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N acetylcysteine psychiatry

Deepmala, John Slattery, Nihit Kumar, Leanna Delhey, Michael Berk, Olivia Dean, Charles Spielholz, Richard Frye
N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is recognized for its role in acetaminophen overdose and as a mucolytic. Over the past decade, there has been growing evidence for the use of NAC in treating psychiatric and neurological disorders, considering its role in attenuating pathophysiological processes associated with these disorders, including oxidative stress, apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, neuroinflammation and glutamate and dopamine dysregulation. In this systematic review we find favorable evidence for the use of NAC in several psychiatric and neurological disorders, particularly autism, Alzheimer's disease, cocaine and cannabis addiction, bipolar disorder, depression, trichotillomania, nail biting, skin picking, obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, drug-induced neuropathy and progressive myoclonic epilepsy...
August 2015: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
G Bunt
The burgeoning area of the application of nutritional and alternative medicine technologies in integrated medicine and psychiatry has taken root in the treatment of addictive disorders. Nutritional supplements spanning a wide range may be therapeutic in treating both deficiencies or insufficiencies as well as an adjunct to pharmacological interventions. Nutritional supplements that are commonly utilized in the treatment of addiction disorders and corresponding co-morbid psychiatric disorders or symptoms include l-methylfolate, vitamin D, inositol, l-tryptophan, omega 3 fatty acids, s-adenosyl methionine (SAM-E), N-acetylcysteine (NAC), melatonin, rhodiola rosea, valerian, chromium, creatine, and hypericum...
September 2014: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
A Monin, P S Baumann, A Griffa, L Xin, R Mekle, M Fournier, C Butticaz, M Klaey, J H Cabungcal, P Steullet, C Ferrari, M Cuenod, R Gruetter, J P Thiran, P Hagmann, P Conus, K Q Do
Schizophrenia pathophysiology implies both abnormal redox control and dysconnectivity of the prefrontal cortex, partly related to oligodendrocyte and myelin impairments. As oligodendrocytes are highly vulnerable to altered redox state, we investigated the interplay between glutathione and myelin. In control subjects, multimodal brain imaging revealed a positive association between medial prefrontal glutathione levels and both white matter integrity and resting-state functional connectivity along the cingulum bundle...
July 2015: Molecular Psychiatry
Reza Bavarsad Shahripour, Mark R Harrigan, Andrei V Alexandrov
BACKGROUND: There is an expanding field of research investigating the benefits of medicines with multiple mechanisms of action across neurological disorders. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), widely known as an antidote to acetaminophen overdose, is now emerging as treatment of vascular and nonvascular neurological disorders. NAC as a precursor to the antioxidant glutathione modulates glutamatergic, neurotrophic, and inflammatory pathways. AIM AND DISCUSSION: Most NAC studies up to date have been carried out in animal models of various neurological disorders with only a few studies completed in humans...
March 2014: Brain and Behavior
A I C Teo, J G Cooper
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The emergency department of Aberdeen Royal Infirmary receives around 68,000 new adult admissions annually. All poisoning cases are admitted to a 14-bedded short-stay ward, except those admitted to intensive care or immediately discharged. This study aimed to analyse epidemiological trends and management of short-stay ward admissions for poisonings. METHOD AND RESULTS: Adult (>13 years) poisoning presentations admitted to the emergency department short-stay ward of Aberdeen Royal Infirmary from 1 January-31 December 2009 were retrospectively reviewed using patient discharge summaries...
August 2013: Scottish Medical Journal
Robert M Post, Peter Kalivas
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder has a high co-occurrence with substance use disorders, but the pathophysiological mechanisms have not been adequately explored. AIMS: To review the role of stress in the onset and recurrence of affective episodes and substance misuse. METHOD: We review the mechanisms involved in sensitisation (increased responsivity) to recurrence of stressors, mood episodes and cocaine use. RESULTS: Evidence suggests that intermittent stressors, mood episodes and bouts of cocaine use not only show sensitisation to themselves, but cross-sensitisation to the others contributing to illness progression...
March 2013: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Benjamin I Goldstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2013: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Vikhyat S Bebarta, Drew C Shiner, Shawn M Varney
Liver function test (LFT) increase is an early sign of acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity. Typically, when an acute overdose patient is evaluated and has an initial undetectable APAP level and normal liver enzymes, the patient is not treated with N-acetylcysteine, and liver enzymes are not expected to increase later. We report a case of moderate LFT increase despite normal LFTs and an undetectable APAP level after delayed presentation of an APAP ingestion. A 22-year-old male with no medical history ingested 15-25 hydrocodone/APAP tablets (5 mg/500 mg)...
May 2014: American Journal of Therapeutics
Olivia Dean, Frank Giorlando, Michael Berk
There is an expanding field of research investigating the benefits of alternatives to current pharmacological therapies in psychiatry. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is emerging as a useful agent in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Like many therapies, the clinical origins of NAC are far removed from its current use in psychiatry. Whereas the mechanisms of NAC are only beginning to be understood, it is likely that NAC is exerting benefits beyond being a precursor to the antioxidant, glutathione, modulating glutamatergic, neurotropic and inflammatory pathways...
March 2011: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Damon M Dell'Aglio, Mark E Sutter, Michael D Schwartz, David D Koch, D A Algren, Brent W Morgan
Chloroform, a halogenated hydrocarbon, causes central nervous system depression, cardiac arrhythmias, and hepatotoxicity. We describe a case of chloroform ingestion with a confirmatory serum level and resultant hepatotoxicity successfully treated with intravenously administered N-acetylcysteine (NAC). A 19-year-old man attempting suicide ingested approximately 75 mL of chloroform. He was unresponsive and intubated upon arrival. Intravenously administered NAC was started after initial stabilization was complete...
June 2010: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
Robert M Post
Along with genetic vulnerability, multiple environmental factors convey liability to illness progression, including: (1) distal and proximal stressors; (2) recurrence of episodes; and (3) comorbid cocaine abuse. Recurrence of each of these can increase responsivity (sensitize) to themselves and cross-sensitize to the two other factors and drive illness progression as seen clinically in increases in cycle acceleration, severity or duration of episodes, treatment refractoriness, disability, cognitive dysfunction, and premature death...
November 2010: Neurotoxicity Research
Michael Berk, Felicity Ng, Olivia Dean, Seetal Dodd, Ashley I Bush
There is accumulating evidence for oxidative stress mechanisms as common pathophysiological pathways in diverse psychiatric disorders, which offers novel treatment targets in oxidation biology systems. Of these the glutathione system has the most favourable theoretical foundation, given its dominance as the most generic of cellular antioxidants. Clinically, this hypothesis has been supported by several recently published studies that have reported on the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine, a glutathione precursor, in the treatment of various psychiatric disorders...
July 2008: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
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