20-trimethylpicene-23-carboxylate (2) from Crassostrea madrasensis, whereas cholesta-5-en-3β-yl-(32-methyl-(30-((E)-34-amino-36-ethyl-39-oxohept-36-enyl)-pentanedioate (3) and 7-ethyl-9-vinyl-octahydroazuleno [1,8-bc]pyran-3,12-dione (4) were isolated from Amphioctopus marginatus...
April 23, 2018: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683350/discovery-of-a-new-biphenyl-derivative-by-epigenetic-manipulation-of-marine-derived-fungus-aspergillus-versicolor
#10
Jing Xuan Zhu, Lijian Ding, Shan He
Cultivation of the marine-derived Aspergillus versicolor MCCC 3A00080 with the addition of a histone deacetylase inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), significantly enhanced the diversity of secondary metabolites. From the culture treated, a new biphenyl derivative, named versiperol A (1), along with two known compounds, 2,4-dimethoxyphenol (2) and diorcinol (3) were isolated. The structures of 1-3 were established based on spectroscopic analysis and comparison with literature data. Among the isolates, versiperol A (1) exhibited modest inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus growth with MIC value of 8 μg/mL...
April 23, 2018: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682508/a-three-ring-circus-metabolism-of-the-three-proteogenic-aromatic-amino-acids-and-their-role-in-the-health-of-plants-and-animals
#11
REVIEW
Anutthaman Parthasarathy, Penelope J Cross, Renwick C J Dobson, Lily E Adams, Michael A Savka, André O Hudson
Tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan are the three aromatic amino acids (AAA) involved in protein synthesis. These amino acids and their metabolism are linked to the synthesis of a variety of secondary metabolites, a subset of which are involved in numerous anabolic pathways responsible for the synthesis of pigment compounds, plant hormones and biological polymers, to name a few. In addition, these metabolites derived from the AAA pathways mediate the transmission of nervous signals, quench reactive oxygen species in the brain, and are involved in the vast palette of animal coloration among others pathways...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682127/de-novo-sequencing-of-a-sparassis-latifolia-genome-and-its-associated-comparative-analyses
#12
Donglai Xiao, Lu Ma, Chi Yang, Zhenghe Ying, Xiaoling Jiang, Yan-Quan Lin
Known to be rich in β- glucan, Sparassis latifolia ( S. latifolia ) is a valuable edible fungus cultivated in East Asia. A few studies have suggested that S. latifolia is effective on antidiabetic, antihypertension, antitumor, and antiallergen medications. However, it is still unclear genetically why the fungus has these medical effects, which has become a key bottleneck for its further applications. To provide a better understanding of this fungus, we sequenced its whole genome, which has a total size of 48...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681979/kainari-a-unique-greek-traditional-herbal-tea-from-the-island-of-lesvos-chemical-analysis-and-antioxidant-and-antimicrobial-properties
#13
Evangelia Bampali, Konstantia Graikou, Nektarios Aligiannis, Ioanna Chinou
The chemical composition, as well as the total phenolic content (TPC) and the potential antioxidant and antimicrobial activity, of three Kainari-herbal tea samples from different areas of Lesvos Island (Greece) was evaluated. The rich aroma of the mixtures was studied through GC-MS, as well as through Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction (HS-SPME)/GC-MS analyses. Cinnamon, clove, nutmeg, pepper, and ginger were identified as main ingredients, while, throughout the chemical analysis of the volatiles of one selected sample, several secondary metabolites have been isolated and identified on the basis of GC-MS as well as spectral evidence as eugenol, cinnamic aldehyde and myristicin, cinnamyl alcohol, alpha-terpinyl acetate, and β -caryophyllene...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681858/aqueous-extract-of-black-maca-prevents-metabolism-disorder-via-regulating-the-glycolysis-gluconeogenesis-tca-cycle-and-ppar%C3%AE-signaling-activation-in-golden-hamsters-fed-a-high-fat-high-fructose-diet
#14
Wenting Wan, Hongxiang Li, Jiamei Xiang, Fan Yi, Lijia Xu, Baoping Jiang, Peigen Xiao
Maca ( Lepidium meyenii Walpers) has been used as a dietary supplement and ethnomedicine for centuries. Recently, maca has become a high profile functional food worldwide because of its multiple biological activities. This study is the first explorative research to investigate the prevention and amelioration capacity of the aqueous extract of black maca (AEM) on high-fat, high-fructose diet (HFD)-induced metabolism disorder in golden hamsters and to identify the potential mechanisms involved in these effects...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681740/new-nematicidal-and-antimicrobial-secondary-metabolites-from-a-new-species-in-the-new-genus-pseudobambusicola-thailandica
#15
Zeljka Rupcic, Clara Chepkirui, Margarita Hernández-Restrepo, Pedro W Crous, Janet Jennifer Luangsa-Ard, Marc Stadler
During the course of a study on the functional biodiversity of the mycobiota inhabiting rainforests in Thailand, a fungal strain was isolated from a plant sample and shown to represent an undescribed species, as inferred from a combination of morphological and molecular phylogenetic methods. Molecular phylogenetic analyses, based on four DNA loci, revealed a phylogenetic tree with the newly generated sequences clustering in a separate branch, together with members of the Sulcatisporaceae (Pleosporales, Ascomycota)...
2018: MycoKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681164/effect-of-diet-with-carbohydrate-but-without-daily-energy-restriction-on-serum-glucose-lactate-and-selected-mineral-and-lipid-levels-in-streptozotocin-induced-experimental-diabetic-rats
#16
Osman Sinan Ozsezen, Ismail Meral
OBJECTIVE: Type I diabetes is a disease characterised by an extreme reduction in serum insulin levels. Diet and exercise have gained considerable attention in the treatment of diabetes. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the effect of diet with carbohydrate but without daily energy restriction on various metabolites (glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, lactate), some electrolytes (Ca, Mg, Na, K, P, Cl) and essential metals (Mn, Co, Cu, Se, Zn, Fe) in the blood of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes...
April 21, 2018: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679614/the-regulation-of-birdsong-by-testosterone-multiple-time-scales-and-multiple-sites-of-action
#17
REVIEW
Beau A Alward, Charlotte A Cornil, Jacques Balthazart, Gregory F Ball
Sex steroid hormones act during early development to shape the circuitry upon which these same hormones act in adulthood to control behavioral responses to various stimuli. The "organizational" vs. "activational" distinction was proposed to explain this temporal difference in hormone action. In both of these cases steroids were thought to act genomically over a time-scale of days to weeks. However, sex steroids can affect behavior over short (e.g., seconds or minutes) time-scales. Here, we discuss how testosterone controls birdsong via actions at different sites and over different time-scales, with an emphasis on this process in canaries (Serinus canaria)...
April 18, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679267/engelmann-spruce-chemotypes-in-colorado-and-their-effects-on-symbiotic-fungi-associated-with-the-north-american-spruce-beetle
#18
Thomas Seth Davis, Fiona B Horne, Jens C Yetter, Jane E Stewart
Conifer secondary metabolites play a key role in mechanisms of resistance to biotic disturbance, especially by bark beetles and beetle-associated microorganisms. Here, we describe variation in constitutive monoterpenes isolated from Engelmann spruce, Picea engelmannii, phloem across fourteen high-elevation populations in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, and test interactions between phloem monoterpenes and an endophloedic symbiotic fungus, Leptographium abietinum, associated with the North American spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679250/the-marine-dinoflagellate-alexandrium-andersoni-induces-cell-death-in-lung-and-colorectal-tumor-cell-lines
#19
Clementina Sansone, Genoveffa Nuzzo, Christian Galasso, Raffaella Casotti, Angelo Fontana, Giovanna Romano, Adrianna Ianora
Dinoflagellates are one of the most important components in marine phytoplankton, second only to diatoms as primary producers. Dinoflagellates have also been reported to produce bioactive secondary metabolites such as polyethers and macrolides with potential applications as pharmaceuticals. Here, we tested the effect of the organic extract and its related enriched extracts from solid-phase extraction (SPE) of a strain of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium andersoni. We found that the SPE extracts induced high cytotoxicity towards two cancer cell lines (A549 lung cancer and HT29 colorectal cancer) without affecting normal cell viability...
April 20, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679043/identification-and-heterologous-expression-of-the-actinoallolide-biosynthetic-gene-cluster
#20
Yuki Inahashi, Taro Shiraishi, Akira Také, Atsuko Matsumoto, Yōko Takahashi, Satoshi Ōmura, Tomohisa Kuzuyama, Takuji Nakashima
Actinoallolides are anti-trypanosomal macrolides isolated from the secondary metabolites of two endophytic actinomycete strains, Actinoallomurus fulvus MK10-036 and K09-0307. A putative actinoallolide biosynthetic gene cluster was predicted from the genome sequence of the strain K09-0307. The gene cluster spans a contiguous 53 kb DNA region that comprises seven genes encoding three PKSs (aalA1, aalA2, and aalA3), cytochrome P450 (aalB), acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (aalC), crotonyl-CoA reductase (aalD), and TetR family regulator (aalR)...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Antibiotics
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