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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222998/experiences-of-connectivity-and-severance-in-the-wake-of-a-new-motorway-implications-for-health-and-well-being
#1
Amy Nimegeer, Hilary Thomson, Louise Foley, Shona Hilton, Fiona Crawford, David Ogilvie
The construction of new urban roads may cause severance, or the separation of residents from local amenities or social networks. Using qualitative data from a natural experimental study, we examined severance related to a new section of urban motorway constructed through largely deprived residential neighbourhoods in Glasgow, Scotland. Semi-structured and photo-elicitation interviews were used to better understand severance and connectivity related to the new motorway, and specifically implications for individual and community-level health and well-being through active travel and social connections...
November 29, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222518/interplay-between-geo-population-factors-and-hierarchy-of-cities-in-multilayer-urban-networks
#2
Vladimir V Makarov, Alexander E Hramov, Daniil V Kirsanov, Vladimir A Maksimenko, Mikhail V Goremyko, Alexey V Ivanov, Ivan A Yashkov, Stefano Boccaletti
Only taking into consideration the interplay between processes occurring at different levels of a country can provide the complete social and geopolitical plot of its urban system. We study the interaction of the administrative structure and the geographical connectivity between cities with the help of a multiplex network approach. We found that a spatially-distributed geo-network imposes its own ranking to the hierarchical administrative network, while the latter redistributes the shortest paths between nodes in the geographical layer...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222457/a-control-analysis-perspective-on-katz-centrality
#3
Kieran J Sharkey
Methods for efficiently controlling dynamics propagated on networks are usually based on identifying the most influential nodes. Knowledge of these nodes can be used for the targeted control of dynamics such as epidemics, or for modifying biochemical pathways relating to diseases. Similarly they are valuable for identifying points of failure to increase network resilience in, for example, social support networks and logistics networks. Many measures, often termed 'centrality', have been constructed to achieve these aims...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222077/can-facebook-reduce-perceived-anxiety-among-college-students-randomized-controlled-exercise-trial-using-the-transtheoretical-model-of-behavior-change
#4
Emily Frith, Paul Loprinzi
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest social media may be an attractive strategy to promote mental health and wellness. There remains a need to examine the utility for individually tailored wellness messages posted to social media sites such as Facebook to facilitate positive psychological outcomes. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to extend the growing body of evidence supporting the potential for social media to enhance mental health. We evaluated the influence of an 8-week social media intervention on anxiety in college students and examined the impact of dynamic (active) versus static (passive) Facebook content on physical activity behaviors...
December 8, 2017: JMIR Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222076/adverse-drug-event-discovery-using-biomedical-literature-a-big-data-neural-network-adventure
#5
Ahmad P Tafti, Jonathan Badger, Eric LaRose, Ehsan Shirzadi, Andrea Mahnke, John Mayer, Zhan Ye, David Page, Peggy Peissig
BACKGROUND: The study of adverse drug events (ADEs) is a tenured topic in medical literature. In recent years, increasing numbers of scientific articles and health-related social media posts have been generated and shared daily, albeit with very limited use for ADE study and with little known about the content with respect to ADEs. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop a big data analytics strategy that mines the content of scientific articles and health-related Web-based social media to detect and identify ADEs...
December 8, 2017: JMIR Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220824/extensive-geographical-and-social-structure-in-the-paternal-lineages-of-saudi-arabia-revealed-by-analysis-of-27-y-strs
#6
Yahya M Khubrani, Jon H Wetton, Mark A Jobling
Saudi Arabia's indigenous population is organized into patrilineal descent groups, but to date, little has been done to characterize its population structure, in particular with respect to the male-specific region of the Y chromosome. We have used the 27-STR Yfiler® Plus kit to generate haplotypes in 597 unrelated Saudi males, classified into five geographical regions (North, South, Central, East and West). Overall, Yfiler® Plus provides a good discrimination capacity of 95.3%, but this is greatly reduced (74...
December 2, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220704/how-do-peers-influence-bmi-evidence-from-randomly-assigned-classrooms-in-south-korea
#7
Jaegeum Lim, Jonathan Meer
Obesity among children is an important public health concern, and social networks may play a role in students' habits that increase the likelihood of being overweight. We examine data from South Korean middle schools, where students are randomly assigned to classrooms, and exploit the variation in peer body mass index. We use the number of peers' siblings as an instrument to account for endogeneity concerns and measurement error. Heavier peers increase the likelihood that a student is heavier; there is no spurious correlation for height, which is unlikely to have peer contagion...
December 2, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220584/detecting-clusters-communities-in-social-networks
#8
Michaela Hoffman, Douglas Steinley, Kathleen M Gates, Mitchell J Prinstein, Michael J Brusco
Cohen's κ, a similarity measure for categorical data, has since been applied to problems in the data mining field such as cluster analysis and network link prediction. In this paper, a new application is examined: community detection in networks. A new algorithm is proposed that uses Cohen's κ as a similarity measure for each pair of nodes; subsequently, the κ values are then clustered to detect the communities. This paper defines and tests this method on a variety of simulated and real networks. The results are compared with those from eight other community detection algorithms...
December 8, 2017: Multivariate Behavioral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220413/reinforcement-learning-account-of-network-reciprocity
#9
Takahiro Ezaki, Naoki Masuda
Evolutionary game theory predicts that cooperation in social dilemma games is promoted when agents are connected as a network. However, when networks are fixed over time, humans do not necessarily show enhanced mutual cooperation. Here we show that reinforcement learning (specifically, the so-called Bush-Mosteller model) approximately explains the experimentally observed network reciprocity and the lack thereof in a parameter region spanned by the benefit-to-cost ratio and the node's degree. Thus, we significantly extend previously obtained numerical results...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219076/-it-takes-more-than-a-fellowship-program-reflections-on-capacity-strengthening-for-health-systems-research-in-sub-saharan-africa
#10
EDITORIAL
Chimaraoke O Izugbara, Caroline W Kabiru, Djesika Amendah, Zacharie Tsala Dimbuene, Hermann Pythagore Pierre Donfouet, Esso-Hanam Atake, Marie-Gloriose Ingabire, Stephen Maluka, Joyce N Mumah, Matilu Mwau, Mollyne Ndinya, Kenneth Ngure, Estelle M Sidze, Charles Sossa, Abdramane Soura, Alex C Ezeh
Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) experiences an acute dearth of well-trained and skilled researchers. This dearth constrains the region's capacity to identify and address the root causes of its poor social, health, development, and other outcomes. Building sustainable research capacity in SSA requires, among other things, locally led and run initiatives that draw on existing regional capacities as well as mutually beneficial global collaborations. This paper describes a regional research capacity strengthening initiative-the African Doctoral Dissertation Research Fellowship (ADDRF) program...
December 4, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219034/measuring-relative-coupling-strength-in-circadian-systems
#11
Christoph Schmal, Erik D Herzog, Hanspeter Herzel
Modern imaging techniques allow the monitoring of circadian rhythms of single cells. Coupling between these single cellular circadian oscillators can generate coherent periodic signals on the tissue level that subsequently orchestrate physiological outputs. The strength of coupling in such systems of oscillators is often unclear. In particular, effects on coupling strength by varying cell densities, by knockouts, and by inhibitor applications are debated. In this study, we suggest to quantify the relative coupling strength via analyzing period, phase, and amplitude distributions in ensembles of individual circadian oscillators...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218792/complex-selection-on-a-regulator-of-social-cognition-evidence-of-balancing-selection-regulatory-interactions-and-population-differentiation-in-the-prairie-vole-avpr1a-locus
#12
Alejandro Berrio, Rafael F Guerrero, Galina V Aglyamova, Mariam Okhovat, Mikhail V Matz, Steven M Phelps
Adaptive variation in social behavior depends upon standing genetic variation, but we know little about how evolutionary forces shape genetic diversity relevant to brain and behavior. In prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster), variants at the Avpr1a locus predict expression of the vasopressin 1a receptor in the retrosplenial cortex (RSC), a brain region that mediates spatial and contextual memory; cortical V1aR abundance in turn predicts diversity in space-use and sexual fidelity in the field. To examine the potential contributions of adaptive and neutral forces to variation at the Avpr1a locus, we explore sequence diversity at the Avpr1a locus and throughout the genome in two populations of wild prairie voles...
December 8, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217831/the-public-health-impact-of-a-new-simple-practical-technique-for-collection-and-transfer-of-toxic-jellyfish-specimens-and-for-nematocyst-identification
#13
Lakkana Thaikruea, Sineenart Santidherakul
Our team aimed to create a new, simple, and inexpensive technique for collecting and transferring of toxic jellyfish specimens and for nematocysts identification. We collected tentacles of Chironex spp., Morbakka spp., and Physalia spp., and transferred them from the beaches by standard and by 'vacuum sticky tape' (VST) techniques. For the VST technique, our team placed the sticky tape on a tentacle and then folded it over to seal the tentacle in the equivalent of a vacuum. We kept the VST in room temperature...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217718/social-networks-leisure-activities-and-maximum-tongue-pressure-cross-sectional-associations-in-the-nagasaki-islands-study
#14
Mako Nagayoshi, Miho Higashi, Noboru Takamura, Mami Tamai, Jun Koyamatsu, Hirotomo Yamanashi, Koichiro Kadota, Shimpei Sato, Shin-Ya Kawashiri, Zenya Koyama, Toshiyuki Saito, Takahiro Maeda
OBJECTIVES: Social environment is often associated with health outcomes, but epidemiological evidence for its effect on oral frailty, a potential risk factor for aspiration, is sparse. This study aimed to assess the association between social environment and tongue pressure, as an important measure of oral function. The study focused on family structure, social networks both with and beyond neighbours, and participation in leisure activities. DESIGN: A population-based cross-sectional study...
December 6, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216594/indicators-to-support-healthy-urban-gardening-in-urban-management
#15
Dieneke Schram-Bijkerk, Piet Otte, Liesbet Dirven, Anton M Breure
Urban gardening is part of a trend towards more parks and green areas in cities, consumption of organic, locally grown products, and a closer relationship with one's own living environment. Our literature review shows that urban gardens provide opportunities for physical activity and allow people to consume homegrown fruit and vegetables. Urban gardens may also reduce stress levels of gardeners and improve social cohesion. In this way, they can help to prevent health problems. Good quality of urban soil and the functioning of soil ecosystems are indispensable prerequisites for these...
December 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215031/a-mechanistic-model-of-human-recall-of-social-network-structure-and-relationship-affect
#16
Elisa Omodei, Matthew E Brashears, Alex Arenas
The social brain hypothesis argues that the need to deal with social challenges was key to our evolution of high intelligence. Research with non-human primates as well as experimental and fMRI studies in humans produce results consistent with this claim, leading to an estimate that human primary groups should consist of roughly 150 individuals. Gaps between this prediction and empirical observations can be partially accounted for using "compression heuristics", or schemata that simplify the encoding and recall of social information...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214906/lingua-patientis-new-words-for-patient-communication-and-history-taking
#17
Donald F Weaver
The English language sometimes fails in its ability to describe the severity or complexity of medical symptoms and complaints. In frustration, patients (or families) occasionally create new words to convey the subtleties of their medical history. Although medicine has created a comprehensive technical lexicon for physicians, we have failed to develop a corresponding patient-centric vocabulary (lingua patientis) that provides more accurate symptom description. The social networking of lingua patientis words might enhance history taking and afford improved appreciation of disease impact on individual patients...
January 1, 2017: Scottish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214836/-no-high-like-a-brownie-high-a-content-analysis-of-edible-marijuana-tweets
#18
Patricia A Cavazos-Rehg, Kidist Zewdie, Melissa J Krauss, Shaina J Sowles
PURPOSE: To investigate tweets about marijuana edibles for surveillance into the content of edibles-related tweets among individuals socially networking about this topic on Twitter. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of tweets containing edible marijuana-related key words during 1 month. SETTING: Twitter. PARTICIPANTS: Tweets sent during January 1 to 31, 2015. METHODS: A random sample of 5000 tweets containing edibles-related key words was coded for sentiment (positive, negative, and neutral) by crowdsourced workers...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214834/source-and-size-of-social-support-network-on-sedentary-behavior-among-older-adults
#19
Paul D Loprinzi, Elizabeth A Crush
PURPOSE: To examine the association of source of social support and size of social support network on sedentary behavior among older adults. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003 to 2006. PARTICIPANTS: 2519 older adults (60+ years). MEASURES: Sedentary behavior was assessed via accelerometry over a 7-day period. Social support was assessed via self-report...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214594/bridging-the-gap-between-health-and-social-care-for-rare-diseases-key-issues-and-innovative-solutions
#20
Raquel Castro, Juliette Senecat, Myriam de Chalendar, Ildikó Vajda, Dorica Dan, Béata Boncz
Bridging the gaps between health and social care for rare diseases is not only necessary but crucial to increase the life expectancy, quality of life and autonomy of people living with a rare disease, supporting them in the full realisation of their fundamental human rights.The complexity of rare diseases, their strong relation to disability and the current unmet social and daily life needs of people living with a rare disease must not be underestimated and require urgent attention from all stakeholders involved in care provision, from healthcare to social and community services...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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