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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922639/mesolimbic-leptin-signaling-negatively-regulates-cocaine-conditioned-reward
#1
M Shen, C Jiang, P Liu, F Wang, L Ma
The regulatory mechanisms underlying the response to addictive drugs are complex, and increasing evidence indicates that there is a role for appetite-regulating pathways in substance abuse. Leptin, an important adipose hormone that regulates energy balance and appetite, exerts its physiological functions via leptin receptors. However, the role of leptin signaling in regulating the response to cocaine remains unclear. Here we examined the potential role of leptin signaling in cocaine reward using a conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure...
December 6, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917116/preliminary-evidence-of-apathetic-like-behavior-in-aged-vesicular-monoamine-transporter-2-deficient-mice
#2
Aron Baumann, Carlos G Moreira, Marta M Morawska, Sophie Masneuf, Christian R Baumann, Daniela Noain
Apathy is considered to be a core feature of Parkinson's disease (PD) and has been associated with a variety of states and symptoms of the disease, such as increased severity of motor symptoms, impaired cognition, executive dysfunction and dementia. Apart from the high prevalence of apathy in PD, which is estimated to be about 40%, the underlying pathophysiology remains poorly understood and current treatment approaches are unspecific and proved to be only partially effective. In animal models, apathy has been sub-optimally modeled, mostly by means of pharmacological and stress-induced methods, whereby concomitant depressive-like symptoms could not be ruled out...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888019/ifenprodil-infusion-in-agranular-insular-cortex-alters-social-behavior-and-vocalizations-in-rats-exposed-to-moderate-levels-of-ethanol-during-prenatal-development
#3
Clark W Bird, Daniel Barto, Christy M Magcalas, Carlos I Rodriguez, Tia Donaldson, Suzy Davies, Daniel D Savage, Derek A Hamilton
Moderate exposure to alcohol during development leads to subtle neurobiological and behavioral effects classified under the umbrella term fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Alterations in social behaviors are a frequently observed consequence of maternal drinking, as children with FASDs display inappropriate aggressive behaviors and altered responses to social cues. Rodent models of FASDs mimic the behavioral alterations seen in humans, with rats exposed to ethanol during development displaying increased aggressive behaviors, decreased social investigation, and altered play behavior...
November 22, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883962/maternal-care-and-affective-behavior-in-female-offspring-implication-of-the-neurosteroid-gabaergic-system
#4
Amanda P Borrow, Nicole M Cameron
In female rats, the proestrus phase of the estrous cycle is associated with decreased levels of anxiety-like and depressive-like behavior relative to the metestrus phase. Progesterone likely modulate these behaviors, in part through the influence of its metabolite, allopregnanolone (THP) on hippocampal GABAAR subunit expression. As natural variations in maternal care have been found to influence both progesterone levels at proestrus and anxiety-like behavior in female offspring, we sought to investigate the importance of maternal care and the estrous cycle on affective behavior in female rats that had received Low or High levels of licking/grooming (LG) during early life...
November 5, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870313/hypothalamic-specific-proopiomelanocortin-deficiency-reduces-alcohol-drinking-in-male-and-female-mice
#5
Yan Zhou, Marcelo Rubinstein, Malcolm J Low, Mary Jeanne Kreek
Opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone reduces alcohol consumption and relapse in both humans and rodents. The present study investigated whether hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons (producing beta-endorphin and melanocortins) play a role in alcohol drinking behaviors. Both male and female mice with targeted deletion of two neuronal Pomc enhancers nPE1 and nPE2 (nPE-/-), resulting in hypothalamic-specific POMC deficiency, were studied in short-access (4-h/day) drinking-in-the-dark (DID, alcohol in one bottle), intermittent access (IA, 24-hour cycles of alcohol access every other day, alcohol vs...
November 21, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853270/loss-of-nmda-receptors-in-dopamine-neurons-leads-to-the-development-of-affective-disorder-like-symptoms-in-mice
#6
Kamila Jastrzębska, Magdalena Walczak, Przemysław Eligiusz Cieślak, Łukasz Szumiec, Mateusz Turbasa, David Engblom, Tomasz Błasiak, Jan Rodriguez Parkitna
The role of changes in dopamine neuronal activity during the development of symptoms in affective disorders remains controversial. Here, we show that inactivation of NMDA receptors on dopaminergic neurons in adult mice led to the development of affective disorder-like symptoms. The loss of NMDA receptors altered activity and caused complete NMDA-insensitivity in dopamine-like neurons. Mutant mice exhibited increased immobility in the forced swim test and a decrease in social interactions. Mutation also led to reduced saccharin intake, however the preference of sweet taste was not significantly decreased...
November 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825896/activation-of-mu-opioid-receptors-in-the-ventral-pallidum-decreases-the-negative-hedonic-evaluation-of-a-conditioned-aversive-taste-in-rats
#7
Tadashi Inui, Tsuyoshi Shimura
Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) causes a shift in the hedonic evaluation of a conditioned stimulus (CS) from positive to negative, and reduces the CS intake. Mu-opioid receptors (MORs) in the ventral pallidum (VP) are known to be involved in the hedonic evaluation of positive rewarding stimuli; however, their involvement in evaluation of a negative aversive stimulus is still unclear. To explore the neural mechanisms of the negative hedonic evaluation of the CS in CTA, we examined the effects of the activation of VP MORs on the behavioral responses of rats to a CS...
November 5, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816752/reduced-intake-of-carbohydrate-prevents-the-development-of-obesity-and-impaired-glucose-metabolism-in-ghrelin-o-acyltransferase-knockout-mice
#8
Tetsuya Kouno, Nobuteru Akiyama, Kumiko Fujieda, Isamu Nanchi, Tomohiko Okuda, Takanori Iwasaki, Shogo Oka, Hideo Yukioka
A close relationship between acylated-ghrelin and sucrose intake has been reported. However, little has been examined about the physiological action of ghrelin on preference for different types of carbohydrate such as glucose, fructose, and starch. The current study was aimed to investigate the role of acylated-ghrelin in the determinants of the choice of carbohydrates, and pathogenesis of chronic disorders, including obesity and insulin resistance. In a two-bottle-drinking test, ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) knockout (KO) mice consumed a less amount of glucose and maltodextrin, and almost the same amount of fructose and saccharin solution compared to WT littermates...
December 2016: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813123/determination-of-nasal-mucociliary-clearance-time-and-nasal-symptom-in-patients-with-crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever
#9
Kasım Durmuş, Aynur Engin, Tuba Doğan Karataş, Mustafa Gökhan Gözel, Emine Elif Altuntas
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an important health problem in Turkey. Number of studies on symptoms of ear nose throat system and indicating whether or not the organs are affected in patients with CCHF is limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether CCHF infections caused any change in nasal physiology in adult patients or not by using saccharin transit time (STT) and nasal symptom scoring. Twenty subjects with laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of CCHF and 28 healthy control subjects were included in the present study...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794193/saccharin-increases-perception-of-bladder-filling-in-a-forced-diuresis-experiment
#10
Evangelia Bakali, Jennifer Hong, James Gillespie, Douglas Tincello
AIMS: To study bladder sensation during a forced diuresis protocol and to assess differences in sensation perceived by different ethnic groups and after drinking artificially sweetened water. METHODS: Female Caucasian and south Indian Asian volunteers performed the diuresis protocol drinking water, or water sweetened with saccharin (5 mg/kg body weight). Participants recorded filling sensation every 5 min while drinking 250-350 mL/15 min. They were asked to record the strongest sensation before voiding as maximum sensation, before voiding...
October 29, 2016: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784170/open-saccharin-based-secondary-sulfonamides-as-potent-and-selective-inhibitors-of-cancer-related-carbonic-anhydrase-ix-and-xii-isoforms
#11
Melissa D'Ascenzio, Paolo Guglielmi, Simone Carradori, Daniela Secci, Rosalba Florio, Adriano Mollica, Mariangela Ceruso, Atilla Akdemir, Anatoly P Sobolev, Claudiu T Supuran
A large number of novel secondary sulfonamides based on the open saccharin scaffold were synthesized and evaluated as selective inhibitors of four different isoforms of human carbonic anhydrase (hCA I, II, IX and XII, EC 4.2.1.1). They were obtained by reductive ring opening of the newly synthesized N-alkylated saccharin derivatives and were shown to be inactive against the two cytosolic off-target hCA I and II (Kis > 10 µM). Interestingly, these compounds inhibited hCA IX in the low nanomolar range with Kis ranging between 20 and 298 nM and were extremely potent inhibitors of hCA XII isoenzyme (Kis ranging between 4...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776614/stevia-preferences-in-wistar-rats
#12
Paula Núñez Martínez, Juan Argüelles Luis, Carmen Perillán Méndez
BACKGROUND: The Stevia rebaudiana plant is likely to become a major source of high-potency sweetener for the growing natural-food market. S. rebaudiana is the source of a number of sweet diterpenoid glycosides, but the major sweet constituents are rebaudioside A and stevioside. These two constituents have similar pharmacokinetic and metabolic profiles in rats and humans, and thus, studies carried out with either steviol glycoside are relevant to both. Other studies illustrate the diversity of voluntary sweet intake in mammals...
November 2016: Psicothema
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771485/co-amorphous-systems-a-product-development-perspective
#13
REVIEW
Rahul B Chavan, Rajesh Thipparaboina, Dinesh Kumar, Nalini R Shastri
Solubility is one of the major problems associated with most of the new chemical entities that can be reasonably addressed by drug amorphization. However, being a high-energy form, it usually tends to re-crystallize, necessitating new formulation strategies to stabilize amorphous drugs. Polymeric amorphous solid dispersion (PASD) is one of the widely investigated strategies to stabilize amorphous drug, with major limitations like limited polymer solubility and hygroscopicity. Co amorphous system (CAM), a new entrant in amorphous arena is a promising alternative to PASD...
October 19, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755368/usefulness-of-the-saccharin-test-for-assessment-of-eustachian-tube-function-in-patients-with-chronic-otitis-media-with-perforation
#14
Miki Ikehata, Shigeto Ohta, Yasuo Mishiro, Hirokazu Katsura, Shinya Miuchi, Kenzo Tsuzuki, Masafumi Sakagami
OBJECTIVE: The eustachian tube (ET) has two important functions, ventilation and clearance of the middle ear. We evaluated the ET ventilator function by the sonotubometry and the inflation-deflation test that are widely used today, and the ET clearance function by the saccharin test. Results of both tests were compared with surgical outcomes, and assessed which test was more closely related to the surgical outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective case series. SETTING: A single university hospital...
October 12, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753624/biological-fate-of-low-calorie-sweeteners
#15
REVIEW
Bernadene A Magnuson, Michael C Carakostas, Nadia H Moore, Sylvia P Poulos, Andrew G Renwick
With continued efforts to find solutions to rising rates of obesity and diabetes, there is increased interest in the potential health benefits of the use of low- and no-calorie sweeteners (LNCSs). Concerns about safety often deter the use of LNCSs as a tool in helping control caloric intake, even though the safety of LNCS use has been affirmed by regulatory agencies worldwide. In many cases, an understanding of the biological fate of the different LNSCs can help health professionals to address safety concerns...
November 2016: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737788/chronic-faah-inhibition-during-nicotine-abstinence-alters-habenular-cb1-receptor-activity-and-precipitates-depressive-like-behaviors
#16
A Simonnet, E Zamberletti, M Cador, T Rubino, S Caillé
The role of the endocannabinoid system in nicotine addiction is being increasingly acknowledged. Acute inhibition of anandamide (AEA) degradation efficiently reduces nicotine withdrawal-induced affective symptoms in rats and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the degradation enzyme of AEA, has been proposed as a possible treatment against nicotine addiction. However, it is unclear whether chronic inhibition of AEA during nicotine abstinence will have beneficial or deleterious affective side-effects. Using a rat model of nicotine addiction, we found that, during abstinence, rats injected daily with a FAAH inhibitor (URB597) developed a depressive-like phenotype...
October 11, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723294/adsorptive-removal-of-artificial-sweeteners-from-water-using-metal-organic-frameworks-functionalized-with-urea-or-melamine
#17
Pill Won Seo, Nazmul Abedin Khan, Zubair Hasan, Sung Hwa Jhung
A highly porous metal-organic framework (MOF), MIL-101, was modified to introduce urea or melamine via grafting on open metal sites of the MOF. Adsorptive removal of three artificial sweeteners (ASWs) was studied using the MOFs, with or without modifications (including nitration), and activated carbon (AC). The adsorbed quantities (based on the weight of the adsorbent) of saccharin (SAC) under various conditions decreased in the order urea-MIL-101 > melamine-MIL-101 > MIL-101 > AC > O2N-MIL-101; however, the quantities based on unit surface area are in the order melamine-MIL-101 > urea-MIL-101 > MIL-101 > O2N-MIL-101...
October 10, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721153/design-synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-new-phthalimide-and-saccharin-derivatives-with-alicyclic-amines-targeting-cholinesterases-beta-secretase-and-amyloid-beta-aggregation
#18
Dawid Panek, Anna Więckowska, Tomasz Wichur, Marek Bajda, Justyna Godyń, Jakub Jończyk, Kamil Mika, Jana Janockova, Ondrej Soukup, Damijan Knez, Jan Korabecny, Stanislav Gobec, Barbara Malawska
The complexity of Alzheimer's disease (AD) calls for search of multifunctional compounds as potential candidates for effective therapy. A series of phthalimide and saccharin derivatives linked by different alicyclic fragments (piperazine, hexahydropyrimidine, 3-aminopyrrolidine or 3-aminopiperidine) with phenylalkyl moieties attached have been designed, synthesized, and evaluated as multifunctional anti-AD agents with cholinesterase, β-secretase and β-amyloid inhibitory activities. In vitro studies showed that the majority of saccharin derivatives with piperazine moiety and one phthalimide derivative with 3-aminopiperidine fragment exhibited inhibitory potency toward acetylcholinesterase (AChE) with EeAChE IC50 values ranging from 0...
September 26, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706910/sweetened-ethanol-drinking-during-social-isolation-enhanced-intake-resistance-to-genetic-heterogeneity-and-the-emergence-of-a-distinctive-drinking-pattern-in-adolescent-mice
#19
J B Panksepp, E D Rodriguez, A E Ryabinin
With its ease of availability during adolescence, sweetened ethanol ('alcopops') is consumed within many contexts. We asked here whether genetically based differences in social motivation are associated with how the adolescent social environment impacts voluntary ethanol intake. Mice with previously described differences in sociability (BALB/cJ, C57BL/6J, FVB/NJ and MSM/MsJ strains) were weaned into isolation or same-sex pairs (postnatal day, PD, 21), and then given continuous access to two fluids on PDs 34-45: one containing water and the other containing an ascending series of saccharin-sweetened ethanol (3-6-10%)...
October 5, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698313/structures-and-physicochemical-properties-of-vortioxetine-salts
#20
Xinbo Zhou, Xiurong Hu, Suxiang Wu, Jiali Ye, Mengying Sun, Jianming Gu, Jianrong Zhu, Zhongliang Zhang
In the present work, novel salts of the multimodal antidepressant drug vortioxetine (VT) were crystallized with pharmaceutically acceptable acids, aiming to improve the solubility of VT. The acids for VT were selected based on ΔpKa being greater than 2 or 3. Salts of hydrobromic acid (HBr), hydrochloric acid (HCl), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA), saccharin (SAC) and L-aspartic acid (ASP) were reported. All salts were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)...
October 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica Section B, Structural Science, Crystal Engineering and Materials
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