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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645064/heroin-and-saccharin-demand-and-preference-in-rats
#1
Lindsay P Schwartz, Jung S Kim, Alan Silberberg, David N Kearns
BACKGROUND: Several recent studies have investigated the choice between heroin and a non-drug alternative reinforcer in rats. A common finding in these studies is that there are large individual differences in preference, with some rats preferring heroin and some preferring the non-drug alternative. The primary goal of the present study was to determine whether individual differences in how heroin or saccharin is valued, based on demand analysis, predicts choice. METHODS: Rats lever-pressed for heroin infusions and saccharin reinforcers on fixed-ratio schedules...
June 13, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644870/effects-of-nicotine-on-corneal-wound-healing-following-acute-alkali-burn
#2
Jong Won Kim, Chae Woong Lim, Bumseok Kim
Epidemiological studies have indicated that smoking is a pivotal risk factor for the progression of several chronic diseases. Nicotine, the addictive component of cigarettes, has powerful pathophysiological properties in the body. Although the effects of cigarette smoking on corneal re-epithelialization have been studied, the effects of nicotine on corneal wound healing-related neovascularization and fibrosis have not been fully demonstrated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chronic administration of nicotine on corneal wound healing following acute insult induced by an alkali burn...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637659/enduring-effects-of-perinatal-nicotine-exposure-on-murine-sleep-in-adulthood
#3
Jeremy Charles Borniger, Reuben F Don, Ning Zhang, Robert Thomas Boyd, Randy J Nelson
The long-term consequences of early life nicotine exposure are poorly defined. Approximately 8-10% of women report smoking during pregnancy, and this may promote aberrant development in the offspring. To this end, we investigated potential enduring effects of perinatal nicotine exposure on murine sleep and affective behaviors in adulthood (~13-15 weeks of age) in C57Bl6j mice. Mothers received a water bottle containing 200 µg/ml nicotine bitartrate dihydrate in 2% w/v saccharin or pH-matched 2% saccharin with 0...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626531/saccharin-aza-bioisosteres-synthesis-and-preclinical-property-comparisons
#4
Yantao Chen, Carl-Johan Aurell, Anna Pettersen, Richard J Lewis, Martin A Hayes, Matti Lepistö, Anna C Jonson, Hanna Leek, Linda Thunberg
Saccharin is a well-known scaffold in drug discovery. Herein, we report the synthesis and preclinical property comparisons of three bioisosteres of saccharin: aza-pseudosaccharins (cluster B), and two new types of aza-saccharins (clusters C and D). We demonstrate a convenient protocol to selectively synthesize products in cluster C or D when primary amines are used. Preclinical characterization of selected matched-pair products is reported. Through comparison of two diastereomers, we highlight how stereochemistry affects the preclinical properties...
June 8, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621396/sodium-saccharin-as-an-effective-catalyst-for-rapid-one-pot-pseudo-five-component-synthesis-of-dihydropyrano-2-3-g-chromenes-under-microwave-irradiation
#5
Leila Moradi, Aghamohammad Sadegh
One-pot microwave-assisted synthesis of dihydropyrano[2,3-g]chromenes catalyzed by sodium saccharin as an efficient, mild and green catalyst was studied. The method presented is a safe and eco-friendly approach for the multicomponent synthesis of dihydropyrano[2,3-g]chromene derivatives with many merits including short reaction times (in comparison with other reported results), high yields and easy work up.
June 2017: Acta Chimica Slovenica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618238/antiglycating-potential-of-acesulfame-potassium-an-artificial-sweetener
#6
Ahmad Ali, Tejashree Anil More, Amaritpal Kaur Hoonjan, Subramanian Sivakami
Sweeteners have replaced the natural sugars in the food and beverage industry because of many reasons such as hyperglycemia and cost. Saccharin, Sucralose, Aspartame and Acesulfame-K are the most commonly used sweeteners. In the present study, the above mentioned artificial sweeteners were used to assess their glycating properties by established methods like browning, fructosamine assay, determination of carbonyl content, protein aggregation and measurement of fluorescence. Amadori and Advanced Glycation End products (AGEs) are formed as a result of the interaction between carbonyl groups of reducing sugars and amino groups of proteins and other macromolecules during Glycation...
June 15, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606627/re-evaluation-of-the-reward-comparison-hypothesis-for-alcohol-abuse
#7
Alan Bo-Han He, Yu-Chieh Chang, Anna Wan Yun Meng, Andrew Chih Wei Huang
This study examined whether various doses of ethanol induced reward or aversion and then evaluated Grigson's reward comparison hypothesis (1997). Rats were given a 0.1% saccharin solution (conditioned stimulus 1 [CS1]) 15min prior to administration of a 0, 0.05, 0.125, 0.20, 0.35, or 0.50g/kg dose of ethanol (unconditioned stimulus [US]). The rats were then exposed to a paired compartment (CS2) for 30min. The low dose of 0.05g/kg ethanol did not induce conditioned suppression (i.e., conditioned taste aversion [CTA]) or conditioned place preference (CPP)...
June 9, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596296/dietary-saccharides-and-sweet-tastants-have-differential-effects-on-colonization-of-drosophila-oocytes-by-wolbachia-endosymbionts
#8
Moises Camacho, Mailin Oliva, Laura R Serbus
Wolbachia bacteria are widespread, maternally transmitted endosymbionts of insects. Maintenance of sufficient Wolbachia titer in maternal germline cells is required for transmission efficacy. The mechanisms that regulate Wolbachia titer are not well understood; however, dietary sucrose was reported to elevate oocyte Wolbachia titer in D. melanogaster whereas dietary yeast decreased oocyte titer. To further investigate how oocyte Wolbachia titer is controlled, this study analyzed the response of wMel Wolbachia to diets enriched in an array of natural sugars and other sweet tastants...
June 8, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594855/the-artificial-sweetener-acesulfame-potassium-affects-the-gut-microbiome-and-body-weight-gain-in-cd-1-mice
#9
Xiaoming Bian, Liang Chi, Bei Gao, Pengcheng Tu, Hongyu Ru, Kun Lu
Artificial sweeteners have been widely used in the modern diet, and their observed effects on human health have been inconsistent, with both beneficial and adverse outcomes reported. Obesity and type 2 diabetes have dramatically increased in the U.S. and other countries over the last two decades. Numerous studies have indicated an important role of the gut microbiome in body weight control and glucose metabolism and regulation. Interestingly, the artificial sweetener saccharin could alter gut microbiota and induce glucose intolerance, raising questions about the contribution of artificial sweeteners to the global epidemic of obesity and diabetes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589264/habitual-nicotine-seeking-in-rats-following-limited-training
#10
A Loughlin, D Funk, K Coen, A D Lê
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: A potential reason that cigarette smoking can persist despite multiple quit attempts is that repeated voluntary nicotine intake may facilitate a transition from goal-directed to habitual behavioral control. Although accelerated habit formation for self-administered ethanol or cocaine has been previously demonstrated, this phenomenon has not been extensively studied with nicotine. We therefore examined the liability of nicotine self-administration to become habitual, while also examining that of orally consumed saccharin as an experimental control...
June 7, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552029/a-standardized-hippophae-extract-sbl-1-counters-neuronal-tissue-injuries-and-changes-in-neurotransmitters-implications-in-radiation-protection
#11
Madhu Bala, Vanita Gupta, Jagdish Prasad
CONTEXT: Effects of a radioprotective, standardized leaf extract (code SBL-1) from traditional medicinal plant, sea buckthorn [Hippophae rhamnoides L. (Elaeagnaceae)], on neurotransmitters and brain injuries in rats showing radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA), are not known. Understanding CTA in rats is important because its process is considered parallel to nausea and vomiting in humans. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the levels of neurotransmitters, antioxidant defences and histological changes in rats showing radiation CTA, and their modification by SBL-1...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550797/potential-tracers-for-tracking-septic-tank-effluent-discharges-in-watercourses
#12
Samia Richards, Paul J A Withers, Eric Paterson, Colin W McRoberts, Marc Stutter
Septic tank effluent (STE) contributes to catchment nutrient and pollutant loads. To assess the role of STE discharges in impairment of surface water, it is essential to identify the sources of pollution by tracing contaminants in watercourses. We examined tracers that were present in STE to establish their potential for identifying STE contamination in two stream systems (low and high dilution levels) against the background of upstream sources. The studied tracers were microbial, organic matter fluorescence, caffeine, artificial sweeteners and effluent chemical concentrations...
May 24, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506059/application-of-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-to-determine-urinary-concentrations-of-five-commonly-used-low-calorie-sweeteners-a-novel-biomarker-approach-for-assessing-recent-intakes
#13
Caomhan Logue, Le Roy C Dowey, J J Strain, Hans Verhagen, Stephen McClean, Alison M Gallagher
Although the use of low-calorie sweeteners (LCSs) is widespread, methods of assessing consumption within free-living populations have inherent limitations. Five commonly consumed LCSs, namely, acesulfame-K, saccharin, sucralose, cyclamate, and steviol glycosides, are excreted via the urine, and therefore a urinary biomarker approach may provide more objective LCS intake data. A LC-ESI-MS/MS method of simultaneously determining acesulfame-K, saccharin, sucralose, cyclamate, and the excretory metabolite of steviol glycosides, steviol glucuronide, in human urine was developed and validated...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499795/anesthesia-inducing-drugs-also-induce-conditioned-taste-aversions
#14
Jian-You Lin, Joe Arthurs, Steve Reilly
Animals learn to reduce their intake of a tastant when its ingestion is followed by the administration of an anesthesia-inducing drug. To determine the nature of this intake suppression, the current study examined whether ketamine/xylazine (Experiment 1) and pentobarbital (Experiment 2) also conditionally reduce taste palatability. Using lick pattern analysis, we found that pairing saccharin with either drug reduced total licks, lick cluster size, and initial lick rate. Given that both lick cluster size and initial lick rate are indices of palatability, this pattern of results indicates that anesthesia-inducing drugs also induce conditioned taste aversions...
May 9, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498633/how-does-radioactive-iodine-affect-the-nose
#15
Ela Araz Server, Tolga Kirgezen, Ozlem Onerci Celebi, Muhammet Yildiz, Ozgur Yigit, Tevfik Fikret Cermik
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To determine the effect of radioactive iodine (RAI) treatment on the nasal mucosa and nasal functions. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective clinical study. METHODS: This study included 41 patients (31 female and 10 male) who were treated with RAI for papillary thyroid carcinoma. A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used for subjective evaluation of nasal symptoms. The saccharine test, nasal Schirmer test, and acoustic rhinometry were used for objective evaluation of nasal functions...
May 12, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489239/therapeutic-effect-of-hyaluronic-acid-in-reducing-nasal-mucosa-recovery-time-after-septoplasty
#16
Francesco Klinger, Fabio Caviggioli, Andrea Vittorio Lisa, Luca Maione, Valeriano Vinci, Mattia Siliprandi, Federico Barbera, Marco Klinger, Luca Malvezzi
Mucociliary clearance represents a host defense mechanism of airways that can be compromised by various pathologic conditions, such as nasal septal deviation. Although septoplasty can resolve obstruction, it impairs mucociliary clearance in the immediate postoperative period. Clinical studies have demonstrated how hyaluronic acid can interfere with this function. Our study aims to provide evidence of a therapeutic effect of hyaluronic acid on nasal mucosa recovery after septoplasy. Sixty-five patients underwent septoplasty...
April 2017: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482217/ruthenium-ii-complexes-of-saccharin-with-dipyridoquinoxaline-and-dipyridophenazine-structures-biological-interactions-and-photoinduced-dna-damage-activity
#17
Priyaranjan Kumar, Srikanth Dasari, Ashis K Patra
Ruthenium complexes trans-[Ru(sac)2(dpq)2] (1) and trans-[Ru(sac)2(dppz)2] (2) where sac is artificial sweetener saccharin (o-sulfobenzimide; 1,2-benzothiazole-3(2H)-one1,1-dioxide (Hsac)), dpq = dipyrido[3,2-d:2',3'-f]quinoxaline and dppz = dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine have been synthesized and thoroughly characterized using various analytical and spectral techniques. Saccharin known to act as carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) inhibitor which is a biomarker for highly aggressive and proliferative tumor in hypoxic stress, so inhibition of CA IX is a potential strategy for anticancer chemotherapy...
May 3, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472674/saccharin-induced-liver-inflammation-in-mice-by-altering-the-gut-microbiota-and-its-metabolic-functions
#18
Xiaoming Bian, Pengcheng Tu, Liang Chi, Bei Gao, Hongyu Ru, Kun Lu
Maintaining the balance of the gut microbiota and its metabolic functions is vital for human health, however, this balance can be disrupted by various external factors including food additives. A range of food and beverages are sweetened by saccharin, which is generally considered to be safe despite controversial debates. However, recent studies indicated that saccharin perturbed the gut microbiota. Inflammation is frequently associated with disruptions of the gut microbiota. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between host inflammation and perturbed gut microbiome by saccharin...
May 1, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472098/t1r3-homomeric-sweet-taste-receptor-regulates-adipogenesis-through-g%C3%AE-s-mediated-microtubules-disassembly-and-rho-activation-in-3t3-l1-cells
#19
Yosuke Masubuchi, Yuko Nakagawa, Johan Medina, Masahiro Nagasawa, Itaru Kojima, Mark M Rasenick, Takeshi Inagaki, Hiroshi Shibata
We previously reported that 3T3-L1 cells express a functional sweet taste receptor possibly as a T1R3 homomer that is coupled to Gs and negatively regulates adipogenesis by a Gαs-mediated but cAMP-independent mechanism. Here, we show that stimulation of this receptor with sucralose or saccharin induced disassembly of the microtubules in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, which was attenuated by overexpression of the dominant-negative mutant of Gαs (Gαs-G226A). In contrast, overexpression of the constitutively active mutant of Gαs (Gαs-Q227L) as well as treatment with cholera toxin or isoproterenol but not with forskolin caused disassembly of the microtubules...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462476/a-survey-on-trace-organic-chemicals-in-a-german-water-protection-area-and-the-proposal-of-relevant-indicators-for-anthropogenic-influences
#20
Wolfram Seitz, Rudi Winzenbacher
A comprehensive monitoring programme of trace organic chemicals (TOrC) was conducted for a German water protection area in karstic ground. The aim of this survey was to detect the potential anthropogenic influences of point sources such as wastewater treatment plants and diffuse pollution such as runoff water from roads on the raw water used for drinking water treatment. The programme comprised seven sampling campaigns within 2 years each with up to 20 sampling sites. In total, the programme included 84 anthropogenic compounds from pharmaceuticals, iodinated X-ray contrast media, sweeteners, industrial chemicals (benzotriazoles, melamines and benzothiazoles) and pesticide metabolites...
June 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
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