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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506059/application-of-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-to-determine-urinary-concentrations-of-five-commonly-used-low-calorie-sweeteners-a-novel-biomarker-approach-for-assessing-recent-intakes
#1
Caomhan Logue, Le Roy C Dowey, J J Strain, Hans Verhagen, Stephen McClean, Alison M Gallagher
Although the use of low-calorie sweeteners (LCSs) is widespread, methods of assessing consumption within free-living populations have inherent limitations. Five commonly consumed LCSs, namely, acesulfame-K, saccharin, sucralose, cyclamate, and steviol glycosides, are excreted via the urine, and therefore a urinary biomarker approach may provide more objective LCS intake data. A LC-ESI-MS/MS method of simultaneously determining acesulfame-K, saccharin, sucralose, cyclamate, and the excretory metabolite of steviol glycosides, steviol glucuronide, in human urine was developed and validated...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499795/anesthesia-inducing-drugs-also-induce-conditioned-taste-aversions
#2
Jian-You Lin, Joe Arthurs, Steve Reilly
Animals learn to reduce their intake of a tastant when its ingestion is followed by the administration of an anesthesia-inducing drug. To determine the nature of this intake suppression, the current study examined whether ketamine/xylazine (Experiment 1) and pentobarbital (Experiment 2) also conditionally reduce taste palatability. Using lick pattern analysis, we found that pairing saccharin with either drug reduced total licks, lick cluster size, and initial lick rate. Given that both lick cluster size and initial lick rate are indices of palatability, this pattern of results indicates that anesthesia-inducing drugs also induce conditioned taste aversions...
May 9, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498633/how-does-radioactive-iodine-affect-the-nose
#3
Ela Araz Server, Tolga Kirgezen, Ozlem Onerci Celebi, Muhammet Yildiz, Ozgur Yigit, Tevfik Fikret Cermik
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To determine the effect of radioactive iodine (RAI) treatment on the nasal mucosa and nasal functions. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective clinical study. METHODS: This study included 41 patients (31 female and 10 male) who were treated with RAI for papillary thyroid carcinoma. A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used for subjective evaluation of nasal symptoms. The saccharine test, nasal Schirmer test, and acoustic rhinometry were used for objective evaluation of nasal functions...
May 12, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489239/therapeutic-effect-of-hyaluronic-acid-in-reducing-nasal-mucosa-recovery-time-after-septoplasty
#4
Francesco Klinger, Fabio Caviggioli, Andrea Vittorio Lisa, Luca Maione, Valeriano Vinci, Mattia Siliprandi, Federico Barbera, Marco Klinger, Luca Malvezzi
Mucociliary clearance represents a host defense mechanism of airways that can be compromised by various pathologic conditions, such as nasal septal deviation. Although septoplasty can resolve obstruction, it impairs mucociliary clearance in the immediate postoperative period. Clinical studies have demonstrated how hyaluronic acid can interfere with this function. Our study aims to provide evidence of a therapeutic effect of hyaluronic acid on nasal mucosa recovery after septoplasy. Sixty-five patients underwent septoplasty...
April 2017: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482217/ruthenium-ii-complexes-of-saccharin-with-dipyridoquinoxaline-and-dipyridophenazine-structures-biological-interactions-and-photoinduced-dna-damage-activity
#5
Priyaranjan Kumar, Srikanth Dasari, Ashis K Patra
Ruthenium complexes trans-[Ru(sac)2(dpq)2] (1) and trans-[Ru(sac)2(dppz)2] (2) where sac is artificial sweetener saccharin (o-sulfobenzimide; 1,2-benzothiazole-3(2H)-one1,1-dioxide (Hsac)), dpq = dipyrido[3,2-d:2',3'-f]quinoxaline and dppz = dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine have been synthesized and thoroughly characterized using various analytical and spectral techniques. Saccharin known to act as carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) inhibitor which is a biomarker for highly aggressive and proliferative tumor in hypoxic stress, so inhibition of CA IX is a potential strategy for anticancer chemotherapy...
May 3, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472674/saccharin-induced-liver-inflammation-in-mice-by-altering-the-gut-microbiota-and-its-metabolic-functions
#6
Xiaoming Bian, Pengcheng Tu, Liang Chi, Bei Gao, Hongyu Ru, Kun Lu
Maintaining the balance of the gut microbiota and its metabolic functions is vital for human health, however, this balance can be disrupted by various external factors including food additives. A range of food and beverages are sweetened by saccharin, which is generally considered to be safe despite controversial debates. However, recent studies indicated that saccharin perturbed the gut microbiota. Inflammation is frequently associated with disruptions of the gut microbiota. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between host inflammation and perturbed gut microbiome by saccharin...
May 1, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472098/t1r3-homomeric-sweet-taste-receptor-regulates-adipogenesis-through-g%C3%AE-s-mediated-microtubules-disassembly-and-rho-activation-in-3t3-l1-cells
#7
Yosuke Masubuchi, Yuko Nakagawa, Johan Medina, Masahiro Nagasawa, Itaru Kojima, Mark M Rasenick, Takeshi Inagaki, Hiroshi Shibata
We previously reported that 3T3-L1 cells express a functional sweet taste receptor possibly as a T1R3 homomer that is coupled to Gs and negatively regulates adipogenesis by a Gαs-mediated but cAMP-independent mechanism. Here, we show that stimulation of this receptor with sucralose or saccharin induced disassembly of the microtubules in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, which was attenuated by overexpression of the dominant-negative mutant of Gαs (Gαs-G226A). In contrast, overexpression of the constitutively active mutant of Gαs (Gαs-Q227L) as well as treatment with cholera toxin or isoproterenol but not with forskolin caused disassembly of the microtubules...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462476/a-survey-on-trace-organic-chemicals-in-a-german-water-protection-area-and-the-proposal-of-relevant-indicators-for-anthropogenic-influences
#8
Wolfram Seitz, Rudi Winzenbacher
A comprehensive monitoring programme of trace organic chemicals (TOrC) was conducted for a German water protection area in karstic ground. The aim of this survey was to detect the potential anthropogenic influences of point sources such as wastewater treatment plants and diffuse pollution such as runoff water from roads on the raw water used for drinking water treatment. The programme comprised seven sampling campaigns within 2 years each with up to 20 sampling sites. In total, the programme included 84 anthropogenic compounds from pharmaceuticals, iodinated X-ray contrast media, sweeteners, industrial chemicals (benzotriazoles, melamines and benzothiazoles) and pesticide metabolites...
June 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460894/intravenous-administration-of-oxytocin-in-rats-acutely-decreases-deprivation-induced-chow-intake-but-it-fails-to-affect-consumption-of-palatable-solutions
#9
Anica Klockars, Chloe Brunton, Lu Li, Allen S Levine, Pawel K Olszewski
Despite its limited ability to cross the blood-brain barrier, peripherally administered oxytocin (OT) acutely decreases food intake, most likely via the brainstem and hypothalamic mechanisms. Studies performed to date have focused mainly on the effects of subcutaneous or intraperitoneal OT on the consumption of only solid calorie-dense diets (either standard or high-fat), whereas it is unknown whether, similarly to central OT, peripherally administered peptide reduces intake of calorie-dilute and non-caloric palatable solutions...
April 28, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457669/%C3%AE-6%C3%AE-2-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-influence-locomotor-activity-and-ethanol-consumption
#10
Helen M Kamens, Colette Peck, Caitlin Garrity, Alex Gechlik, Brenita C Jenkins, Akshat Rajan
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the mesolimbic dopamine system have been implicated in ethanol behaviors. In particular, work in genetically engineered mice has demonstrated that α6-containing nAChRs are involved in ethanol consumption and sedation. A limitation of these studies is that the alteration in the receptor was present throughout development. The recently described α6β2 antagonist, N,N-decane-1,10-diyl-bis-3-picolinium diiodide (bPiDI), now makes it possible to test for the involvement of these receptors using a pharmacological approach...
April 27, 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455231/multiple-functional-attributes-of-glucose-monitoring-neurons-in-the-medial-orbitofrontal-ventrolateral-prefrontal-cortex
#11
REVIEW
István Szabó, Edina Hormay, Bettina Csetényi, Bernadett Nagy, László Lénárd, Zoltán Karádi
Multiple functional attributes of glucose-monitoring neurons in the medial orbitofrontal (ventrolateral prefrontal) cortex. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV 73(1) XXX-XXX, 2017.- Special chemosensory cells, the glucose-monitoring (GM) neurons, reportedly involved in the central feeding control, exist in the medial orbitofrontal (ventrolateral prefrontal) cortex (mVLPFC). Electrophysiological, metabolic and behavioral studies reveal complex functional attributes of these cells and raise their homeostatic significance. Single neuron recordings, by means of the multibarreled microelectrophoretic technique, elucidate differential sensitivities of limbic forebrain neurons in the rat and the rhesus monkey to glucose and other chemicals, whereas gustatory stimulations demonstrate their distinct taste responsiveness...
April 25, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443897/aminoquinoline-directed-cobalt-catalyzed-carbonylation-of-sulfonamide-sp-2-c-h-bonds
#12
Tung Thanh Nguyen, Liene Grigorjeva, Olafs Daugulis
We report a method for cobalt-catalyzed, aminoquinoline-directed sp(2) C-H bond carbonylation of sulfonamides. The reactions proceed in a dichloroethane solvent, and employ diisopropyl azodicarboxylate as a carbon monoxide source, Mn(OAc)2 as a cooxidant and potassium pivalate as a base. Halogen, ester, and amide functionalities are compatible with the reaction conditions. This method allows for a short and efficient synthesis of saccharin derivatives.
May 4, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442373/nasal-mucociliary-transportability-of-male-and-female-smokers
#13
Juliana Souza Uzeloto, Dionei Ramos, Ana Paula C F Freire, Diego G D Christofaro, Ercy M C Ramos
INTRODUCTION: Female smoker's present increased susceptibility to several diseases when compared to the opposite gender. However, there are no studies showing differences in nasal mucociliary transport behavior between male and female smokers. OBJECTIVE: To compare the nasal mucociliary transportability in male and female smokers and non-smokers, taking into consideration age, anthropometric data, smoking load and pulmonary function. METHODS: The analysis included 139 individuals (33 men and 37 women smokers and 32 men and 37 women non-smokers)...
April 8, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435141/thermodynamic-investigation-of-carbamazepine-saccharin-co-crystal-polymorphs
#14
Sudhir K Pagire, Niten Jadav, Venu R Vangala, Benjamin Whiteside, Anant Paradkar
Polymorphism in active pharmaceutical ingredients can be regarded as critical for the potential that crystal form can have on the quality, efficacy, and safety of the final drug product. The current contribution aims to characterize thermodynamic interrelationship of a dimorphic co-crystal, FI and FII, involving carbamazepine (CBZ) and saccharin (SAC) molecules. Supramolecular synthesis of CBZ-SAC FI and FII has been performed using thermokinetic methods and systematically characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction, solubility, and slurry measurements...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433467/modeling-hypohedonia-following-repeated-social-defeat-individual-vulnerability-and-dopaminergic-involvement
#15
Samantha R Spierling, Maegan Mattock, Eric P Zorrilla
Social defeat in rodents putatively can model hypohedonia. The present studies examined models for assessing hypohedonia-like behavior and tested the hypotheses that 1) individual differences in baseline reward sensitivity predict vulnerability, and 2) defeat elicits changes in pharmacological measures of striatal dopaminergic function. Male Wistar rats (n=142) received repeated defeat (3 "triad" blocks of 3 defeats) or control handling. To determine whether defeat influenced consumption of SuperSac (glucose-saccharin) over an isocaloric, less preferred, glucose solution, a 2-choice paradigm was used...
April 19, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427995/conditioned-taste-avoidance-conditioned-place-preference-and-hyperthermia-induced-by-the-second-generation-bath-salt-%C3%AE-pyrrolidinopentiophenone-%C3%AE-pvp
#16
Katharine H Nelson, Briana J Hempel, Matthew M Clasen, Kenner C Rice, Anthony L Riley
BACKGROUND: α-Pyrrolidinopentiophenone (α-PVP) has been reported to be rewarding in a variety of pre-clinical models. Given that a number of drugs of abuse have both rewarding and aversive effects, the balance of which influences addiction potential, the present study examined the aversive properties of α-PVP by assessing its ability to induce taste avoidance. This assessment was made in a combined taste avoidance/place conditioning design that also allowed an evaluation of the relationship between α-PVP's aversive and rewarding effects...
April 17, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416101/n-substituted-and-ring-opened-saccharin-derivatives-selectively-inhibit-transmembrane-tumor-associated-carbonic-anhydrases-ix-and-xii
#17
Jekaterīna Ivanova, Fabrizio Carta, Daniela Vullo, Janis Leitans, Andris Kazaks, Kaspars Tars, Raivis Žalubovskis, Claudiu T Supuran
A series of N-substituted saccharins incorporating aryl, alkyl and alkynyl moieties, as well as some ring opened derivatives were prepared and investigated as inhibitors of the metalloenzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1). The widespread cytosolic isoforms CA I and II were not inhibited by these sulfonamides whereas transmembrane, tumor-associated ones were effectively inhibited, with KIs in the range of 22.1-481nM for CA IX and of 3.9-245nM for hCA XII. Although the inhibition mechanism of these tertiary/secondary sulfonamides is unknown for the moment, the good efficacy and especially selectivity for the inhibition of the tumor-associated over the cytosolic, widespread isoforms, make these derivatives of considerable interest as enzyme inhibitors with various pharmacologic applications...
April 7, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407474/the-impact-of-low-and-no-caloric-sweeteners-on-glucose-absorption-incretin-secretion-and-glucose-tolerance
#18
Catherine B Chan, Zohre Hashemi, Fatheema B Subhan
The consumption of non-nutritive, low, or no-calorie sweeteners (LCS) is increasing globally. Previously thought to be physiologically inert, there is a growing body of evidence that LCS not only provide a sweet taste but may also elicit metabolic effects in the gastrointestinal tract. This review provides a brief overview of the chemical and receptor-binding properties and effects on chemosensation of different LCS but focuses on the extent to which LCS stimulates glucose transport, incretin and insulin secretion, and effects on glucose tolerance...
April 13, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401284/targeting-the-subthalamic-nucleus-in-a-preclinical-model-of-alcohol-use-disorder
#19
Yann Pelloux, Christelle Baunez
BACKGROUND: The subthalamic nucleus (STN) has only recently been considered to have a role in reward processing. In rats, inactivation of the STN by lesion or high-frequency stimulation (HFS) decreases motivation for cocaine but increases motivation for sucrose. For ethanol, the effect of STN lesion depends on the individual's baseline intake; decreasing motivation for ethanol in rats with lower ethanol intake, while increasing motivation for ethanol in rats with higher-but still limited-ethanol intake...
April 11, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392495/cocrystal-solubility-product-analysis-dual-concentration-ph-mass-action-model-not-dependent-on-explicit-solubility-equations
#20
Alex Avdeef
A novel general computational approach is described to address many aspects of cocrystal (CC) solubility product (Ksp) determination of drug substances. The CC analysis program, pDISOL-X, was developed and validated with published model systems of various acid-base combinations of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and coformers: (i) carbamazepine cocrystal systems with 4-aminobenzoic acid, cinnamic acid, saccharin, and salicylic acid, (ii) for indomethacin with saccharin, (iii) for nevirapine with maleic acid, saccharin, and salicylic acid, and (iv) for gabapentin with 3-hydroxybenzoic acid...
April 6, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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