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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205186/optimisation-of-cognitive-performance-in-rodent-operant-touchscreen-testing-evaluation-and-effects-of-reinforcer-strength
#1
Benjamin U Phillips, Christopher J Heath, Zofia Ossowska, Timothy J Bussey, Lisa M Saksida
Operant testing is a widely used and highly effective method of studying cognition in rodents. Performance on such tasks is sensitive to reinforcer strength. It is therefore advantageous to select effective reinforcers to minimize training times and maximize experimental throughput. To quantitatively investigate the control of behavior by different reinforcers, performance of mice was tested with either strawberry milkshake or a known powerful reinforcer, super saccharin (1.5% or 2% (w/v) saccharin/1.5% (w/v) glucose/water mixture)...
February 15, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196706/the-role-of-cell-cycle-progression-for-the-apoptosis-of-cancer-cells-induced-by-palladium-ii-saccharinate-complexes-of-terpyridine
#2
Omer Kacar, Buse Cevatemre, Ibrahim Hatipoglu, Nazli Arda, Engin Ulukaya, Veysel T Yilmaz, Ceyda Acilan
OBJECTIVES: Palladium complexes are potent and less toxic molecules in comparison to other metal based agents. Here, we characterized two palladium(II) saccharinate complexes with terpyridine for their cell cycle specificity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cells were arrested at G1, G1/S boundary or mitosis using mimosine, double-Thymidine block, aphidicolin, nocodazole or colcemid, and evaluated based on morphology and flow cytometry. Synchronized cells were treated with the Pd(II) complexes, and viability was measured via MTT assay...
January 31, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192132/flavor-preferences-conditioned-by-nutritive-and-non-nutritive-sweeteners-in-mice
#3
Anthony Sclafani, Karen Ackroff
Recent studies suggest that preferences are conditioned by nutritive (sucrose) but not by non-nutritive (sucralose) sweeteners in mice. Here we compared the effectiveness of nutritive and non-nutritive sweeteners to condition flavor preferences in three mouse strains. Isopreferred sucrose and sucralose solutions both conditioned flavor preferences in C57BL/6J (B6) mice but sucrose was more effective, consistent with its post-oral appetition action. Subsequent experiments compared flavor conditioning by fructose, which has no post-oral appetition effect in B6 mice, and a sucralose+saccharin mixture (SS) which is highly preferred to fructose in 24-h choice tests...
February 9, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148491/glucose-elicits-cephalic-phase-insulin-release-in-mice-by-activating-k-atp-channels-in-taste-cells
#4
John I Glendinning, Yonina G Frim, Ayelet Hochman, Gabrielle S Lubitz, Anthony J Basile, Anthony Sclafani
The taste of sugar elicits cephalic-phase insulin release (CPIR), which limits the rise in blood glucose associated with meals. Little is known, however, about the orosensory mechanisms that trigger CPIR. We asked whether oral stimulation with any of the following taste stimuli elicited CPIR in mice: glucose, sucrose, maltose, fructose, Polycose, saccharin, sucralose, AceK, SC45647 or a non-metabolizable sugar analog. The only taste stimuli that elicited CPIR were glucose and the glucose-containing saccharides (sucrose, maltose, Polycose)...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146272/ethanol-consumption-in-mice-lacking-cd14-tlr2-tlr4-or-myd88
#5
Yuri A Blednov, Mendy Black, Julia Chernis, Adriana Da Costa, Jody Mayfield, R Adron Harris
BACKGROUND: Molecular and behavioral studies support a role for innate immune proinflammatory pathways in mediating the effects of alcohol. Increased levels of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been observed in animal models of alcohol consumption and in human alcoholics, and many of these TLRs signal via the MyD88-dependent pathway. We hypothesized that this pathway is involved in alcohol drinking and examined some of its key signaling components. METHODS: Different ethanol (EtOH)-drinking paradigms were studied in male and female control C57BL/6J mice versus mice lacking CD14, TLR2, TLR4 (C57BL/10ScN), or MyD88...
February 1, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138966/chronic-social-instability-in-adult-female-rats-alters-social-behavior-maternal-aggression-and-offspring-development
#6
Florent Pittet, Jessica A Babb, Lindsay Carini, Benjamin C Nephew
We investigated the consequences of chronic social instability (CSI) during adulthood on social and maternal behavior in females and social behavior of their offspring in a rat model. CSI consisted of changing the social partners of adult females every 2-3 days for 28 days, 2 weeks prior to mating. Females exposed to CSI behaved less aggressively and more pro-socially towards unfamiliar female intruders. Maternal care was not affected by CSI in a standard testing environment, but maternal behavior of CSI females was less disrupted by a male intruder...
January 31, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133510/investigation-of-the-regulatory-effects-of-saccharin-on-cytochrome-p450s-in-male-icr-mice
#7
Jun Hyeon Jo, Sunjoo Kim, Tae Won Jeon, Tae Cheon Jeong, Sangkyu Lee
Saccharin, the first artificial sweetener, was discovered in 1879 that do not have any calories and is approximately 200~700 times sweeter than sugar. Saccharin was the most common domestically produced sweetener in Korea in 2010, and it has been used as an alternative to sugar in many products. The interaction between artificial sweeteners and drugs may affect the drug metabolism in patients with diabetes, cancer, and liver damage, this interaction has not been clarified thus far. Here, we examined the effects of the potential saccharin-drug interaction on the activities of 5 cytochrome P450 (CYPs) in male ICR mice; further, we examined the effects of saccharin (4,000 mg/kg) on the pharmacokinetics of bupropion after pretreatment of mice with saccharin for 7 days and after concomitant administration of bupropion and saccharin...
January 2017: Toxicological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109547/removal-and-attenuation-of-sewage-effluent-combined-tracer-signals-of-phosphorus-caffeine-and-saccharin-in-soil
#8
Samia Richards, Paul J A Withers, Eric Paterson, Colin W McRoberts, Marc Stutter
Contaminants in septic tank effluent (STE) are expected to be removed by the soil system before discharging to the environment. However, potential contaminants such as phosphorus (P), caffeine and artificial sweeteners do find their way to watercourses impacting aquatic eco systems. In this study, the attenuation of STE P, caffeine and saccharin were investigated in untreated soil and in soil with reduced microbial activity, in aqueous solutions and in the complex matrix of STE. Time series sorption and desorption experiments using batch equilibrium and a column experiment of STE P attenuation were conducted...
January 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106041/glutamatergic-projections-from-the-entorhinal-cortex-to-dorsal-dentate-gyrus-mediate-context-induced-reinstatement-of-heroin-seeking
#9
Feifei Ge, Na Wang, Cailian Cui, Yijing Li, Yan Liu, Yaoying Ma, Shuli Liu, Haolin Zhang, Xiaowei Sun
Re-exposure to the context associated with heroin intake provokes relapse to drug taking after abstinence. The dorsal dentate gyrus (dDG) and entorhinal cortex (EC) have been implicated in contextual memory processing, but the underlying circuit mechanisms in context-induced relapse remains poorly understood. In this study, using a self-administration rat model, we found that activation and synaptic transmission of glutamatergic projections from the EC to the upper blade of dentate gyrus (dDGub) were significantly enhanced during context-induced reinstatement of heroin seeking...
January 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101344/evaluation-of-pharmacological-relaxation-effect-of-the-natural-product-naringin-on-in-vitro-cultured-airway-smooth-muscle-cells-and-in-vivo-ovalbumin-induced-asthma-balb-c-mice
#10
Yue Wang, Yun Lu, Mingzhi Luo, Xiaohao Shi, Yan Pan, Huilong Zeng, Linhong Deng
Asthma has become a common chronic respiratory disease worldwide and its prevalence is predicted to continue increasing in the next decade, particularly in developing countries. A key component in asthma therapy is to alleviate the excessive bronchial airway narrowing ultimately due to airway smooth muscle contraction, which is often facilitated by a smooth muscle relaxant, such as the β2-adrenergic agonists. Recently, bitter taste receptor (TAS2R) agonists, including saccharin and chloroquine, have been found to potently relax the airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) via intracellular Ca(2+) signaling...
December 2016: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095308/lithium-induced-malaise-does-not-interfere-with-adaptation-of-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-to-stress
#11
Maria Sanchís-Ollé, Juan A Ortega-Sánchez, Xavier Belda, Humberto Gagliano, Roser Nadal, Antonio Armario
We have recently demonstrated that adaptation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to repeated exposure to a stressor does not follow the rules of habituation and can be fully expressed after a single experience with severe stressors. In the present work we tested the hypothesis that adaptation could be impaired if animals experience malaise during initial exposure to the stressor. To this end, animals were allowed to drink saccharin for 30min before being exposed for 3h to immobilization on boards (IMO), a severe stressor; then they were given either saline or lithium ip after the first hour of IMO...
January 15, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089663/phase-dependent-activity-of-neurons-in-the-rostral-part-of-the-thalamic-reticular-nucleus-with-saccharin-intake-in-a-cue-guided-lever-manipulation-task
#12
Ryuhei Aoki, Risako Kato, Satoshi Fujita, Jun Shimada, Noriaki Koshikawa, Masayuki Kobayashi
Neurons in the rostral part of the thalamic reticular nucleus (rTRN) receive somatosensory and motor information and regulate neural activities of the thalamic nuclei. Previous studies showed that when activity in visual TRN neurons is suppressed prior to the visual stimuli in a visual detection task, the performance of the task improves. However, little is known about such changes in the rTRN preceding certain events. In the present study, we performed unit recordings in the rTRN in alert rats during a cue-guided lever-manipulation task in which saccharin was provided as a reward...
January 12, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071796/influence-of-package-visual-cues-of-sweeteners-on-the-sensory-emotional-profiles-of-their-products
#13
Wisdom Wardy, Pitchayapat Chonpracha, Napapan Chokumnoyporn, Sujinda Sriwattana, Witoon Prinyawiwatkul, Wannita Jirangrat
Substantial evidence suggests influence of color, physical state, and other extrinsic features on consumer perception and acceptability of food products. In this study, 560 subjects evaluated liking and emotional responses associated with 5 sweeteners (sucralose, stevia, saccharin, aspartame, and sucrose) under 2 eliciting conditions: control (brand name only) and informed (brand name/packet image), to assess impact of the packet color. For a given condition, 5 identical tea samples each labeled with a sweetener type were rated for sweetness and overall liking (9-point) and emotions (5-point)...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040488/systemic-administration-of-anorexic-gut-peptide-hormones-impairs-hedonic-driven-sucrose-consumption-in-mice
#14
Erina Yamaguchi, Yasunobu Yasoshima, Tsuyoshi Shimura
A number of reports suggest that gut hormones such as cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and peptide YY(3-36) (PYY3-36), which are released postprandially, suppress homeostatic food intake and result in satiety and the termination of feeding. However, it remains unclear whether these peptide hormones also suppress non-homeostatic consumption of palatable foods or fluids. To examine whether gut hormones reduce hedonically motivated sugar consumption, we assessed the effects of intraperitoneal administration of these gut hormones on the consumption of a highly palatable sucrose solution, using a mouse model we previously established for binge-like sucrose overconsumption (Yasoshima and Shimura, 2015)...
December 28, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035644/dft-and-tddft-investigation-of-the-schiff-base-formed-by-tacrine-and-saccharin
#15
Nursel Acar, Cenk Selçuki, Emine Coşkun
Schiff bases have many chemical and biological applications in medicine and pharmaceuticals due to the presence of an imine group (-C=N-). These bases are used in many different fields of technology, and in photochemistry because of their photochromic properties. Here, the structural and electronic properties of the Schiff base formed by tacrine and saccharin (TacSac) were explored using density functional theory with the B3LYP, M06-2X, M06L, and ωB97XD functionals in combination with the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set...
January 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027980/assessment-of-the-carcinogenic-potential-of-high-intense-sweeteners-through-the-test-for-detection-of-epithelial-tumor-clones-warts-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#16
Mirley Alves Vasconcelos, Priscila Capelari Orsolin, Rosiane Gomes Silva-Oliveira, Júlio César Nepomuceno, Mário Antônio Spanó
High intensity-sweeteners (HIS) are natural or synthetic substances, sweeter than sugar, providing sweetness without calories. Sweeteners are mainly used as an aid in losing weight, preventing obesity and controlling blood sugar levels for diabetics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of the sweeteners aspartame, sucralose, sodium saccharin and steviol glycoside, using the test for detection of epithelial tumor clones in Drosophila melanogaster. Larvae of 72 ± 4h, obtained from wts/TM3 female mated with mwh/mwh males, were treated for approximately 48h with different concentrations of aspartame (0...
December 24, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025002/sulfonamide-inhibition-profile-of-the-%C3%AE-carbonic-anhydrase-identified-in-the-genome-of-the-pathogenic-bacterium-burkholderia-pseudomallei-the-etiological-agent-responsible-of-melioidosis
#17
Sonia Del Prete, Daniela Vullo, Pietro Di Fonzo, Sameh M Osman, Zeid AlOthman, William A Donald, Claudiu T Supuran, Clemente Capasso
A new γ-carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.1.1.1) was cloned and characterized kinetically in the genome of the bacterial pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei, the etiological agent of melioidosis, an endemic disease of tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. The catalytic activity of this new enzyme, BpsCAγ, is significant with a kcat of 5.3×10(5)s(-1) and kcat/Km of 2.5×10(7)M(-1)×s(-1) for the physiologic CO2 hydration reaction. The inhibition constant value for this enzyme for 39 sulfonamide inhibitors was obtained...
December 12, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018190/disruption-of-the-glutamate-glutamine-cycle-involving-astrocytes-in-an-animal-model-of-depression-for-males-and-females
#18
Virginie Rappeneau, Amanda Blaker, Jeff R Petro, Bryan K Yamamoto, Akiko Shimamoto
Background: Women are twice as likely as men to develop major depression. The brain mechanisms underlying this sex disparity are not clear. Disruption of the glutamate-glutamine cycle has been implicated in psychiatric disturbances. This study identifies sex-based impairments in the glutamate-glutamine cycle involving astrocytes using an animal model of depression. Methods: Male and female adult Long-Evans rats were exposed to chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) for 21 days, using a modified resident-intruder paradigm...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008434/carbodiimide-insertion-into-sulfonimides-one-step-route-to-azepine-derivatives-via-a-two-atom-saccharin-ring-expansion
#19
Davin Tan, Tomislav Friščić
A previously unknown insertion of carbodiimides into sulfonimides enables the first one-step, two-atom expansion of the saccharin 5-membered ring into a 7-membered benzo[1,2,4]thiadiazepine, and a two-atom chain extension of a non-cyclic sulfonimide. This reaction is enhanced by copper salts, which allow it to be conducted mechanochemically, in a solvent-free manner.
December 23, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986290/pressurised-liquid-extraction-and-liquid-chromatography-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-to-determine-high-intensity-sweeteners-in-fish-samples
#20
Mireia Núñez, Francesc Borrull, Eva Pocurull, Núria Fontanals
An analytical method based on pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) followed by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (Orbitrap) was developed for the simultaneous determination of ten high-intensity sweeteners in fish samples. As the method was developed, the different PLE parameters were optimised and different clean-up strategies were evaluated, of which in-cell clean-up using alumina and on-cell clean-up with hexane were the most effective. PLE recoveries were between 43% and 94%. The method quantification limits were between 12...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
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