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Gerald N Presley, Bongani K Ndimba, Jonathan S Schilling
Sweet sorghum is a promising crop for a warming, drying African climate, and basic information is lacking on conversion pathways for its lignocellulosic residues (bagasse). Brown rot wood-decomposer fungi use carbohydrate-selective pathways that, when assessed on sorghum, a grass substrate, can yield information relevant to both plant biomass conversion and fungal biology. In testing sorghum decomposition by brown rot fungi ( Gloeophyllum trabeum , Serpula lacrymans ), we found that G. trabeum readily degraded sorghum, removing xylan prior to removing glucan...
2018: International Journal of Microbiology
Irnia Nurika, Daniel C Eastwood, Guy C Barker
Ergosterol, total phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and linoleic acid (18:2n-6) have all been used to determine fungal growth. This paper compares these methods to assess the growth of four different saprotrophic fungal species during solid state cultivation using a wheat straw substrate that have not been compared or measured previously. Ergosterol production appeared to track the mycelia growth well but its production differed considerably between fungi. This means that a specific conversion factor needs to be determined and applied for any given fungus...
May 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
S V Balasundaram, J Hess, M B Durling, S C Moody, L Thorbek, C Progida, K LaButti, A Aerts, K Barry, I V Grigoriev, L Boddy, N Högberg, H Kauserud, D C Eastwood, I Skrede
Many organisms benefit from being pre-adapted to niches shaped by human activity, and have successfully invaded man-made habitats. One such species is the dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans, which has a wide distribution in buildings in temperate and boreal regions, where it decomposes coniferous construction wood. Comparative genomic analyses and growth experiments using this species and its wild relatives revealed that S. lacrymans evolved a very effective brown rot decay compared to its wild relatives, enabling an extremely rapid decay in buildings under suitable conditions...
March 2018: ISME Journal
David E Williams, Niranjan W Gunasekara, Pamoda B Ratnaweera, Zehua Zheng, Samantha Ellis, Sarah Dada, Brian O Patrick, Ravi L C Wijesundera, Chandrika M Nanayakkara, Wilfred A Jefferies, E Dilip de Silva, Raymond J Andersen
Serpulanines A (1), B (2), and C (3) have been isolated from extracts of the rare Sri Lankan macrofungus Serpula sp. The structures of 1, 2, and 3 were elucidated by a combination of spectroscopic and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Serpulanines A (1) and B (2) both contain the rare (E)-2-hydroxyimino hydroxamic acid functional group array. A proposed biogenesis for serpulanine B (2) suggests that its (E)-2-hydroxyimino hydroxamic acid moiety arises from a diketopiperazine precursor. Synthetic serpulanine A (1) inhibited class I/II histone deacetylases in murine metastatic lung carcinoma cells with an IC50 of 7 μM...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
James P Tauber, Ramses Gallegos-Monterrosa, Ákos T Kovács, Ekaterina Shelest, Dirk Hoffmeister
Production of basidiomycete atromentin-derived pigments like variegatic acid (pulvinic acid-type) and involutin (diarylcyclopentenone) from the brown-rotter Serpula lacrymans and the ectomycorrhiza-forming Paxillus involutus, respectively, is induced by complex nutrition, and in the case of S. lacrymans, bacteria. Pigmentation in S. lacrymans was stimulated by 13 different bacteria and cell-wall-damaging enzymes (lytic enzymes and proteases), but not by lysozyme or mechanical damage. The use of protease inhibitors with Bacillus subtilis or heat-killed bacteria during co-culturing with S...
January 2018: Microbiology
Nikki Heherson A Dagamac, Carlos Rojas, Yuri K Novozhilov, Gabriel H Moreno, Rabea Schlueter, Martin Schnittler
Myxomycetes (plasmodial slime molds, Amoebozoa) are often perceived as widely distributed, confounding to the "everything is everywhere" hypothesis. To test if gene flow within these spore-dispersed protists is restricted by geographical barriers, we chose the widespread but morphologically unmistakable species Hemitrichia serpula for a phylogeographic study. Partial sequences from nuclear ribosomal RNA genes (SSU) revealed 40 ribotypes among 135 specimens, belonging to three major clades. Each clade is dominated by specimens from a certain region and by one of two morphological varieties which can be differentiated by SEM micrographs...
2017: PloS One
Grant Kirker, Sam Zelinka, Sophie-Charlotte Gleber, David Vine, Lydia Finney, Si Chen, Young Pyo Hong, Omar Uyarte, Stefan Vogt, Jody Jellison, Barry Goodell, Joseph E Jakes
The role of ions in the fungal decay process of lignocellulose biomaterials, and more broadly fungal metabolism, has implications for diverse research disciplines ranging from plant pathology and forest ecology, to carbon sequestration. Despite the importance of ions in fungal decay mechanisms, the spatial distribution and quantification of ions in lignocellulosic cell walls and fungal hyphae during decay is not known. Here we employ synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) to map and quantify physiologically relevant ions, such as K, Ca, Mn, Fe, and Zn, in wood being decayed by the model brown rot fungus Serpula lacrymans...
January 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
Gerald N Presley, Jonathan S Schilling
Brown rot fungi are wood-degrading fungi that employ both oxidative and hydrolytic mechanisms to degrade wood. Hydroxyl radicals that facilitate the oxidative component are powerful nonselective oxidants and are incompatible with hydrolytic enzymes unless they are spatially segregated in wood. Differential gene expression has been implicated in the segregation of these reactions in Postia placenta , but it is unclear if this two-step mechanism varies in other brown rot fungi with different traits and life history strategies that occupy different niches in nature...
April 1, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Yuan Zhu, James Mahaney, Jody Jellison, Jinzhen Cao, Julia Gressler, Dirk Hoffmeister, Barry Goodell
This study aims to clarify the role of variegatic acid (VA) in fungal attack by Serpula lacrymans, and also the generation and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the fungus. VA promotes a mediated Fenton reaction to generated ROS after oxalate solubilizes oxidized forms of iron. The fungal extracellular matrix (ECM) β-glucan scavenged ROS, and we propose this as a mechanism to protect the fungal hyphae while ROS generation is promoted to deconstruct the lignocellulose cell wall. A relatively high pH (4...
March 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
James P Tauber, Volker Schroeckh, Ekaterina Shelest, Axel A Brakhage, Dirk Hoffmeister
Basidiomycete fungi are characterized ecologically for their vital functional role in ecosystem carbon recycling and chemically for their capacity to produce a diverse array of small molecules. Chromophoric natural products derived from the quinone precursor atromentin, such as variegatic acid and involutin, have been shown to function in redox cycling. Yet, in the context of an inter-kingdom natural system these pigments are still elusive. Here, we co-cultured the model saprotrophic basidiomycete Serpula lacrymans with an ubiquitous terrestrial bacterium, either Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas putida, or Streptomyces iranensis...
December 2016: Environmental Microbiology
Eileen Brandenburger, Daniel Braga, Anja Kombrink, Gerald Lackner, Julia Gressler, Markus Künzler, Dirk Hoffmeister
Among the invaluable benefits of basidiomycete genomics is the dramatically enhanced insight into the potential capacity to biosynthesize natural products. This study focuses on adenylate-forming reductases, which is a group of natural product biosynthesis enzymes that resembles non-ribosomal peptide synthetases, yet serves to modify one substrate, rather than to condense two or more building blocks. Phylogenetically, these reductases fall in four classes. The phylogeny of Heterobasidion annosum (Russulales) and Serpula lacrymans (Boletales) adenylate-forming reductases was investigated...
March 2018: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Jiří Gabriel, Zdeněk Žižka, Karel Švec, Andrea Nasswettrová, Pavel Šmíra, Olga Kofroňová, Oldřich Benada
This work describes autofluorescence of the mycelium of the dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans grown on spruce wood blocks impregnated with various metals. Live mycelium, as opposed to dead mycelium, exhibited yellow autofluorescence upon blue excitation, blue fluorescence with ultraviolet (UV) excitation, orange-red and light-blue fluorescence with violet excitation, and red fluorescence with green excitation. Distinctive autofluorescence was observed in the fungal cell wall and in granula localized in the cytoplasm...
March 2016: Folia Microbiologica
Elena K Kupriyanova, Yanan Sun, Harry A Ten Hove, Eunice Wong, Greg W Rouse
Serpulidae are obligatory sedentary polychaetes inhabiting calcareous tubes that are most common in subtropical and tropical areas of the world. This paper describes serpulid polychaetes collected from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia in 1983-2013 and deposited in Australian museums and overseas. In total, 17 serpulid genera were recorded, but although the study deals with 44 nominal taxa, the exact number of species remains unclear because a number of genera (i.e., Salmacina, Protula, Serpula, Spirobranchus, and Vermiliopsis) need world-wide revisions...
2015: Zootaxa
Ouafae Akkouh, Tzi Bun Ng, Senjam Sunil Singh, Cuiming Yin, Xiuli Dan, Yau Sang Chan, Wenliang Pan, Randy Chi Fai Cheung
Lectins including flowering plant lectins, algal lectins, cyanobacterial lectins, actinomycete lectin, worm lectins, and the nonpeptidic lectin mimics pradimicins and benanomicins, exhibit anti-HIV activity. The anti-HIV plant lectins include Artocarpus heterophyllus (jacalin) lectin, concanavalin A, Galanthus nivalis (snowdrop) agglutinin-related lectins, Musa acuminata (banana) lectin, Myrianthus holstii lectin, Narcissus pseudonarcissus lectin, and Urtica diocia agglutinin. The anti-HIV algal lectins comprise Boodlea coacta lectin, Griffithsin, Oscillatoria agardhii agglutinin...
2015: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Sundy Maurice, Inger Skrede, Gaetan LeFloch, Georges Barbier, Håvard Kauserud
In this study the genetic variation and population structure in a French population of the dry rot fungus S. lacrymans was investigated using 14 microsatellites markers and compared to the rest of Europe. In that comparison the French population possessed the same allelic diversity as rest of Europe. A weak geographic structuring of the genetic variation was observed across Europe, where the French isolates to some extent separated from the rest of Europe, indicating that weak barriers to gene flow exists. Eighty percent of the isolates had unique multilocus microsatellite genotypes, which corresponds to high recombination and dispersal by sexual spores...
September 2014: Mycologia
Sundy Maurice, Inger Skrede, Gaetan Lefloch, Georges Barbier, Havard Kauserud
In this study the genetic variation and population structure in a French population of the dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans was investigated using fourteen microsatellites markers, and compared to the rest of Europe. The French population possessed the same allelic diversity as rest of Europe. A weak geographic structuring of the genetic variation was observed across Europe, where the French isolates to some extent separated from the rest of Europe, indicating that weak barriers to gene flow exists. 80% of the isolates had unique multi-locus microsatellite genotypes, which is in correspondence with high levels of recombination and dispersal by sexual spores...
June 2, 2014: Mycologia
Anne Christine Steenkjær Hastrup, Bo Jensen, Jody Jellison
This study analyzes the accumulation and translocation of metal ions in wood during the degradation performed by one strain of each of the three brown rot fungi; Serpula lacrymans, Meruliporia incrassata and Coniophora puteana. These fungi species are inhabitants of the built environment where the prevention and understanding of fungal decay is of high priority. This study focuses on the influence of various building materials in relation to fungal growth and metal uptake. Changes in the concentration of iron, manganese, calcium and copper ions in the decayed wood were analyzed by induced coupled plasma spectroscopy and related to wood weight loss and oxalic acid accumulation...
August 2014: Archives of Microbiology
Khajamohiddin Syed, Karabo Shale, Nataraj Sekhar Pagadala, Jack Tuszynski
Genome sequencing of basidiomycetes, a group of fungi capable of degrading/mineralizing plant material, revealed the presence of numerous cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) in their genomes, with some exceptions. Considering the large repertoire of P450s found in fungi, it is difficult to identify P450s that play an important role in fungal metabolism and the adaptation of fungi to diverse ecological niches. In this study, we followed Sir Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection to identify such P450s in model basidiomycete fungi showing a preference for different types of plant components degradation...
2014: PloS One
F Green, C A Clausen, T A Kuster, T L Highley
Extracellular polygalacturonase (PG) production was estimated in vitro, using liquid cultures of three species of brown-rot decay fungi (Postia placenta, Gloeophyllum trabeum and Serpula incrassata), by cup-plate assay, assay of reducing sugars, and decrease in viscosity. Although all three experimental assays demonstrated that PG was induced by pectin in all three fungi, decrease in viscosity gave the best correlation with decay capacity in soil block tests. PG activity, determined as an increase in reducing sugar activity, was greatest in G...
September 1995: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Kevin C Wakeman, Brian S Leander
Selenidium is a genus of gregarine parasites that infect the intestines of marine invertebrates and have morphological, ecological, and motility traits inferred to reflect the early evolutionary history of apicomplexans. Because the overall diversity and phylogenetic position(s) of these species remain poorly understood, we performed a species discovery survey of Selenidium from tube-forming polychaetes. This survey uncovered five different morphotypes of trophozoites (feeding stages) living within the intestines of three different polychaete hosts...
September 2013: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
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