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Jin Zhao, Xu Zhao, Shen Qiang Wang, Guang Xi Xing
A five-year successive rice straw-derived biochar (BC) amendment pot trial was conducted to investigate the BC effects on crop growth responses, soil properties and ammonia volatilization in a calcareous alkaline soil from 2010-2015 under the greenhouse condition. We adopted 0 (the control; BC0 ), 2.25 t·hm-2 (BC2.25 ) and 22.5 t·hm-2 (BC22.5 ) for each wheat/millet crop season with an identical dose of NPK fertilizers. The results showed that BC treatments (BC2.25 and BC22.5 ) improved soil fertility and crop growth compared to the no BC control...
January 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Saoirse McCrann, Ian Flitcroft, Kevin Lalor, John Butler, Aaron Bush, James Loughman
PURPOSE: With the increasing prevalence in myopia there is growing interest in active myopia prevention. This study aims to increase our understanding of parental attitudes to myopia development and control, as a means to inform future health planning and policy. It evaluates, for the first time, the attitude of parents to myopia and its associated risks, as well as assessing the exposure of Irish children to environmental factors that may influence their risk profile for myopia development...
May 2018: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
D Zeng, R Zhou, Y Yu, Y Luo, J Zhang, H Sun, J Bin, Y Liao, J Rao, Y Zhang, W Liao
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence has indicated an association between immune infiltration in gastric cancer and clinical outcome. However, reliable prognostic signatures, based on systematic assessments of the immune landscape inferred from bulk tumour transcriptomes, have not been established. The aim was to develop an immune signature, based on the cellular composition of the immune infiltrate inferred from bulk tumour transcriptomes, to improve the prognostic predictions of gastric cancer...
April 25, 2018: British Journal of Surgery
Sung-Gun Park, Gordon A Anderson, James E Bruce
Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) is a powerful instrument for the study of complex biological samples due to its high resolution and mass measurement accuracy. However, the relatively long signal acquisition periods needed to achieve high resolution can serve to limit applications of FTICR-MS. The use of multiple pairs of detector electrodes enables detection of harmonic frequencies present at integer multiples of the fundamental cyclotron frequency, and the obtained resolving power for a given acquisition period increases linearly with the order of harmonic signal...
April 24, 2018: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Tracy L Taylor
This study used rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) to determine whether, in an item-method directed forgetting task, study word processing ends earlier for forget words than for remember words. The critical manipulation required participants to monitor an RSVP stream of black nonsense strings in which a single blue word was embedded. The next item to follow the word was a string of red fs that instructed the participant to forget the word or green rs that instructed the participant to remember the word...
April 24, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Joseph C Nah, Marco Neppi-Modona, Lars Strother, Marlene Behrmann, Sarah Shomstein
Visual input typically includes a myriad of objects, some of which are selected for further processing. While these objects vary in shape and size, most evidence supporting object-based guidance of attention is drawn from paradigms employing two identical objects. Importantly, object size is a readily perceived stimulus dimension, and whether it modulates the distribution of attention remains an open question. Across four experiments, the size of the objects in the display was manipulated in a modified version of the two-rectangle paradigm...
April 24, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Cristian R Montenegro
Although the organisation of mental health service users and ex-users in Latin America is a recent and under-researched phenomenon, global calls for their involvement in policy have penetrated national agendas, shaping definitions and expectations about their role in mental health systems. In this context, how such groups react to these expectations and define their own goals, strategies and partnerships can reveal the specificity of the "user movement" in Chile and Latin America. This study draws on Jacques Rancière's theorisation of "police order" and "politics" to understand the emergence of users' collective identity and activism, highlighting the role of practices of disengagement and rejection...
April 24, 2018: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
Xiaoyi Dai, Guobao Shang, Shan Lu, Jing Yang, Jianguo Xu
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) has been classified into three subtypes, namely the European (Eu-TBEV), Far Eastern (FE-TBEV), and Siberian (Sib-TBEV). In this study, we discovered a new subtype of TBEV in wild rodent Marmota himalayana in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China, proposed as subtype Himalayan (Him-TBEV). Two complete genomes of TBEV were obtained from respiratory samples of 200 marmots. The phylogenetic analysis using the E protein and polyprotein demonstrated that the two strains of Him-TBEV formed an independent branch, separated from Eu-TBEV, Sib-TBEV, and FE-TBEV...
April 25, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Steven J Fitzgerald, Terrence C Palmer, Matthew J Kraay
BACKGROUND: We developed an orthopedic hospitalist fellowship program for our total joint replacement program at a large urban academic medical center. The goal of the program was to improve patient outcomes, quality, and healthcare value through collaborative perioperative care and improved care coordination. This study evaluates the implementation and impact of our modified Hospitalist-Orthopaedic Team Co-management model on quality and performance metrics. METHODS: We reviewed our Quality Institute data using 3 databases for the 16 months before (PreOH) and 18 months after (PostOH) implementation...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
Mikhail Krasavin, Maxim A Gureyev, Dmitry Dar'in, Olga Bakulina, Maria Chizhova, Anastasia Lepikhina, Daria Novikova, Tatyana Grigoreva, Gleb Ivanov, Aisulu Zhumagalieva, Alexander V Garabadzhiu, Vyacheslav G Tribulovich
Five lactam chemotypes amenable by the Castagnoli-Cushman reaction of imines and cyclic anhydrides have been investigated for their ability to activate p53 tumor suppressing transcription factor thus induce apoptosis in p53+ cancer cells. A virtual library of 1.07 million chemically diverse compounds based on these scaffolds was subjected to in silico screening first. The compounds displaying high docking score were visually prioritized to identify the best-fitting compounds, i. e. the ones which adequately mimic the interactions of clinical candidate inhibitor Nutlin-3a...
April 18, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Raffael C Inglin, Leo Meile, Marc J A Stevens
BACKGROUND: Bacterial taxonomy aims to classify bacteria based on true evolutionary events and relies on a polyphasic approach that includes phenotypic, genotypic and chemotaxonomic analyses. Until now, complete genomes are largely ignored in taxonomy. The genus Lactobacillus consists of 173 species and many genomes are available to study taxonomy and evolutionary events. RESULTS: We analyzed and clustered 98 completely sequenced genomes of the genus Lactobacillus and 234 draft genomes of 5 different Lactobacillus species, i...
April 24, 2018: BMC Genomics
Rebecca Helman, Kopano Ratele
BACKGROUND: In light of the global health burden of violence, which is predominantly perpetrated by men, studies have explored the relationship between masculinities and violence. However, there is a relative lack of work focusing on non-hegemonic men and masculinities in relation to violence. Such work has the potential to advance violence prevention work. OBJECTIVE: This article aims to show the shifting relationship between constructions of violent and non-violent masculinity in the talk of a genderqueer man...
2018: Global Health Action
Alison Campbell, James W Tanaka
The face-inversion effect is the finding that picture-plane inversion disproportionately impairs face recognition compared to object recognition and is now attributed to greater orientation-sensitivity of holistic processing for faces but not common objects. Yet, expert dog judges have showed similar recognition deficits for inverted dogs and inverted faces, suggesting that holistic processing is not specific to faces but to the expert recognition of perceptually similar objects. Although processing changes in expert object recognition have since been extensively documented, no other studies have observed the distinct recognition deficits for inverted objects-of-expertise that people as face experts show for faces...
January 1, 2018: Perception
Jingjing Zhang, Xin Hu, Ping Wang, Bisheng Huang, Wei Sun, Chao Xiong, Zhigang Hu, Shilin Chen
Herbal material is both a medicine and a commodity. Accurate identification of herbal materials is necessary to ensure the safety and effectiveness of medication. With this work, we initiated an identification method to investigate the species authenticity for herbal products of Celastrus orbiculatus and Tripterygum wilfordii utilizing DNA barcoding technology. An ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer two) barcode database including 59 sequences was successfully established to estimate the reliability of species-level identification for Celastrus and Tripterygium ...
April 21, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Cene FiŠer, Maja Zagmajster, Michel Dethier
Niphargidae is among the largest families of freshwater subterranean amphipods in the world, and one of the most important macroinvertebrate groups in European groundwaters. The knowledge of their species diversity on a country level is often incomplete due to demanding taxonomy. In this paper we critically evaluated species diversity of the family in Belgium, using published records and samples from our own field work. Morphology-based identifications confirmed the presence of genera Microniphargus and Niphargus, represented with one and eight species, respectively...
February 26, 2018: Zootaxa
Paul Alain Nana, ZÉphyrin Fokam, Bernard ViguÈs, GeneviÈve Bricheux, GidÉon Ajeagah Aghaindum, Pierre Ngassam, MoÏse Nola, TÉlesphore Sime-Ngando
Morphological and infraciliature studies carried out using pyridinated ammoniacal silver carbonate and the 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining techniques, led to the identification of two new species of ciliates pertaining to the subclass Astomatia. The first species, Hoplitophrya polymorphus sp. nov., displays two main cellular forms: the elongated form (150-247 μm long and 40-87 μm width) and the stocky form (140-170 μm long and 70-98 μm width). The macronucleus is generally skinny in the elongated forms and ribbon-shaped in the stocky forms...
March 7, 2018: Zootaxa
Floyd E Hayes, Oscar RodrÍguez, Erika R Thalman, Emily A Castellanos, John Sterling
The Chaco Nothura Nothura chacoensis Conover is endemic to the Chaco of western Paraguay. Originally described as a subspecies of the Spotted Nothura N. maculosa (Temminck), it has been regarded by many authorities as a distinct species based on alleged sympatry with N. maculosa. However, an earlier study revealed no differences in cytochrome b sequences between the two taxa. We reanalyzed the geographic distribution and morphological variation of N. chacoensis and N. maculosa in western Paraguay based on museum specimens...
March 8, 2018: Zootaxa
Maria Salnitska, Alexey Solodovnikov
Quedius (Microsaurus) repentinus sp. n., a new hypogean montane talus-associated species from Altai is described and considered sister to the morphologically and bionomically similar Q. (M.) roma Solodovnikov et Hansen, 2016 from Sikhote-Alin. Both species seem more closely related to the Q. (M.) przewalskii species group from the mountains of China than to the Q. (M.) mutilatus species group from Tien-Shan. The identity of Q. (M.) przewalskii Reitter, 1887, a core of the respective species group, is clarified by re-examination of the holotype...
March 12, 2018: Zootaxa
Peter C Dworschak, Gary C B Poore
Re-examination of the holotype of Neoaxius nicoyaensis Sakai, 2017 showed that it is conspecific with the axiid Guyanacaris caespitosa Squires, 1979 and thus Neoaxius Sakai, 2017 and Neoaxiidae Sakai, 2017 are respectively subjective junior synonyms of Guyanacaris Sakai, 2011 and Axiidae Huxley, 1879. The types and numerous specimens of the callianassid Trypaea vilavelebita Sakai Türkay, 2012 are juveniles of the common northeastern Atlantic-Mediterranean species, Callianassa subterranea (Montagu, 1808); the name is therefore a subjective junior synonym...
March 12, 2018: Zootaxa
Alessandro Catenazzi, Edgar Lehr
We describe two new species of Pristimantis from the Kosñipata valley in the eastern slopes of the Andes near Manu National Park, Peru. The two new species are closely related but do not overlap elevationally: P. antisuyu sp. n. occurs from 1485-1823 m a.s.l., whereas P. erythroinguinis sp. n. occurs from 930-1255 m a.s.l. Both species are readily distinguished from all other species of Pristimantis but P. cruciocularis and P. flavobracatus by possessing an iris with a cruciform pattern, no tympanum, and red bright or yellow coloration on groin...
March 13, 2018: Zootaxa
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