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N acetylcysteine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454225/js-k-promotes-apoptosis-by-inducing-ros-production-in-human-prostate-cancer-cells
#1
Mingning Qiu, Lieqian Chen, Guobin Tan, Longzhi Ke, Sai Zhang, Hege Chen, Jianjun Liu
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemical species that alter redox status, and are responsible for inducing carcinogenesis. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of the glutathione S transferase-activated nitric oxide donor prodrug, JS-K, on ROS accumulation and on proliferation and apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells. Cell proliferation and apoptosis, ROS accumulation and the activation of the mitochondrial signaling pathway were measured. The results demonstrated that JS-K may inhibit prostate cancer cell growth in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and induce ROS accumulation and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner...
March 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448890/metabolic-profiles-of-neotuberostemonine-and-tuberostemonine-in-rats-by-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#2
Yongbin Tong, Weitong Xu, Yan Wu, Liting Ou, Mian Zhang, Xianghong Xu, Chaofeng Zhang
Neotuberostemonine (NS) and tuberostemonine (TS), a pair of stereoisomers, are the active components contained in Stemona tuberosa, an antitussive herbal medicine in China. Two isomers have different pharmacological efficacies, which will be related with their in vivo disposition. However, the metabolic fates of NS and TS remain unknown. A method of high performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry coupled with mass detect filter technique was established to investigate the metabolites in rat plasma, bile, urine, and feces after oral administration of the equal doses of NS and TS...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446133/prevention-and-reversal-of-selenite-induced-cataracts-by-n-acetylcysteine-amide-in-wistar-rats
#3
Yasaswi Maddirala, Shakila Tobwala, Humeyra Karacal, Nuran Ercal
BACKGROUND: The present study sought to evaluate the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA) eye drops in reversing the cataract formation induced by sodium selenite in male Wistar rat pups. METHODS: Forty male Wistar rat pups were randomly divided into a control group, an N-acetylcysteine amide-only group, a sodium selenite-induced cataract group, and a NACA-treated sodium selenite-induced cataract group. Sodium selenite was injected intraperitoneally on postpartum day 10, whereas N-acetylcysteine amide was injected intraperitoneally on postpartum days 9, 11, and 13 in the respective groups...
April 26, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445976/oxidative-stress-induced-apoptosis-in-granulosa-cells-involves-jnk-p53-and-puma
#4
Hongyan Yang, Yan Xie, Dongyu Yang, Decheng Ren
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in follicular development and survival. Granulosa cell death is associated with increased ROS, but the mechanism of granulosa cell death induced by ROS is not clear. In order to define the molecular link between ROS and granulosa cell death, COV434, human granulosa tumor cells, were treated with H2O2. Compared to control cells, H2O2 induced granulosa cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manner. H2O2 induced an increase in Bax, Bak and Puma, and a decrease in anti-apoptotic molecules such as Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Mcl-1...
April 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445841/copper-ii-and-iron-iii-ions-inhibit-respiration-and-increase-free-radical-mediated-phospholipid-peroxidation-in-rat-liver-mitochondria-effect-of-antioxidants
#5
Christian Saporito-Magriñá, Rosario Musacco-Sebio, Juan M Acosta, Sofía Bajicoff, Paola Paredes-Fleitas, Sofia Reynoso, Alberto Boveris, Marisa G Repetto
Rat liver mitochondria (1.5-2.1mg protein·mL(-1)) supplemented with either 25 and 100μM Cu(2+) or 100 and 500μM Fe(3+) show inhibition of active respiration (O2 consumption in state 3) and increased phospholipid peroxidation . Liver mitochondria were supplemented with the antioxidants reduced glutathione, N-acetylcysteine or butylated hydroxitoluene, to evaluate their effects on the above-mentioned alterations. Although the mitochondrial dysfunction is clearly associated to phospholipid peroxidation, the different responses to antioxidant supplementation indicate that the metal ions have differences in their mechanisms of toxicity...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445364/n-acetylcysteine-prevents-retrograde-motor-neuron-death-after-neonatal-peripheral-nerve-injury
#6
Joseph Catapano, Jennifer Zhang, David Scholl, Cameron Chiang, Tessa Gordon, Gregory H Borschel
BACKGROUND: Neuronal death may be an overlooked and unaddressed component of disability following neonatal nerve injuries, such as obstetric brachial plexus injury. N-acetylcysteine and acetyl-L-carnitine improve survival of neurons after adult nerve injury, but it is unknown whether they improve survival after neonatal injury, when neurons are most susceptible to retrograde neuronal death. The authors' objective was to examine whether N-acetylcysteine or acetyl-L-carnitine treatment improves survival of neonatal motor or sensory neurons in a rat model of neonatal nerve injury...
May 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441068/a-controlled-randomized-double-blind-study-to-evaluate-the-safety-and-efficacy-of-chitosan-n-acetylcysteine-for-the-treatment-of-dry-eye-syndrome
#7
Doreen Schmidl, René Werkmeister, Semira Kaya, Angelika Unterhuber, Katarzyna J Witkowska, Renate Baumgartner, Sonja Höller, Maria O'Rourke, Ward Peterson, Annika Wolter, Martin Prinz, Leopold Schmetterer, Gerhard Garhöfer
PURPOSE: This study was designed to evaluate the effect of chitosan-N-acetylcysteine (C-NAC) eye drops on tear film thickness (TFT) in patients with dry eye syndrome (DES). METHODS: This was a controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical investigation with patients assigned to 2 cohorts. In Cohort I, 21 patients were randomized to receive 1 instillation of C-NAC eye drops in 1 eye and placebo (normal saline solution) in the contralateral eye. In Cohort II, 17 patients were randomized to receive C-NAC eye drops once (QD) or twice (BID) daily for 5 days...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440386/effect-of-chemical-structure-of-s-nitrosothiols-on-nitric-oxide-release-mediated-by-the-copper-sites-of-a-metal-organic-framework-based-environment
#8
Kiara Taylor-Edinbyrd, Tanping Li, Revati Kumar
The effect of chemical structure of different biologically compatible S-nitrosothiols on the solvation environment at catalytic copper sites in a metal organic framework (MOF) suspended in a solution of ethanol is probed using computational methods. The use of a copper based MOF as a storage vehicle and catalyst (copper sites of the MOF) in the controlled and sustained release of chemically stored nitric oxide (NO) from S-nitrosocysteine has been shown to occur both experimentally and computationally [J. Am...
April 25, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439707/protective-role-of-n-acetylcysteine-on-isoprenaline-induced-myocardial-injury-histological-immunohistochemical-and-morphometric-study
#9
Sherif Mohamed Zaki, Ibrahim Labib Abdalla, Abir Oueida El Sadik, Enas Ahmad Mohamed, Sarah Kaooh
Several researchers studied the protective effect of the N-acetylcysteine (NAC) when it was given before the induction of myocardial infarction (MI). Other researchers studied such protective effect when it was before done and after done of the MI. The missing data are the comparison between the protective effect of NAC before myocardial injury with its protective effect both before and after myocardial injury. The aim of the study was to compare the cardioprotective effect of NAC on the isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury before the isoprenaline (ISP) injection with its protective effect both before and after the ISP injection...
April 24, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438658/antioxidants-reduce-neurodegeneration-and-accumulation-of-pathologic-tau-proteins-in-the-auditory-system-after-blast-exposure
#10
Xiaoping Du, Matthew B West, Qunfeng Cai, Weihua Cheng, Donald L Ewert, Wei Li, Robert A Floyd, Richard D Kopke
Cochlear neurodegeneration commonly accompanies hair cell loss resulting from aging, ototoxicity, or exposures to intense noise or blast overpressures. However, the precise pathophysiological mechanisms that drive this degenerative response have not been fully elucidated. Our laboratory previously demonstrated that non-transgenic rats exposed to blast overpressures exhibited marked somatic accumulation of neurotoxic variants of the microtubule-associated protein, Tau, in the hippocampus. In the present study, we extended these analyses to examine neurodegeneration and pathologic Tau accumulation in the auditory system in response to blast exposure and evaluated the potential therapeutic efficacy of antioxidants on short-circuiting this pathological process...
April 21, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438466/the-effect-of-n-acetylcysteine-nac-on-human-cognition-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
David R Skvarc, Olivia M Dean, Linda K Byrne, Laura Gray, Stephen Lane, Matthew Lewis, Brisa S Fernandes, Michael Berk, Andrew Marriott
Oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and neurogenesis are commonly implicated as cognitive modulators across a range of disorders. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a glutathione precursor with potent antioxidant, pro-neurogenesis and anti-inflammatory properties and a favourable safety profile. A systematic review of the literature specifically examining the effect of NAC administration on human cognition revealed twelve suitable articles for inclusion: four examining Alzheimer's disease; three examining healthy participants; two examining physical trauma; one examining bipolar disorder, one examining schizophrenia, and one examining ketamine-induced psychosis...
April 21, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438367/the-effect-of-dietary-supplements-on-clinical-aspects-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#12
REVIEW
Maria Gogou, George Kolios
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder is associated with significant social and financial burden and no definite treatment for this entity has been identified, yet. In recent years there has been an increasing interest in the use of dietary interventions as a complementary therapeutic option for these patients. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review is to provide high evidence level literature data about the effect of dietary supplements on clinical aspects of children with autism...
April 21, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433543/phenformin-inhibits-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-and-enhances-the-anti-tumor-activity-of-pd-1-blockade-in-melanoma
#13
Sun Hye Kim, Man Li, Sebastian Trousil, Yaqing Zhang, Marina Pasca di Magliano, Kenneth D Swanson, Bin Zheng
Biguanides, such as the diabetes therapeutics metformin and phenformin, have demonstrated antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo. However, their potential effects on the tumor microenvironment are largely unknown. Here we report that phenformin selectively inhibits granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (G-MDSCs) in spleens of tumor bearing mice and ex vivo. Phenformin induces production of reactive oxygen species in G-MDSC, whereas the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine attenuates the inhibitory effects of phenformin...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432555/rotundarpene-inhibits-tnf-%C3%AE-induced-activation-of-the-akt-mtor-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathways-and-the-jnk-and-p38-associated-with-production-of-reactive-oxygen-species
#14
Arum Kim, Yoon Jeong Nam, Yong Kyoo Shin, Min Sung Lee, Dong Suep Sohn, Chung Soo Lee
Ilex Rotunda Thunb has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. In human keratinocytes, we investigated the effect of rotundarpene (4-caffeoyl-3-methyl-but-2-ene-1,4-diol) on the TNF-α-stimulated production of inflammatory mediators in relation to the Akt, mTOR, and NF-κB pathways, and the JNK and p38-MAPK. Rotundarpene, Akt inhibitor, Bay 11-7085, rapamycin, and N-acetylcysteine inhibited the TNF-α-stimulated production of cytokines and chemokines, increase in the levels of p-Akt and mTOR, activation of NF-κB, and production of reactive oxygen species in keratinocytes...
April 21, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427645/ultrasound-assisted-extraction-of-achyrocline-satureioides-prevents-contrast-induced-nephropathy-in-mice
#15
Ketheley L Guss, Stefano Pavanni, Bruno Prati, Lucas Dazzi, Jairo P de Oliveira, Breno V Nogueira, Thiago M C Pereira, Marcio Fronza, Denise C Endringer, Rodrigo Scherer
Achyrocline satureioides or Macela, has been largely used in traditional folk medicine in Brazil as an anti-inflammatory agent and to treat various digestive disorders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the preventive action of the extracts of A. satureioides obtained by maceration and ultrasound-assisted extraction, quercetin and N-acetylcysteine against contrast-induced nephropathy in mice. The antioxidant activity, cytotoxicity and inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production in macrophages were evaluated...
July 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426713/metallothioneins-regulate-the-adipogenic-differentiation-of-3t3-l1-cells-via-the-insulin-signaling-pathway
#16
Yoshito Kadota, Yuriko Toriuchi, Yuka Aki, Yuto Mizuno, Takashige Kawakami, Tomoko Nakaya, Masao Sato, Shinya Suzuki
Knockout of metallothionein (MT) genes contributes to a heavier body weight in early life and the potential to become obese through the intake of a high fat diet (HFD) in mice. It has thus been suggested that MT genes regulate the formation of adipose tissue, which would become the base for later HFD-induced obesity. We evaluated the fat pads of mice during the lactation stage. The fat mass and adipocyte size of MT1 and MT2 knockout mice were greater than those of wild type mice. Next, we assayed the ability of small interfering RNA (siRNA) to silence MT genes in the 3T3-L1 cell line...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426681/preventing-treating-and-predicting-barbering-a-fundamental-role-for-biomarkers-of-oxidative-stress-in-a-mouse-model-of-trichotillomania
#17
Giovana de L T Vieira, Amy C Lossie, Donald C Lay, John S Radcliffe, Joseph P Garner
Barbering, where a "barber" mouse plucks hair from its cagemates or itself, is both a spontaneously occurring abnormal behavior in mice and a well validated model of Trichotillomania (TTM). N-Acetylcysteine, (NAC) a cysteine derived food additive, is remarkably effective in treating TTM patients, but its mechanism of action is unknown. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), also known as free radicals, form as a natural byproduct of the normal metabolism of oxygen. Under normal circumstances, cells are able to defend themselves against ROS damage with antioxidant pathways...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423628/benzyl-isothiocyanate-induces-reactive-oxygen-species-initiated-autophagy-and-apoptosis-in-human-prostate-cancer-cells
#18
Ji-Fan Lin, Te-Fu Tsai, Shan-Che Yang, Yi-Chia Lin, Hung-En Chen, Kuang-Yu Chou, Thomas I-Sheng Hwang
Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) in cruciferous plants, which are part of the human diet, has been shown to induce apoptosis in various types of cancer. In this study, we show that BITC effectively suppresses the growth of cultured human prostate cancer cells (CRW-22Rv1 and PC3) by causing mitochondrial membrane potential loss, caspase 3/7 activation and DNA fragmentation. Furthermore, BITC induces ROS generation in these cells. The induction of apoptosis by BITC was significantly attenuated in the presence of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and catalase (CAT), well-studied ROS scavengers...
March 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423123/n-acetylcysteine-versus-dopamine-to-prevent-acute-kidney-injury-after-cardiac-surgery-in-patients-with-preexisting-moderate-renal-insufficiency
#19
Omer Faruk Savluk, Fusun Guzelmeric, Yasemin Yavuz, Deniz Cevirme, Emre Gurcu, Halide Ogus, Tulay Orki, Tuncer Kocak
Objective: Acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery is associated with mortality and morbidity. Therefore, strategies to prevent acute kidney injury are very important. The aim of this placebo-controlled randomized double-blind study was to compare the prophylactic efficacy of N-Acetylcysteine and dopamine administration in patients with pre-existing moderate renal insufficiency who were undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. Methods: This study included 135 patients with pre-existing moderate renal insufficiency who were scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting surgery...
January 2017: Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422158/isothiocyanates-induce-ugt1a1-in-humanized-ugt1-mice-in-a-car-dependent-fashion-that-is-highly-dependent-upon-oxidative-stress
#20
Emiko Yoda, Miles Paszek, Camille Konopnicki, Ryoichi Fujiwara, Shujuan Chen, Robert H Tukey
Isothiocyanates, such as phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), are formed following the consumption of cruciferous vegetables and generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) that lead to the induction of cytoprotective genes such as the UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs). The induction of ROS activates the Nrf2-Keap 1 pathway leading to the induction of genes through antioxidant response elements (AREs). UGT1A1, the sole enzyme responsible for the metabolism of bilirubin, can be induced following activation of Nrf2...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
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