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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214098/is-perceived-athlete-leadership-quality-related-to-team-effectiveness-a-comparison-of-three-professional-sports-teams
#1
Katrien Fransen, S Alexander Haslam, Clifford J Mallett, Niklas K Steffens, Kim Peters, Filip Boen
OBJECTIVES: Researchers have argued that leadership is one of the most important determinants of team effectiveness. The present study examined the extent to which the perceived quality of athlete leadership was related to the effectiveness of elite sports teams. DESIGN: Three professional football teams (N=135) participated in our study during the preparation phase for the Australian 2016 season. METHODS: Players and coaching staff were asked to assess players' leadership quality in four leadership roles (as task, motivational, social, and external leader) via an online survey...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213340/demographic-and-indication-specific-characteristics-have-limited-association-with-social-network-engagement-evidence-from-24-954-members-of-four-health-care-support-groups
#2
Trevor van Mierlo, Xinlong Li, Douglas Hyatt, Andrew T Ching
BACKGROUND: Digital health social networks (DHSNs) are widespread, and the consensus is that they contribute to wellness by offering social support and knowledge sharing. The success of a DHSN is based on the number of participants and their consistent creation of externalities through the generation of new content. To promote network growth, it would be helpful to identify characteristics of superusers or actors who create value by generating positive network externalities. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the feasibility of developing predictive models that identify potential superusers in real time...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212440/emergent-inequality-and-self-organized-social-classes-in-a-network-of-power-and-frustration
#3
Benoit Mahault, Avadh Saxena, Cristiano Nisoli
We propose a simple agent-based model on a network to conceptualize the allocation of limited wealth among more abundant expectations at the interplay of power, frustration, and initiative. Concepts imported from the statistical physics of frustrated systems in and out of equilibrium allow us to compare subjective measures of frustration and satisfaction to collective measures of fairness in wealth distribution, such as the Lorenz curve and the Gini index. We find that a completely libertarian, law-of-the-jungle setting, where every agent can acquire wealth from or lose wealth to anybody else invariably leads to a complete polarization of the distribution of wealth vs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211449/translational-use-of-event-related-potentials-to-assess-circuit-integrity-in-asd
#4
REVIEW
Meera E Modi, Mustafa Sahin
Deficits in social cognition are the defining characteristic of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Social cognition requires the integration of several neural circuits in a time-sensitive fashion, so impairments in social interactions could arise as a result of alterations in network connectivity. Electroencephalography (EEG) has revealed abnormalities in event related potentials (ERPs) evoked by auditory and visual sensory stimuli in humans with ASD, indicating disruption of neural connectivity. Similar abnormalities in sensory-evoked ERPs have been observed in animal models of ASD, suggesting that ERPs have the potential to provide a translational biomarker of the disorder...
February 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211026/social-networks-and-health-status-in-the-elderly-the-anziani-in-rete-population-based-study
#5
Luca Bianchetti, Flaminio Squazzoni, Niccolò Casnici, Devis Bianchini, Emirena Garrafa, Claudia Archetti, Valentina Romano, Luca Rozzini, Michele Melchiori, Chiara Fiorentini, Daniela Uberti, Stefano Calza, Alessandra Marengoni
BACKGROUND: Certain features of the social environment could maintain and even improve not only psychological well-being, but also health and cognition of the elderly. AIMS: We tested the association between social network characteristics and the number of chronic diseases in the elderly. METHODS: A randomized sample of the elderly population of Brescia, Italy, was evaluated (N = 200, age ≥65 years). We performed a comprehensive geriatric assessment, including information on socio-demographic variables (family, friendships, and acquaintance contacts)...
February 16, 2017: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209604/birth-size-risk-factors-across-life-and-cognition-in-late-life-protocol-of-prospective-longitudinal-follow-up-of-the-mynah-mysore-studies-of-natal-effects-on-ageing-and-health-cohort
#6
Murali Krishna, G Mohan Kumar, S R Veena, G V Krishnaveni, Kalyanaraman Kumaran, Samuel Christaprasad Karat, Patsy Coakley, Clive Osmond, John R M Copeland, Giriraj Chandak, Dattatray Bhat, Mathew Varghese, Martin Prince, Caroline Fall
INTRODUCTION: For late-life neurocognitive disorders, as for other late-life chronic diseases, much recent interest has focused on the possible relevance of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD). Programming by undernutrition in utero, followed by overnutrition in adult life may lead to an increased risk, possibly mediated through cardiovascular and metabolic pathways. This study will specifically examine, if lower birth weight is associated with poorer cognitive functioning in late life in a south Indian population...
February 16, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209179/the-social-brain-network-in-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#7
Amy K Olszewski, Zora Kikinis, Christie S Gonzalez, Ioana L Coman, Nikolaos Makris, Xue Gong, Yogesh Rathi, Anni Zhu, Kevin M Antshel, Wanda Fremont, Marek R Kubicki, Sylvain Bouix, Martha E Shenton, Wendy R Kates
BACKGROUND: Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a neurogenetic disorder that is associated with a 25-fold increase in schizophrenia. Both individuals with 22q11.2DS and those with schizophrenia present with social cognitive deficits, which are putatively subserved by a network of brain regions that are involved in the processing of social cognitive information. This study used two-tensor tractography to examine the white matter tracts believed to underlie the social brain network in a group of 57 young adults with 22q11...
February 16, 2017: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208447/influence-of-trust-in-the-spreading-of-information
#8
Hongrun Wu, Alex Arenas, Sergio Gómez
The understanding and prediction of information diffusion processes on networks is a major challenge in network theory with many implications in social sciences. Many theoretical advances occurred due to stochastic spreading models. Nevertheless, these stochastic models overlooked the influence of rational decisions on the outcome of the process. For instance, different levels of trust in acquaintances do play a role in information spreading, and actors may change their spreading decisions during the information diffusion process accordingly...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207905/the-one-health-approach-to-identify-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-that-affect-community-involvement-in-the-control-of-rift-valley-fever-outbreaks
#9
Osama Ahmed Hassan, Hippolyte Affognon, Joacim Rocklöv, Peter Mburu, Rosemary Sang, Clas Ahlm, Magnus Evander
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a viral mosquito-borne disease with the potential for global expansion, causes hemorrhagic fever, and has a high case fatality rate in young animals and in humans. Using a cross-sectional community-based study design, we investigated the knowledge, attitudes and practices of people living in small village in Sudan with respect to RVF outbreaks. A special One Health questionnaire was developed to compile data from 235 heads of household concerning their knowledge, attitudes, and practices with regard to controlling RVF...
February 16, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207405/compressive-sensing-based-structure-identification-for-multilayer-networks
#10
Guofeng Mei, Xiaoqun Wu, Yingfei Wang, Mi Hu, Jun-An Lu, Guanrong Chen
The coexistence of multiple types of interactions within social, technological, and biological networks has motivated the study of the multilayer nature of real-world networks. Meanwhile, identifying network structures from dynamical observations is an essential issue pervading over the current research on complex networks. This paper addresses the problem of structure identification for multilayer networks, which is an important topic but involves a challenging inverse problem. To clearly reveal the formalism, the simplest two-layer network model is considered and a new approach to identifying the structure of one layer is proposed...
February 13, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207365/using-social-media-as-a-research-recruitment-tool-ethical-issues-and-recommendations
#11
Luke Gelinas, Robin Pierce, Sabune Winkler, I Glenn Cohen, Holly Fernandez Lynch, Barbara E Bierer
The use of social media as a recruitment tool for research with humans is increasing, and likely to continue to grow. Despite this, to date there has been no specific regulatory guidance and there has been little in the bioethics literature to guide investigators and institutional review boards (IRBs) faced with navigating the ethical issues such use raises. We begin to fill this gap by first defending a nonexceptionalist methodology for assessing social media recruitment; second, examining respect for privacy and investigator transparency as key norms governing social media recruitment; and, finally, analyzing three relatively novel aspects of social media recruitment: (i) the ethical significance of compliance with website "terms of use"; (ii) the ethics of recruiting from the online networks of research participants; and (iii) the ethical implications of online communication from and between participants...
March 2017: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206780/digital-recovery-management-characterizing-recovery-specific-social-network-site-participation-and-perceived-benefit
#12
Brandon G Bergman, Nathaniel W Kelly, Bettina B Hoeppner, Corrie L Vilsaint, John F Kelly
Research shows that digital social network sites (SNSs) may be valuable platforms to effect health behavior change. Little is known specifically about their ability to help address alcohol and other drug problems. This gap is noteworthy, given that individuals are already participating in existing, recovery-specific SNSs (hereafter referred to as recovery SNSs): online communities with the functionality of conventional SNSs (e.g., Facebook) that focus on substance use disorder (SUD) recovery. For example, InTheRooms...
February 16, 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205644/bribery-games-on-inter-dependent-regular-networks
#13
Prateek Verma, Anjan K Nandi, Supratim Sengupta
We examine a scenario of social conflict that is manifest during an interaction between government servants providing a service and citizens who are legally entitled to the service, using evolutionary game-theory in structured populations characterized by an inter-dependent network. Bribe-demands by government servants during such transactions, called harassment bribes, constitute a widespread form of corruption in many countries. We investigate the effect of varying bribe demand made by corrupt officials and the cost of complaining incurred by harassed citizens, on the proliferation of corrupt strategies in the population...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205360/advanced-serious-illness-multimorbidity-and-multibeneficence-the-role-of-communication
#14
Jeffrey Cohn
Sturmberg et al write about multimorbidity as "several diagnosable diseases within the same individual." They posit that this syndrome is the result of multiple interconnected disturbances reflecting scale-free, fractal signs of pathology ranging from biochemical/hormonal alterations at one end of a spectrum to community and societal ills at the other. In this commentary, I will be focusing on 3 perspectives: 1) a preterminal phase of multimorbidity that is indicative of that loss of reparative or even homeokinetic properties, known by some as "advanced serious illness"; 2) the manifestations of advanced serious illness multimorbidity that, using the same networks that connect into the patient, are signs of this syndrome at the levels of the immediate family/friend social network, the broader community, and society at large; and 3) the potential for these same networks that transmit pathological forces to convey the positive effects of therapeutic interventions in a scale-free manner, with a focus on how conversation can lead to what I'm calling "multibeneficence...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204992/the-life-experience-of-nutrition-impact-symptoms-during-treatment-for-head-and-neck-cancer-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-synthesis
#15
REVIEW
Valentina Bressan, Annamaria Bagnasco, Giuseppe Aleo, Gianluca Catania, Milko P Zanini, Fiona Timmins, Loredana Sasso
PURPOSE: In the literature, there is limited research about the changed meaning of food, the eating and the eating experience during treatment in patients with head and neck cancer. This systematic review includes findings from a qualitative research synthesis to gain a deeper understanding of the influence and experiences of dysphagia, dysgeusia, oral mucositis and xerostomia in head and neck cancer patients (HNC) and suggests recommendations for care practice. METHOD: A systematic review and meta-synthesis techniques were adopted to identify, appraise and synthesize the relevant literature regarding the experience of nutritional symptoms of HNC patients conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines...
February 15, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203486/dynamics-of-large-multi-view-social-networks-synergy-cannibalization-and-cross-view-interplay
#16
Yu Shi, Myunghwan Kim, Shaunak Chatterjee, Mitul Tiwari, Souvik Ghosh, Rómer Rosales
Most social networking services support multiple types of relationships between users, such as getting connected, sending messages, and consuming feed updates. These users and relationships can be naturally represented as a dynamic multi-view network, which is a set of weighted graphs with shared common nodes but having their own respective edges. Different network views, representing structural relationship and interaction types, could have very distinctive properties individually and these properties may change due to interplay across views...
August 2016: KDD: Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202961/early-brain-development-in-infants-at-high-risk-for-autism-spectrum-disorder
#17
Heather Cody Hazlett, Hongbin Gu, Brent C Munsell, Sun Hyung Kim, Martin Styner, Jason J Wolff, Jed T Elison, Meghan R Swanson, Hongtu Zhu, Kelly N Botteron, D Louis Collins, John N Constantino, Stephen R Dager, Annette M Estes, Alan C Evans, Vladimir S Fonov, Guido Gerig, Penelope Kostopoulos, Robert C McKinstry, Juhi Pandey, Sarah Paterson, John R Pruett, Robert T Schultz, Dennis W Shaw, Lonnie Zwaigenbaum, Joseph Piven
Brain enlargement has been observed in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the timing of this phenomenon, and the relationship between ASD and the appearance of behavioural symptoms, are unknown. Retrospective head circumference and longitudinal brain volume studies of two-year olds followed up at four years of age have provided evidence that increased brain volume may emerge early in development. Studies of infants at high familial risk of autism can provide insight into the early development of autism and have shown that characteristic social deficits in ASD emerge during the latter part of the first and in the second year of life...
February 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202653/argentine-ants-linepithema-humile-use-adaptable-transportation-networks-to-track-changes-in-resource-quality
#18
Tanya Latty, Michael J Holmes, James C Makinson, Madeleine Beekman
Transportation networks play a crucial role in human and animal societies. For a transportation network to be efficient, it must have adequate capacity to meet traffic demand. Network design becomes increasingly difficult in situations where traffic demand can change unexpectedly. In humans, network design is often constrained by path dependency because it is difficult to move a road once it is built. A similar issue theoretically faces pheromone-trail-laying social insects; once a trail has been laid, positive feedback makes re-routing difficult because new trails cannot compete with continually reinforced pre-existing trails...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202153/dyad-vs-network-effects-modeling-relationships-in-personal-networks-using-contextual-effects
#19
E C Hedberg
This paper proposes using contextual models to disentangle the effects of dyad characteristics from the effects of characteristics of the networks in which they reside. Multilevel models that nest dyads in personal networks can be coded for contextual analysis by entering both the dyad value of a predictor and the network mean of that predictor into the prediction equation. These models can then be used to measure a within-network effect for dyads and a network contextual effect. This paper conducts an example analysis of how dyad redundancy, and the network's average dyad redundancy, impact discussions of job opportunities...
March 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202152/social-isolation-survey-nonresponse-and-nonresponse-bias-an-empirical-evaluation-using-social-network-data-within-an-organization
#20
Megumi Watanabe, Kristen Olson, Christina Falci
Survey researchers have long hypothesized that social isolation negatively affects the probability of survey participation and biases survey estimates. Previous research, however, has relied on proxy measures of isolation, such as being a marginalized group member within a population. We re-examine the relationship between social isolation and survey participation using direct measures of social isolation derived from social network data; specifically, instrumental research and expressive friendship connections among faculty within academic departments...
March 2017: Social Science Research
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