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Alexander D Nichol, Maxwell J Holle, Ruopeng An
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Nonnutritive sweeteners (NNSs) are zero- or low-calorie alternatives to nutritive sweeteners, such as table sugars. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was conducted to quantitatively synthesize existing scientific evidence on the glycemic impact of NNSs. SUBJECTS/METHODS: PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched. Two authors screened the titles and abstracts of candidate publications. The third author was consulted to resolve discrepancies...
May 15, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Daniel G Barrus, Timothy W Lefever, Jenny L Wiley
Edible cannabis-infused products are an increasingly popular method of using cannabis in the United States. Yet, preclinical research to determine mechanisms underlying abuse of Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive constituent of cannabis, has focused primarily on the effects of parenteral administration. The purpose of this study was to examine the rewarding and aversive effects of oral THC in a novel rodent voluntary ingestion model. Adult male and female Sprague Dawley rats were given access to sucrose-sweetened solutions during daily sessions...
May 3, 2018: Neuropharmacology
María B Garavaglia, Vanesa Rodríguez García, María E Zapata, Alicia Rovirosa, Verónica González, Florencia Flax Marcó, Esteban Carmuega
The availability of food and beverages with non-nutritive sweeteners (NNSs) has increased in recent years. OBJECTIVES: To estimate NNSs consumption among children and adolescents in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, the prevalence of a daily intake higher than acceptable, and the main food and beverages contributing to it. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Descriptive study about the information collected in the First Food and Nutritional/Nutrition Survey of Buenos Aires City, which was conducted in 2011 and included 2664 children and adolescents aged 2-18 years...
June 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Yukiko Hattori, Tomoki Takeda, Arisa Nakamura, Kyoko Nishida, Yuko Shioji, Haruki Fukumitsu, Hideyuki Yamada, Yuji Ishii
Many forms of the toxic effects produced by dioxins and related chemicals take place following activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Our previous studies have demonstrated that treating pregnant rats with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a highly toxic dioxin, attenuates the pituitary expression of gonadotropins to reduce testicular steroidogenesis during the fetal stage, resulting in the impairment of sexually-dimorphic behaviors after the offspring reach maturity. To investigate the contribution of AHR to these disorders, we examined the effects of TCDD on AHR-knockout (AHR-KO) Wistar rats...
May 10, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Nancy K Dess, Kira R Schreiber, Gabriel M Winter, Clinton D Chapman
A key feature of energy regulation among species that eat discrete meals is meal patterning - meal frequency, size, and duration. Such animals can adjust to internal states and external circumstances with changes in one or more of those meal parameters, with or without altering total food intake. Relatively little is known about individual differences in meal patterning. We previously reported meal patterning differences between rat lines selectively bred for differential saccharin solution intake, lines that also differ in sensitivity to metabolic challenges: Relative to high-saccharin-consuming counterparts (HiS), male low-saccharin-consuming rats (LoS) ate smaller, more frequent meals...
May 7, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Rachel M Haake, Elizabeth A West, Xuefei Wang, Regina M Carelli
Negative reinforcement models postulate that addicts use drugs to alleviate negative affective states (e.g. dysphoria) associated with withdrawal. In a pre-clinical model, rats exhibit negative affect to a normally rewarding tastant when it predicts impending, but delayed cocaine, and nucleus accumbens (NAc) neurons dynamically track this state. Here, we examined the effects of short versus prolonged experimenter-imposed cocaine abstinence on negative affect, cocaine seeking and self-administration. Rats were given 14 saccharin-cocaine sessions; NAc activity and affective responses to the taste (i...
May 2, 2018: Addiction Biology
Nnamdi G Nelson, Faten A Suhaidi, Wen Xuan Law, Nu-Chu Liang
Because the consumption of alcoholic beverages prevails in society, its effects on diabetes risk is a subject of interest. Extant literature on this issue often disagrees. Here, we probed the effects of chronic moderate ethanol consumption on glucose metabolism in rats. The effect of chronic moderate alcohol drinking on depression- and anxiety-like behaviors and memory was also explored. Adolescent male and female Long-Evans rats consumed saccharin-sweetened 5% (1 week) and 10% ethanol (7 weeks) under a 7.5-h/day (Monday-Friday) access schedule...
December 16, 2017: Alcohol
Severiano Risco, Cristina Mediavilla
In industrialized societies, food intake is largely determined by its hedonic characteristics, which can be modified by our experience via taste learning. In this learning, the hedonic value of a neutral flavor changes after its association with a motivationally significant stimulus. Experiment 1 analyzes the effect of orexin administration (53 and 107 ng) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) on hedonic intake through acquisition of a flavor-taste preference and a flavor-taste aversion. Accordingly, animals underwent four one-bottle acquisition sessions with unilateral application of orexin-A or saline in the VTA at 10 min before a 15-min flavor intake period...
April 20, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Amanda Avelar de Oliveira, Maria Marta Pastina, Vander Filipe de Souza, Rafael Augusto da Costa Parrella, Roberto Willians Noda, Maria Lúcia Ferreira Simeone, Robert Eugene Schaffert, Jurandir Vieira de Magalhães, Cynthia Maria Borges Damasceno, Gabriel Rodrigues Alves Margarido
The increasing cost of energy and finite oil and gas reserves have created a need to develop alternative fuels from renewable sources. Due to its abiotic stress tolerance and annual cultivation, high-biomass sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) shows potential as a bioenergy crop. Genomic selection is a useful tool for accelerating genetic gains and could restructure plant breeding programs by enabling early selection and reducing breeding cycle duration. This work aimed at predicting breeding values via genomic selection models for 200 sorghum genotypes comprising landrace accessions and breeding lines from biomass and saccharine groups...
2018: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
Dana Most, Nihal A Salem, Gayatri R Tiwari, Yuri A Blednov, R Dayne Mayfield, R Adron Harris
Chronic alcohol consumption alters the levels of microRNAs and mRNAs in the brain, but the specific microRNAs and processes that target mRNAs to affect cellular function and behavior are not known. We examined the in vivo manipulation of previously identified alcohol-responsive microRNAs as potential targets to reduce alcohol consumption. Silencing of miR-411 by infusing antagomiR-411 into the prefrontal cortex of female C57BL/6J mice reduced alcohol consumption and preference, without altering total fluid consumption, saccharin consumption, or anxiety-related behaviors...
April 17, 2018: Addiction Biology
Oytun Erbaş, Mümin Alper Erdoğan, Asghar Khalilnezhad, Volkan Solmaz, Fulya Tuzcu Gürkan, Gürkan Yiğittürk, Hüseyin Avni Eroglu, Dilek Taskiran
The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of artificial sweeteners (aspartame, saccharin, and sucralose) on rat brain. Twenty-four adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were included in the study. The control group (n = 6) received regular tap water, whereas other groups received aspartame (3 mg/kg/day, n = 6,) or saccharin (3 mg/kg/day, n = 6) or sucralose (1.5 mg/kg/day, n = 6) in the drinking water. Following 6 weeks, the passive avoidance learning (PAL) test was performed to evaluate the neurobehavioral effects of sweeteners...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Fazal Mabood, Javid Hussain, Farah Jabeen, Ghulam Abbas, Batoul A Allaham, Mohammed Albroumi, Said Alghawi, Saif Alameri, Syed A Gilani, Ahmed Al-Harrasi, Quazi M I Haq, Saima Farooq
Detection of adulteration in carbohydrates rich foods like fruit juices is particularly difficult because of the variety of the commercial sweeteners available that match the concentration profiles of the major carbohydrates in the foods. In present study, a new sensitive and robust assay using Fourier Transform Near Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-NIRS) combined with partial least square (PLS) multivariate methods has been developed for detection and quantification of saccharin adulteration in different commercial fruit juice samples...
April 16, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Briana J Hempel, Matthew M Clasen, Katharine H Nelson, Claudia J Woloshchuk, Anthony L Riley
Rising interest in medical marijuana has prompted research into its phytocannabinoid constituents, particularly Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). Coadministration of CBD with THC has been shown to modulate a number of THC's effects, including its negative stimulus properties (e.g., anxiety, paranoia, psychosis) in a clinical setting. The present series of experiments extended these analyses by examining the ability of CBD to impact the aversive effects of THC as assessed in a combined taste and place conditioning procedure...
April 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Suthanma Nimsakul, Saran Ruxrungtham, Supinda Chusakul, Jesada Kanjanaumporn, Songklot Aeumjaturapat, Kornkiat Snidvongs
Background Mucociliary function is affected by temperature. Exposure to cold air may impair ciliary beat frequency. While saline nasal irrigation improves in ciliary beat activity, there is no evidence supporting the use of heated saline irrigation in treating patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Objective To compare the effects of heated saline to room-temperature saline nasal irrigation on mucociliary clearance in chronic rhinosinusitis patients. Methods Adult patients with chronic rhinosinusitis were randomized into two groups receiving either heated saline or room-temperature saline nasal irrigation...
March 2018: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
Erica L Hess, Emily A Myers, Susan E Swithers, Valisa E Hedrick
OBJECTIVE: Individuals looking to improve their health or weight status often use nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS), yet NNS consumption has been associated with increased risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MetS). Most studies examining NNS only assess total intake using diet soda as a proxy for NNS consumption, without distinguishing potential risks associated with individual sweeteners. The objective of this cross-sectional investigation was to identify whether there were associations between NNS consumption (total or individual) and risk factors for MetS in adults (n = 125) from Southwest Virginia...
March 30, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
K A de Souza, R F Cooke, K M Schubach, A P Brandão, T F Schumaher, I N Prado, R S Marques, D W Bohnert
With increased regulations regarding the use of feed-grade antimicrobials in livestock systems, alternative strategies to enhance growth and immunity of feedlot cattle are warranted. Hence, this experiment compared performance, health and physiological responses of cattle supplemented with feed-grade antibiotics or alternative feed ingredients during the initial 60 days in the feedlot. Angus×Hereford calves (63 steers+42 heifers) originating from two cow-calf ranches were weaned on day -3, obtained from an auction yard on day -2 and road-transported (800 km; 12 h) to the feedlot...
March 26, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Heidi C O'Neill, Charles R Wageman, Sarah E Sherman, Sharon R Grady, Michael J Marks, Jerry A Stitzel
A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in CHRNA5 (rs16969968, change from an aspartic acid (D) to asparagine (N) at position 398 of the human α5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit) has been associated with increased risk for nicotine dependence. Consequently, carriers of the risk variant may be at elevated risk for in utero nicotine exposure. To assess whether this gene-environment interaction might impact nicotine intake in developmental nicotine-exposed offspring, we utilized a mouse expressing this human SNP...
March 24, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
K Davididou, E Chatzisymeon, L Perez-Estrada, I Oller, S Malato
The aim of this work was to investigate the treatment of the artificial sweetener saccharin (SAC) in a solar compound parabolic collector pilot plant by means of the photo-Fenton process at pH 2.8. Olive mill wastewater (OMW) was used as iron chelating agent to avoid acidification of water at pH 2.8. For comparative purposes, Ethylenediamine-N, N-disuccinic acid (EDDS), a well-studied iron chelator, was also employed at circumneutral pH. Degradation products formed along treatment were identified by LC-QTOF-MS analysis...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Danika Martyn, Maryse Darch, Ashley Roberts, Han Youl Lee, Tina Yaqiong Tian, Naoko Kaburagi, Pablo Belmar
The current review examined published data on the intake of all major low-/no-calorie sweeteners-aspartame, acesulfame-K, saccharin, sucralose, cyclamate, thaumatin and steviol glycosides-globally over the last decade. The most detailed and complex exposure assessments were conducted in Europe, following a standardized approach. Japan and Korea similarly had up-to-date and regular intake data available. The data for other Asian countries, Latin America, Australia/New Zealand and global estimates, evaluated by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), while available, were shown to be more limited in terms of design...
March 15, 2018: Nutrients
Oscar A Klockars, Anica Klockars, Allen S Levine, Pawel K Olszewski
Oxytocin (OT) at acting central nuclei decreases meal size and reduces intake of palatable sweet solutions. It remains largely unclear as to which brain sites mediate OT's effect on palatability versus energy or the combination of those aspects of consumption. Here, we expanded the search for sites that mediate anorexigenic properties of OT by focusing on two subdivisions of the amygdala, its central (CNA) and basolateral (BLA) nuclei. We injected OT directly into the BLA or CNA in rats and assessed intake of standard chow induced by energy deprivation and intake of sweet solutions in nondeprived animals...
March 13, 2018: Neuroreport
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