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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943427/alteration-of-adolescent-aversive-nicotine-response-and-anxiety-like-behavior-in-nicotine-exposed-rats-during-late-lactation-period
#1
Hyunchan Lee, Taesub Jung, Woonhee Kim, Jihyun Noh
Early nicotine exposure is an important cause of further habitual tobacco smoking. Although nicotine has not only rewarding but also aversive properties, the effects of early nicotine exposure on the distinct properties of nicotine are not well known. To reveal the effects of early adolescent nicotine exposure on further persistent tobacco smoking, we demonstrated developmental changes in nicotine-related appetitive and aversive behaviors of rats exposed to nicotine during the late lactation period. Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with saline or nicotine (2, 6 and 12mg/kg)...
September 21, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943284/evaluating-oral-flavorant-effects-on-nicotine-self-administration-behavior-and-phasic-dopamine-signaling
#2
Robert J Wickham, Eric J Nunes, Shannon Hughley, Phillip Silva, Sofia N Walton, Jinwoo Park, Nii A Addy
Understanding how tobacco product flavor additives, such as flavorants in electronic cigarettes, influence smoking behavior and addiction is critical for informing public health policy decisions regarding tobacco product regulation. Here, we developed a combined intraoral (i.o.) and intravenous (i.v.) self-administration paradigm in rats to determine how flavorants influence self-administration behavior. By combining i.o. flavorant delivery with fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) or i.v. nicotine self-administration in adult, male rats, we examined whether flavors alter phasic dopamine (DA) signaling and nicotine self-administration...
September 21, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939474/heroin-induced-suppression-of-saccharin-intake-in-oprm1-a118g-mice
#3
Christopher S Freet, Danielle N Alexander, Caesar G Imperio, Victor Ruiz-Velasco, Patricia S Grigson
The single nucleotide polymorphism of the μ-opioid receptor, OPRM1 A118G, has been associated with greater drug and alcohol use, increased sensitivity to pain, and reduced sensitivity to the antinociceptive effects of opiates. In the present studies, we employed a 'humanized' mouse model containing the wild-type (118AA) or variant (118GG) allele to examine behavior in a model of heroin-induced devaluation of an otherwise palatable saccharin cue when repeated saccharin-heroin pairings occurred every 24h (Experiment 1) or every 48h (Experiment 2)...
September 19, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927491/effectiveness-of-intranasal-sodium-hyaluronate-in-mitigating-adverse-effects-of-nasal-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-therapy
#4
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in moderate-to-severe cases of obstructive sleep apnea cancause nasal discomfort and other undesirable problems. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to test the effects of sodium hyaluronate on nasal problems that patients experienced in their daily lives, sleepiness, nasal resistance to airflow, nasal mucociliary clearance, changes in inflammatory markers, and compliance to CPAP in three groups of patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome on CPAP therapy...
September 19, 2017: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919036/blends-of-non-caloric-sweeteners-saccharin-and-cyclamate-show-reduced-off-taste-due-to-tas2r-bitter-receptor-inhibition
#5
Maik Behrens, Kristina Blank, Wolfgang Meyerhof
Non-caloric sweeteners are widely used for the formulation of calorie-reduced beverages for health-conscious consumers. However, disadvantages such as undesired off-tastes limit the use of non-nutritive sweeteners. Therefore, the food industry is constantly searching for novel sweeteners and frequently resorts to using blends combining non-caloric sweeteners in a single formulation. The earliest blend allowing higher sweetness levels with reduced bitter off-taste combined saccharin with cyclamate. However, the mechanism by which sweetener blends become superior to single compounds remained obscure...
August 23, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899794/female-rats-exhibit-less-avoidance-than-male-rats-of-a-cocaine-but-not-a-morphine-paired-saccharin-cue
#6
Christopher B Jenney, Jinju Dasalla, Patricia S Grigson
Rats avoid intake of an otherwise palatable taste cue when paired with drugs of abuse (Grigson and Twining, 2002). In male rats, avoidance of drug-paired taste cues is associated with conditioned blunting of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens (Grigson and Hajnal, 2007), conditioned elevation in circulating corticosterone (Gomez et al., 2000), and greater avoidance of the drug-paired cue predicts greater drug-taking (Grigson and Twining, 2002; Twining et al., 2009). While female rats generally are more responsive to drug than male rats, in this self-administration model, female rats consume more of a cocaine-paired saccharin cue and take less drug than males (Cason and Grigson, 2013)...
September 9, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864261/the-efficacy-of-naltrexone-on-alcohol-preference-and-seeking-behaviour-is-dependent-on-light-cycle
#7
Jonathan Henry W Jacobsen, Femke T A Buisman-Pijlman, Sanam Mustafa, Kenner C Rice, Mark R Hutchinson
Circadian rhythm affects drug-induced reward behaviour and the innate immune system. Peaks in reward-associated behaviour and immune responses typically occur during the active (dark) phase of rodents. While the role of the immune system, specifically, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4, an innate immune receptor) in drug-induced reward is becoming increasingly appreciated, it is unclear whether its effects vary according to light-cycle. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterise the effects of the phase of the light-cycle and the state of the innate immune system on alcohol reward behaviour and subsequently determine whether the efficacy of targeting the immune component of drug reward depends upon the light-cycle...
August 30, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841428/a-new-polymorph-of-ciprofloxacin-saccharinate-structural-characterization-and-pharmaceutical-profile
#8
Pawanpreet Singh, Renu Chadha
In this study, a new polymorph of ciprofloxacin saccharinate has been thoroughly evaluated with respect to structural as well as biopharmaceutical properties. Preliminary characterization of the new polymorph was performed by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis, later confirmed by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. The crystal structure was determined from the powder X-ray diffraction pattern using the direct-space algorithm. It lies in the triclinic P-1 space group. It is having lattice parameters different from previously reported forms...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832319/uncertainty-exposure-causes-behavioural-sensitization-and-increases-risky-decision-making-in-male-rats-toward-modelling-gambling-disorder
#9
Fiona D Zeeb, Zhaoxia Li, Daniel C Fisher, Martin H Zack, Paul J Fletcher
BACKGROUND: An animal model of gambling disorder, previously known as pathological gambling, could advance our understanding of the disorder and help with treatment development. We hypothesized that repeated exposure to uncertainty during gambling induces behavioural and dopamine (DA) sensitization - similar to chronic exposure to drugs of abuse. Uncertainty exposure (UE) may also increase risky decision-making in an animal model of gambling disorder. METHODS: Male Sprague Dawley rats received 56 UE sessions, during which animals responded for saccharin according to an unpredictable, variable ratio schedule of reinforcement (VR group)...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821667/fibroblast-growth-factor-2-in-the-dorsomedial-striatum-is-a-novel-positive-regulator-of-alcohol-consumption
#10
Oren Even-Chen, Yossi Sadot-Sogrin, Ohad Shaham, Segev Barak
Repeated alcohol intake leads to mesostriatal neuroadaptations, resulting in drinking escalation and addiction phenotypes. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) has been shown to interact with the mesostriatal dopaminergic system, and has been implicated in the actions of psychostimulants in the brain, and in several psychiatric disorders. Here, we report on a positive regulatory feedback loop of alcohol and FGF2 in rodent models. Specifically, we found that acute alcohol exposure (2.5 g/kg, i.p.) increased the mRNA expression of Fgf2 in the dorsal hippocampus, nucleus accumbens and dorsal striatum...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807538/lactose-malabsorption-and-taste-aversion-learning
#11
Joe Arthurs, Jian-You Lin, Roberto Ocampo, Steve Reilly
Consumption of foods can be suppressed by two feeding system defense mechanisms: conditioned taste aversion (CTA) or taste avoidance learning (TAL). There is a debate in the literature about which form of intake suppression is caused by various aversive stimuli. For instance, illness-inducing stimuli like lithium chloride are the gold standard for producing CTA and external (or peripheral) painful stimuli, such as footshock, are the traditional model of TAL. The distinction between CTA and TAL, which have identical effects on intake, is based on differential effects on palatability...
October 15, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800451/synthesis-antimicrobial-dna-cleavage-and-antioxidant-activities-of-tricyclic-sultams-derived-from-saccharin
#12
Ibrahim Elghamry, Magdy M Youssef, Mohammed A Al-Omair, Hany Elsawy
Two series of fused tricyclic sultams (carboxylates, 3a, b and 5a, f, g and anilides 5b-e) were synthesized from saccharin and their chemical structures were confirmed by spectroscopic tools. Then, their antibacterial activities and MIC were evaluated against two strains of gram positive and gram-negative bacteria. The MIC values of the tested compounds are in the of range 8-33 μg/ml. In addition, their DNA cleavage ability, binding affinity and their anticancer activities against hepatic cancer cell were tested...
August 2, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781184/contaminants-of-emerging-concern-in-the-open-sea-waters-of-the-western-mediterranean
#13
Miroslav Brumovský, Jitka Bečanová, Jiří Kohoutek, Mireno Borghini, Luca Nizzetto
Pollution by chemical substances is of concern for the maintenance of healthy and sustainable aquatic environments. While the occurrence and fate of numerous emerging contaminants, especially pharmaceuticals, is well documented in freshwater, their occurrence and behavior in coastal and marine waters is much less studied and understood. This study investigates the occurrence of 58 chemicals in the open surface water of the Western Mediterranean Sea for the first time. 70 samples in total were collected in 10 different sampling areas...
October 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776509/molecular-structures-of-3-2-2-3-3-tetrafluoropropoxy-methyl-and-3-2-2-3-3-3-pentafluoropropoxy-methyl-pyridinium-saccharinates
#14
Norman Lu, Hsing Fang Chiang, Rong Jyun Wei, Yuh Sheng Wen, Ling Kang Liu
The salts 3-[(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)methyl]pyridinium saccharinate, C9H10F4NO(+)·C7H4NO3S(-), (1), and 3-[(2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropoxy)methyl]pyridinium saccharinate, C9H9F5NO(+)·C7H4NO3S(-), (2), i.e. saccharinate (or 1,1-dioxo-1λ(6),2-benzothiazol-3-olate) salts of pyridinium with -CH2OCH2CF2CF2H and -CH2OCH2CF2CF3 meta substituents, respectively, were investigated crystallographically in order to compare their fluorine-related weak interactions in the solid state. Both salts demonstrate a stable synthon formed by the pyridinium cation and the saccharinate anion, in which a seven-membered ring reveals a double hydrogen-bonding pattern...
August 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section C, Structural Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769774/fenofibrate-administration-reduces-alcohol-and-saccharin-intake-in-rats-possible-effects-at-peripheral-and-central-levels
#15
Mario Rivera-Meza, Daniel Muñoz, Erik Jerez, María E Quintanilla, Catalina Salinas-Luypaert, Katia Fernandez, Eduardo Karahanian
We have previously shown that the administration of fenofibrate to high-drinker UChB rats markedly reduces voluntary ethanol intake. Fenofibrate is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) agonist, which induces the proliferation of peroxisomes in the liver, leading to increases in catalase levels that result in acetaldehyde accumulation at aversive levels in the blood when animals consume ethanol. In these new studies, we aimed to investigate if the effect of fenofibrate on ethanol intake is produced exclusively in the liver (increasing catalase and systemic levels of acetaldehyde) or there might be additional effects at central level...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763168/the-effect-of-nonnutritive-sweeteners-added-to-a-liquid-diet-on-volume-and-caloric-intake-and-weight-gain-in-rats
#16
David J Bissonnette, Samantha List, Penny Knoblich, M Hadley
OBJECTIVE: Long-term effects of diet beverage consumption on the regulation of caloric intake is unclear. The goal of this study was to investigate whether the chronic intake of a liquid diet with nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS) would lead to greater appetite and weight gain. METHODS: Wistar rats were fed a liquid diet (Osmolite) sweetened with nutritive sweetener (NS; sucrose) and NNS (stevia and saccharin) or a nonsweetened control. Intakes and weight gain were measured...
September 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711215/changes-occurring-in-mucosal-contractility-of-the-inferior-turbinate-and-mucociliary-clearance-following-total-laryngectomy-a-prospective-clinical-trial
#17
Ilker Kocak, Remzi Dogan, Sabri Baki Eren, Selahattin Tugrul, Orhan Ozturan, Aysenur Meric Hafiz
OBJECTIVE: In this study, changes occurring in the contractility capacity of the inferior turbinate and mucociliary clearance time due to the interruption of nasal air flow were examined. MATERIAL & METHODS: A total of 23 patients undergone total laryngectomy between June 2010 and June 2012 were included in the study. Acoustic rhinometry test was performed in the patients before and after 0.05% oxymetazoline nasal topical decongestant administration. In addition, saccharin test was applied in order to measure mucociliary clearance...
July 12, 2017: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708901/sex-specific-enhancement-of-palatability-driven-feeding-in-adolescent-rats
#18
Andrew T Marshall, Angela T Liu, Niall P Murphy, Nigel T Maidment, Sean B Ostlund
It has been hypothesized that brain development during adolescence perturbs reward processing in a way that may ultimately contribute to the risky decision making associated with this stage of life, particularly in young males. To investigate potential reward dysfunction during adolescence, Experiment 1 examined palatable fluid intake in rats as a function of age and sex. During a series of twice-weekly test sessions, non-food-deprived rats were given the opportunity to voluntarily consume a highly palatable sweetened condensed milk (SCM) solution...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708096/characterization-of-non-nutritive-sweetener-intake-in-rural-southwest-virginian-adults-living-in-a-health-disparate-region
#19
Valisa E Hedrick, Erin M Passaro, Brenda M Davy, Wen You, Jamie M Zoellner
Few data assessing non-nutritive sweetener (NNS) intake are available, especially within rural, health-disparate populations, where obesity and related co-morbidities are prevalent. The objective of this study is to characterize NNS intake for this population and examine the variance in demographics, cardio-metabolic outcomes, and dietary intake between NNS consumers and non-consumers. A cross-sectional sample (n = 301) of Virginian adults from a randomized controlled trial (data collected from 2012 to 2014) targeting sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake completed three 24-h dietary recalls, and demographics and cardio-metabolic measures were assessed...
July 14, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699833/safety-assessment-of-16-sweeteners-for-the-korean-population-using-dietary-intake-monitoring-and-poundage-method
#20
MeeKyung Kim, Gunyoung Lee, Ho Soo Lim, Sang Soon Yun, Myungsil Hwang, Jin-Hwan Hong, Hoonjeong Kwon
A sweetener is a food additive that imparts a sweet taste to food products. Sweeteners have been increasingly used in Korea since the approval of sodium saccharin and d-sorbitol in 1962. Unlike food contaminants, humans are exposed to food additives only through the consumption of processed food products. For exposure assessments of sweeteners, the dietary intakes of food products containing acesulfame-K, aspartame, saccharin-Na, and sucralose were determined, and the resulting calculated estimated daily intake (EDI) values were compared directly with each additive's ADI...
July 12, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
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