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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095077/running-performance-with-nutritive-and-non-nutritive-sweetened-mouth-rinses
#1
Keely H Hawkins, Sridevi Krishnan, Lara Ringos, Vanessa Garcia, Jamie A Cooper
: Mouth rinsing (MR) with carbohydrate during exercise has been shown to act as an ergogenic aid. PURPOSE: To investigate if nutritive or nonnutritive sweetened MR affect exercise performance, and to assess the influence of sweetness intensity on endurance performance during a time-trial (TT). METHODS: This randomized, single blinded study had 4 treatment conditions. 16 subjects (9 men, 7 women) completed a 12.8km TT four different times. During each TT, subjects MR and expectorated a different solution at time 0 and every 12...
January 17, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092151/issues-in-nutrition-carbohydrates
#2
Margaret E Thompson, Mary Barth Noel
Carbohydrates include sugars, starches, and dietary fibers. Resistant starches resemble fiber in their behavior in the intestinal tract, and may have positive effects on blood glucose levels and the gut microbiome. Fibers are classified as soluble and insoluble, but most fiber-containing foods contain a mixture of soluble and insoluble fiber. Soluble fiber has been shown to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Many artificial sweeteners and other sugar substitutes are available. Most natural sources of sweeteners also are energy sources...
January 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074617/soft-drink-intake-and-the-risk-of-metabolic-syndrome-a%C3%A2-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
REVIEW
Aditya Narain, Chun Shing Kwok, Mamas A Mamas
BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether consumption of sugar- or artificially sweetened beverages is independently associated with the development of metabolic syndrome. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to evaluate whether soft drink consumption is associated with the development of metabolic syndrome. METHODS: Medline and EMBASE were searched in November 2015 for studies which considered soft drink (sugar-sweetened beverage [SSB] and artificially sweetened beverage [ASB]) intake and risk of metabolic syndrome...
January 10, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063296/biodegradation-of-the-artificial-sweetener-acesulfame-in-biological-wastewater-treatment-and-sandfilters
#4
Sandro Castronovo, Arne Wick, Marco Scheurer, Karsten Nödler, Manoj Schulz, Thomas A Ternes
A considerable removal of the artificial sweetener acesulfame (ACE) was observed during activated sludge processes at 13 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as well as in a full-scale sand filter of a water works. A long-term sampling campaign over a period of almost two years revealed that ACE removal in WWTPs can be highly variable over time. Nitrifying/denitrifying sequencing batch reactors (SBR) as well as aerobic batch experiments with activated sludge and filter sand from a water works confirmed that both activated sludge as well as filter sand can efficiently remove ACE and that the removal can be attributed to biologically mediated degradation processes...
November 17, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045913/artificially-sweetened-beverages-and-the-response-to-the-global-obesity-crisis
#5
Maria Carolina Borges, Maria Laura Louzada, Thiago Hérick de Sá, Anthony A Laverty, Diana C Parra, Josefa Maria Fellegger Garzillo, Carlos Augusto Monteiro, Christopher Millett
Christopher Millett and colleagues argue that artificially sweetened beverages should not be promoted as part of a healthy diet.
January 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042657/the-influence-of-mixers-containing-artificial-sweetener-or-different-doses-of-carbohydrate-on-breath-alcohol-responses-in-females
#6
Cassie Smith, Peter John Herzig, Andrew Davey, Ben Desbrow, Christopher Irwin
BACKGROUND: Breath alcohol responses may be affected by the presence of carbohydrate (CHO) in a beverage. This study investigated the impact of consuming alcohol with mixers containing various doses of CHO or an artificial sweetener on breath alcohol concentration (BrAC), ratings of intoxication and impairment, and cognitive performance in females. METHODS: Twenty-six females (age 25.1 ± 0.7 years, mean ± standard deviation) completed a crossover study involving 4 trials...
January 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039831/oxidative-degradation-of-emerging-micropollutant-acesulfame-in-aqueous-matrices-by-uva-induced-h2o2-fe-2-and-s2o8-2-fe-2-processes
#7
Eneliis Kattel, Marina Trapido, Niina Dulova
In the present study, UVA/H2O2/Fe(2+) and UVA/S2O8(2-)/Fe(2+) processes were applied to degrade the artificial sweetener, acesulfame (ACE) in ultrapure water (UW), groundwater (GW), and secondary effluent (WW). The degradation time and mineralization of 75 μM of ACE determined the efficacy of the procedures. The results indicated that the UVA-induced H2O2/Fe(2+) and S2O8(2-)/Fe(2+) systems are a promising alternative for the removal of ACE from different aqueous matrices as both studied processes completely degraded the target compound at an ACE/oxidant/Fe(2+) molar ratio of 1/10/1 and pH 3...
December 22, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034739/behavioral-evidence-that-select-carbohydrate-stimuli-activate-t1r-independent-receptor-mechanisms
#8
Alan C Spector, Lindsey A Schier
Three decades ago Tony Sclafani proposed the existence of a polysaccharide taste quality that was distinguishable from the taste generated by common sweeteners and that it was mediated by a separate receptor mechanism. Since that time, evidence has accumulated, including psychophysical studies conducted in our laboratory, buttressing this hypothesis. The use of knockout (KO) mice that lack functional T1R2 + T1R3 heterodimers, the principal taste receptor for sugars and other sweeteners, have been especially informative in this regard...
December 26, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998057/spatial-models-of-sewer-pipe-leakage-predict-the-occurrence-of-wastewater-indicators-in-shallow-urban-groundwater
#9
Patrick R Roehrdanz, Marina Feraud, Do Gyun Lee, Jay C Means, Shane A Snyder, Patricia A Holden
Twentieth century municipal wastewater infrastructure greatly improved U.S. urban public health and water quality. However, sewer pipes deteriorate and their accumulated structural defects may release untreated wastewater to the environment via acute breaks or insidious exfiltration. Exfiltrated wastewater constitutes a loss of potentially reusable water and delivers a complex and variable mix of contaminants to urban shallow groundwater. Yet, predicting where deteriorated sewers impinge on shallow groundwater has been challenging...
December 20, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998013/neuroprotective-and-ameliorating-impacts-of-omega-3-against-aspartame-induced-neuronal-and-astrocytic-degeneration
#10
Eyad M T Ali, Hany M A Sonpol
Aspartame (ASP) is one of the commonest artificial sweetener used all over the world and considered as an extremely risky compound and raises a lot of controversy. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate cellular damage of the anterior horn cells in the spinal cord of albino male rats and the possibility of hindering these changes by using omega-3 (OM3).Thirty seven adult male albino rats were divided into three groups: Control, ASP-treated and ASP+OM3-treated groups. Spinal cord sections were prepared and stained with Hx&E, caspase-3 and GFAP immunostaining...
December 20, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997393/environmental-fate-and-behavior-of-acesulfame-in-laboratory-experiments
#11
Florian R Storck, Christian Skark, Frank Remmler, Heinz-Jürgen Brauch
Acesulfame is a widely used artificial sweetener. It can be discharged into surface water by domestic wastewater due to its incomplete retention during wastewater treatment. Concentrations may reach up to 10 μg/L for smaller rivers. State-of-the-art analysis allows the determination of acesulfame traces (0.01 μg/L) and thus a potential tracking of the presence of wastewater in riverbank filtrate. To evaluate the behavior of acesulfame in the aquatic environment, biodegradation and sorption of acesulfame were tested...
December 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992462/acute-effects-of-sugars-and-artificial-sweeteners-on-small-intestinal-sugar-transport-a-study-using-caco-2-cells-as-an-in-vitro-model-of-the-human-enterocyte
#12
Patrick O'Brien, Christopher Peter Corpe
BACKGROUND: The gastrointestinal tract is responsible for the assimilation of nutrients and plays a key role in the regulation of nutrient metabolism and energy balance. The molecular mechanisms by which intestinal sugar transport are regulated are controversial. Based on rodent studies, two models currently exist that involve activation of the sweet-taste receptor, T1R2/3: an indirect model, whereby luminal carbohydrates activate T1R2/3 expressed on enteroendocrine cells, resulting in the release of gut peptides which in turn regulate enterocyte sugar transport capacity; and a direct model, whereby T1R2/3 expressed on the enterocyte regulates enterocyte function...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987463/a-taxonomy-of-chemicals-of-emerging-concern-based-on-observed-fate-at-water-resource-recovery-facilities
#13
Steven M Jones, Zaid K Chowdhury, Michael J Watts
As reuse of municipal water resource recovery facility (WRRF) effluent becomes vital to augment diminishing fresh drinking water resources, concern exists that conventional barriers may prove deficient, and the upcycling of chemicals of emerging concern (CECs) could prove harmful to human health and aquatic species if more effective and robust treatment barriers are not in place. A multiple month survey, of both primary and secondary effluents, from three (3) WRRFs, for 95 CECs was conducted in 2014 to classify CECs by their persistence through conventional water reclamation processes...
March 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27967281/cho-mouth-rinsing-improves-neuromuscular-performance-during-isokinetic-fatiguing-exercise
#14
Ilenia Bazzucchi, Federica Patrizio, Francesco Felici, Andrea Nicolò, Massimo Sacchetti
PURPOSE: To determine whether repeated CHO mouth rinsing would improve neuromuscular performance during high intensity fatiguing contractions. METHODS: 18 young men (26.1±5.0 yr; 22.9±1,9 BMI) performed 3 maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVICPRE). Immediately after, they completed 10 s mouth rinse with either 6.4% maltodextrine solution [MAL] or 7.1% glucose solution [GLU] or water [W] or artificially sweetened solution [PLA] or a control trial with no rinse [CON] in a cross over protocol...
December 14, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956737/effects-of-aspartame-monk-fruit-stevia-and-sucrose-sweetened-beverages-on-postprandial-glucose-insulin-and-energy-intake
#15
S L Tey, N B Salleh, J Henry, C G Forde
BackgroundSubstituting sweeteners with non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) may aid in glycaemic control and body weight management. Limited studies have investigated energy compensation, glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to artificial and natural NNS.ObjectivesThis study compared the effects of consuming NNS (artificial vs. natural) and sucrose (65 g) on energy intake, blood glucose and insulin responses.MethodsThirty healthy males took part in this randomised, crossover study with four treatments: aspartame-, monk fruit-, Stevia-, and sucrose-sweetened beverages...
December 13, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940986/consumption-of-artificially-sweetened-beverages-during-pregnancy-is-associated-with-a-twofold-higher-risk-of-infant-being-overweight-at-1%C3%A2-year
#16
Patrick Mullie, Peter Clarys
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Evidence-based Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926472/sweetened-beverage-intake-and-risk-of-latent-autoimmune-diabetes-in-adults-lada-and-type-2-diabetes
#17
Josefin E Löfvenborg, Tomas Andersson, Per-Ola Carlsson, Mozhgan Dorkhan, Leif Groop, Mats Martinell, Tiinamaija Tuomi, Alicja Wolk, Sofia Carlsson
OBJECTIVE: Sweetened beverage intake is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes, but its association with autoimmune diabetes is unclear. We aimed to investigate sweetened beverage intake and risk of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA); autoimmune diabetes with features of type 2 diabetes. DESIGN/METHODS: Data from a Swedish population-based study was used, including incident cases of LADA (n = 357) and type 2 diabetes (n = 1136) and randomly selected controls (n = 1371)...
December 2016: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916866/relationship-between-soft-drink-consumption-and-obesity-in-9-11-years-old-children-in-a-multi-national-study
#18
Peter T Katzmarzyk, Stephanie T Broyles, Catherine M Champagne, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Mikael Fogelholm, Gang Hu, Rebecca Kuriyan, Anura Kurpad, Estelle V Lambert, Jose Maia, Victor Matsudo, Timothy Olds, Vincent Onywera, Olga L Sarmiento, Martyn Standage, Mark S Tremblay, Catrine Tudor-Locke, Pei Zhao
The purpose of this study was to determine the association between regular (sugar containing) and diet (artificially sweetened) soft drink consumption and obesity in children from 12 countries ranging in levels of economic and human development. The sample included 6162 children aged 9-11 years. Information on soft drink consumption was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire. Percentage body fat (%BF) was estimated by bio-electrical impedance analysis, body mass index (BMI) z-scores were computed using World Health Organization reference data, and obesity was defined as a BMI > +2 standard deviations (SD)...
November 30, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909849/monitoring-contaminants-of-emerging-concern-from-tertiary-wastewater-treatment-plants-using-passive-sampling-modelled-with-performance-reference-compounds
#19
Tamanna Sultana, Craig Murray, M Ehsanul Hoque, Chris D Metcalfe
The Lake Simcoe watershed in Ontario, Canada is an important recreational area and a recharge zone for groundwater resources. Lake Simcoe is a relatively shallow lotic system that has been impacted by urban development, recreation, industry and agriculture. As part of a watershed management plan, six wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located in this catchment basin were selected to measure the inputs of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) of wastewater origin. These WWTPs were recently upgraded to tertiary treatment for phosphorus removal...
December 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884761/assessment-of-the-motivation-to-use-artificial-sweetener-among-individuals-with-an-eating-disorder
#20
Janet Schebendach, Diane A Klein, Laurel E S Mayer, Evelyn Attia, Michael J Devlin, Richard W Foltin, B Timothy Walsh
Eating disorders are associated with a range of abnormalities in eating behavior. Some individuals consume large amounts of non-caloric artificial sweeteners, suggesting abnormalities in appetitive responding. The current study aimed to quantify hedonic and motivating effects of artificial sweetener in individuals with and without an eating disorder. Two laboratory studies were conducted. Hedonic preference was estimated using the number of artificial sweetener packets (0-10) added to unsweetened cherry flavored Kool-Aid (study 1)...
February 1, 2017: Appetite
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