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Irnia Nurika, Daniel C Eastwood, Guy C Barker
Ergosterol, total phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and linoleic acid (18:2n-6) have all been used to determine fungal growth. This paper compares these methods to assess the growth of four different saprotrophic fungal species during solid state cultivation using a wheat straw substrate that have not been compared or measured previously. Ergosterol production appeared to track the mycelia growth well but its production differed considerably between fungi. This means that a specific conversion factor needs to be determined and applied for any given fungus...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
S V Balasundaram, J Hess, M B Durling, S C Moody, L Thorbek, C Progida, K LaButti, A Aerts, K Barry, I V Grigoriev, L Boddy, N Högberg, H Kauserud, D C Eastwood, I Skrede
Many organisms benefit from being pre-adapted to niches shaped by human activity, and have successfully invaded man-made habitats. One such species is the dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans, which has a wide distribution in buildings in temperate and boreal regions, where it decomposes coniferous construction wood. Comparative genomic analyses and growth experiments using this species and its wild relatives revealed that S. lacrymans evolved a very effective brown rot decay compared to its wild relatives, enabling an extremely rapid decay in buildings under suitable conditions...
March 2018: ISME Journal
James P Tauber, Ramses Gallegos-Monterrosa, Ákos T Kovács, Ekaterina Shelest, Dirk Hoffmeister
Production of basidiomycete atromentin-derived pigments like variegatic acid (pulvinic acid-type) and involutin (diarylcyclopentenone) from the brown-rotter Serpula lacrymans and the ectomycorrhiza-forming Paxillus involutus, respectively, is induced by complex nutrition, and in the case of S. lacrymans, bacteria. Pigmentation in S. lacrymans was stimulated by 13 different bacteria and cell-wall-damaging enzymes (lytic enzymes and proteases), but not by lysozyme or mechanical damage. The use of protease inhibitors with Bacillus subtilis or heat-killed bacteria during co-culturing with S...
January 2018: Microbiology
Grant Kirker, Sam Zelinka, Sophie-Charlotte Gleber, David Vine, Lydia Finney, Si Chen, Young Pyo Hong, Omar Uyarte, Stefan Vogt, Jody Jellison, Barry Goodell, Joseph E Jakes
The role of ions in the fungal decay process of lignocellulose biomaterials, and more broadly fungal metabolism, has implications for diverse research disciplines ranging from plant pathology and forest ecology, to carbon sequestration. Despite the importance of ions in fungal decay mechanisms, the spatial distribution and quantification of ions in lignocellulosic cell walls and fungal hyphae during decay is not known. Here we employ synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) to map and quantify physiologically relevant ions, such as K, Ca, Mn, Fe, and Zn, in wood being decayed by the model brown rot fungus Serpula lacrymans...
January 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
Gerald N Presley, Jonathan S Schilling
Brown rot fungi are wood-degrading fungi that employ both oxidative and hydrolytic mechanisms to degrade wood. Hydroxyl radicals that facilitate the oxidative component are powerful nonselective oxidants and are incompatible with hydrolytic enzymes unless they are spatially segregated in wood. Differential gene expression has been implicated in the segregation of these reactions in Postia placenta, but it is unclear if this two-step mechanism varies in other brown rot fungi with different traits and life history strategies that occupy different niches in nature...
April 1, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Yuan Zhu, James Mahaney, Jody Jellison, Jinzhen Cao, Julia Gressler, Dirk Hoffmeister, Barry Goodell
This study aims to clarify the role of variegatic acid (VA) in fungal attack by Serpula lacrymans, and also the generation and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the fungus. VA promotes a mediated Fenton reaction to generated ROS after oxalate solubilizes oxidized forms of iron. The fungal extracellular matrix (ECM) β-glucan scavenged ROS, and we propose this as a mechanism to protect the fungal hyphae while ROS generation is promoted to deconstruct the lignocellulose cell wall. A relatively high pH (4...
March 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
James P Tauber, Volker Schroeckh, Ekaterina Shelest, Axel A Brakhage, Dirk Hoffmeister
Basidiomycete fungi are characterized ecologically for their vital functional role in ecosystem carbon recycling and chemically for their capacity to produce a diverse array of small molecules. Chromophoric natural products derived from the quinone precursor atromentin, such as variegatic acid and involutin, have been shown to function in redox cycling. Yet, in the context of an inter-kingdom natural system these pigments are still elusive. Here, we co-cultured the model saprotrophic basidiomycete Serpula lacrymans with an ubiquitous terrestrial bacterium, either Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas putida, or Streptomyces iranensis...
December 2016: Environmental Microbiology
Eileen Brandenburger, Daniel Braga, Anja Kombrink, Gerald Lackner, Julia Gressler, Markus Künzler, Dirk Hoffmeister
Among the invaluable benefits of basidiomycete genomics is the dramatically enhanced insight into the potential capacity to biosynthesize natural products. This study focuses on adenylate-forming reductases, which is a group of natural product biosynthesis enzymes that resembles non-ribosomal peptide synthetases, yet serves to modify one substrate, rather than to condense two or more building blocks. Phylogenetically, these reductases fall in four classes. The phylogeny of Heterobasidion annosum (Russulales) and Serpula lacrymans (Boletales) adenylate-forming reductases was investigated...
July 22, 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Jiří Gabriel, Zdeněk Žižka, Karel Švec, Andrea Nasswettrová, Pavel Šmíra, Olga Kofroňová, Oldřich Benada
This work describes autofluorescence of the mycelium of the dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans grown on spruce wood blocks impregnated with various metals. Live mycelium, as opposed to dead mycelium, exhibited yellow autofluorescence upon blue excitation, blue fluorescence with ultraviolet (UV) excitation, orange-red and light-blue fluorescence with violet excitation, and red fluorescence with green excitation. Distinctive autofluorescence was observed in the fungal cell wall and in granula localized in the cytoplasm...
March 2016: Folia Microbiologica
Sundy Maurice, Inger Skrede, Gaetan LeFloch, Georges Barbier, Håvard Kauserud
In this study the genetic variation and population structure in a French population of the dry rot fungus S. lacrymans was investigated using 14 microsatellites markers and compared to the rest of Europe. In that comparison the French population possessed the same allelic diversity as rest of Europe. A weak geographic structuring of the genetic variation was observed across Europe, where the French isolates to some extent separated from the rest of Europe, indicating that weak barriers to gene flow exists. Eighty percent of the isolates had unique multilocus microsatellite genotypes, which corresponds to high recombination and dispersal by sexual spores...
September 2014: Mycologia
Sundy Maurice, Inger Skrede, Gaetan Lefloch, Georges Barbier, Havard Kauserud
In this study the genetic variation and population structure in a French population of the dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans was investigated using fourteen microsatellites markers, and compared to the rest of Europe. The French population possessed the same allelic diversity as rest of Europe. A weak geographic structuring of the genetic variation was observed across Europe, where the French isolates to some extent separated from the rest of Europe, indicating that weak barriers to gene flow exists. 80% of the isolates had unique multi-locus microsatellite genotypes, which is in correspondence with high levels of recombination and dispersal by sexual spores...
June 2, 2014: Mycologia
Anne Christine Steenkjær Hastrup, Bo Jensen, Jody Jellison
This study analyzes the accumulation and translocation of metal ions in wood during the degradation performed by one strain of each of the three brown rot fungi; Serpula lacrymans, Meruliporia incrassata and Coniophora puteana. These fungi species are inhabitants of the built environment where the prevention and understanding of fungal decay is of high priority. This study focuses on the influence of various building materials in relation to fungal growth and metal uptake. Changes in the concentration of iron, manganese, calcium and copper ions in the decayed wood were analyzed by induced coupled plasma spectroscopy and related to wood weight loss and oxalic acid accumulation...
August 2014: Archives of Microbiology
Khajamohiddin Syed, Karabo Shale, Nataraj Sekhar Pagadala, Jack Tuszynski
Genome sequencing of basidiomycetes, a group of fungi capable of degrading/mineralizing plant material, revealed the presence of numerous cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) in their genomes, with some exceptions. Considering the large repertoire of P450s found in fungi, it is difficult to identify P450s that play an important role in fungal metabolism and the adaptation of fungi to diverse ecological niches. In this study, we followed Sir Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection to identify such P450s in model basidiomycete fungi showing a preference for different types of plant components degradation...
2014: PloS One
Inger Skrede, Sundy Maurice, Håvard Kauserud
Different mating systems have evolved in the fungal kingdom, including a tetrapolar multiallelic mating system in many basidiomycetes. In tetrapolar species, the presence of different alleles at two mating loci (MAT A and MAT B) is necessary for mating to occur. The tetrapolar fungus Serpula lacrymans causes wood-decay in buildings in temperate regions worldwide and is present in Europe with a genetically homogeneous founder population. Using genome sequence data, we annotated the two mating type loci for S...
February 2013: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Premsagar Korripally, Vitaliy I Timokhin, Carl J Houtman, Michael D Mozuch, Kenneth E Hammel
Basidiomycetes that cause brown rot of wood are essential biomass recyclers in coniferous forest ecosystems and a major cause of failure in wooden structures. Recent work indicates that distinct lineages of brown rot fungi have arisen independently from ligninolytic white rot ancestors via loss of lignocellulolytic enzymes. Brown rot thus proceeds without significant lignin removal, apparently beginning instead with oxidative attack on wood polymers by Fenton reagent produced when fungal hydroquinones or catechols reduce Fe(3+) in colonized wood...
April 2013: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Jun Qian, Haibin Xu, Jingyuan Song, Jiang Xu, Yingjie Zhu, Shilin Chen
Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) or microsatellites are one of the most popular sources of genetic markers and play a significant role in gene function and genome organization. We identified SSRs in the genome of Ganoderma lucidum and analyzed their frequency and distribution in different genomic regions. We also compared the SSRs in G. lucidum with six other Agaricomycetes genomes: Coprinopsis cinerea, Laccaria bicolor, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Postia placenta, Schizophyllum commune and Serpula lacrymans...
January 10, 2013: Gene
S C Watkinson, D C Eastwood
Serpula lacrymans, the causative agent of dry rot timber decay in buildings, is a Basidiomycete fungus in the Boletales clade. It owes its destructiveness to a uniquely well-developed capacity to colonize by rapid mycelial spread from sites of initial spore infection, coupled with aggressive degradation of wood cellulose. Genomic methods have recently elucidated the evolution and enzymic repertoire of the fungus, suggesting that it has a distinctive mode of brown rot wood decay. Using novel methods to image nutrient translocation, its mycelium has been modeled as a highly responsive resource-supply network...
2012: Advances in Applied Microbiology
Juliet D Tang, Andy D Perkins, Tad S Sonstegard, Steven G Schroeder, Shane C Burgess, Susan V Diehl
The feasibility of short-read sequencing for genomic analysis was demonstrated for Fibroporia radiculosa, a copper-tolerant fungus that causes brown rot decay of wood. The effect of read quality on genomic assembly was assessed by filtering Illumina GAIIx reads from a single run of a paired-end library (75-nucleotide read length and 300-bp fragment size) at three different stringency levels and then assembling each data set with Velvet. A simple approach was devised to determine which filter stringency was "best...
April 2012: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
S Maurice, L Coroller, S Debaets, V Vasseur, G Le Floch, G Barbier
AIMS: To predict the risk factors for building infestation by Serpula lacrymans, which is one of the most destructive fungi causing timber decay in buildings. METHODS AND RESULTS: The growth rate was assessed on malt extract agar media at temperatures between 1.5 and 45°C, at water activity (a(w)) over the range of 0.800-0.993 and at pH ranges from 1.5 to 11.0. The radial growth rate (μ) and the lag phase (λ) were estimated from the radial growth kinetics via the plots radius vs time...
December 2011: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Inger Skrede, Ingeborg B Engh, Manfred Binder, Tor Carlsen, Håvard Kauserud, Mika Bendiksby
BACKGROUND: The fungal genus Serpula (Serpulaceae, Boletales) comprises several saprotrophic (brown rot) taxa, including the aggressive house-infecting dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans. Recent phylogenetic analyses have indicated that the ectomycorrhiza forming genera Austropaxillus and Gymnopaxillus cluster within Serpula. In this study we use DNA sequence data to investigate phylogenetic relationships, historical biogeography of, and nutritional mode transitions in Serpulaceae. RESULTS: Our results corroborate that the two ectomycorrhiza-forming genera, Austropaxillus and Gymnopaxillus, form a monophyletic group nested within the saprotrophic genus Serpula, and that the Serpula species S...
2011: BMC Evolutionary Biology
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