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James P Tauber, Volker Schroeckh, Ekaterina Shelest, Axel A Brakhage, Dirk Hoffmeister
Basidiomycete fungi are characterized ecologically for their vital functional role in ecosystem carbon recycling and chemically for their capacity to produce a diverse array of small molecules. Chromophoric natural products derived from the quinone precursor atromentin, such as variegatic acid and involutin, have been shown to function in redox cycling. Yet, in the context of an inter-kingdom natural system these pigments are still elusive. Here, we co-cultured the model saprotrophic basidiomycete Serpula lacrymans with an ubiquitous terrestrial bacterium, either Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas putida, or Streptomyces iranensis...
October 4, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
Eileen Brandenburger, Daniel Braga, Anja Kombrink, Gerald Lackner, Julia Gressler, Markus Künzler, Dirk Hoffmeister
Among the invaluable benefits of basidiomycete genomics is the dramatically enhanced insight into the potential capacity to biosynthesize natural products. This study focuses on adenylate-forming reductases, which is a group of natural product biosynthesis enzymes that resembles non-ribosomal peptide synthetases, yet serves to modify one substrate, rather than to condense two or more building blocks. Phylogenetically, these reductases fall in four classes. The phylogeny of Heterobasidion annosum (Russulales) and Serpula lacrymans (Boletales) adenylate-forming reductases was investigated...
July 22, 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Jiří Gabriel, Zdeněk Žižka, Karel Švec, Andrea Nasswettrová, Pavel Šmíra, Olga Kofroňová, Oldřich Benada
This work describes autofluorescence of the mycelium of the dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans grown on spruce wood blocks impregnated with various metals. Live mycelium, as opposed to dead mycelium, exhibited yellow autofluorescence upon blue excitation, blue fluorescence with ultraviolet (UV) excitation, orange-red and light-blue fluorescence with violet excitation, and red fluorescence with green excitation. Distinctive autofluorescence was observed in the fungal cell wall and in granula localized in the cytoplasm...
March 2016: Folia Microbiologica
Elena K Kupriyanova, Yanan Sun, Harry A Ten Hove, Eunice Wong, Greg W Rouse
Serpulidae are obligatory sedentary polychaetes inhabiting calcareous tubes that are most common in subtropical and tropical areas of the world. This paper describes serpulid polychaetes collected from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia in 1983-2013 and deposited in Australian museums and overseas. In total, 17 serpulid genera were recorded, but although the study deals with 44 nominal taxa, the exact number of species remains unclear because a number of genera (i.e., Salmacina, Protula, Serpula, Spirobranchus, and Vermiliopsis) need world-wide revisions...
2015: Zootaxa
Ouafae Akkouh, Tzi Bun Ng, Senjam Sunil Singh, Cuiming Yin, Xiuli Dan, Yau Sang Chan, Wenliang Pan, Randy Chi Fai Cheung
Lectins including flowering plant lectins, algal lectins, cyanobacterial lectins, actinomycete lectin, worm lectins, and the nonpeptidic lectin mimics pradimicins and benanomicins, exhibit anti-HIV activity. The anti-HIV plant lectins include Artocarpus heterophyllus (jacalin) lectin, concanavalin A, Galanthus nivalis (snowdrop) agglutinin-related lectins, Musa acuminata (banana) lectin, Myrianthus holstii lectin, Narcissus pseudonarcissus lectin, and Urtica diocia agglutinin. The anti-HIV algal lectins comprise Boodlea coacta lectin, Griffithsin, Oscillatoria agardhii agglutinin...
2015: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Sundy Maurice, Inger Skrede, Gaetan LeFloch, Georges Barbier, Håvard Kauserud
In this study the genetic variation and population structure in a French population of the dry rot fungus S. lacrymans was investigated using 14 microsatellites markers and compared to the rest of Europe. In that comparison the French population possessed the same allelic diversity as rest of Europe. A weak geographic structuring of the genetic variation was observed across Europe, where the French isolates to some extent separated from the rest of Europe, indicating that weak barriers to gene flow exists. Eighty percent of the isolates had unique multilocus microsatellite genotypes, which corresponds to high recombination and dispersal by sexual spores...
September 2014: Mycologia
Sundy Maurice, Inger Skrede, Gaetan Lefloch, Georges Barbier, Havard Kauserud
In this study the genetic variation and population structure in a French population of the dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans was investigated using fourteen microsatellites markers, and compared to the rest of Europe. The French population possessed the same allelic diversity as rest of Europe. A weak geographic structuring of the genetic variation was observed across Europe, where the French isolates to some extent separated from the rest of Europe, indicating that weak barriers to gene flow exists. 80% of the isolates had unique multi-locus microsatellite genotypes, which is in correspondence with high levels of recombination and dispersal by sexual spores...
June 2, 2014: Mycologia
Anne Christine Steenkjær Hastrup, Bo Jensen, Jody Jellison
This study analyzes the accumulation and translocation of metal ions in wood during the degradation performed by one strain of each of the three brown rot fungi; Serpula lacrymans, Meruliporia incrassata and Coniophora puteana. These fungi species are inhabitants of the built environment where the prevention and understanding of fungal decay is of high priority. This study focuses on the influence of various building materials in relation to fungal growth and metal uptake. Changes in the concentration of iron, manganese, calcium and copper ions in the decayed wood were analyzed by induced coupled plasma spectroscopy and related to wood weight loss and oxalic acid accumulation...
August 2014: Archives of Microbiology
Khajamohiddin Syed, Karabo Shale, Nataraj Sekhar Pagadala, Jack Tuszynski
Genome sequencing of basidiomycetes, a group of fungi capable of degrading/mineralizing plant material, revealed the presence of numerous cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) in their genomes, with some exceptions. Considering the large repertoire of P450s found in fungi, it is difficult to identify P450s that play an important role in fungal metabolism and the adaptation of fungi to diverse ecological niches. In this study, we followed Sir Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection to identify such P450s in model basidiomycete fungi showing a preference for different types of plant components degradation...
2014: PloS One
F Green, C A Clausen, T A Kuster, T L Highley
Extracellular polygalacturonase (PG) production was estimated in vitro, using liquid cultures of three species of brown-rot decay fungi (Postia placenta, Gloeophyllum trabeum and Serpula incrassata), by cup-plate assay, assay of reducing sugars, and decrease in viscosity. Although all three experimental assays demonstrated that PG was induced by pectin in all three fungi, decrease in viscosity gave the best correlation with decay capacity in soil block tests. PG activity, determined as an increase in reducing sugar activity, was greatest in G...
September 1995: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Kevin C Wakeman, Brian S Leander
Selenidium is a genus of gregarine parasites that infect the intestines of marine invertebrates and have morphological, ecological, and motility traits inferred to reflect the early evolutionary history of apicomplexans. Because the overall diversity and phylogenetic position(s) of these species remain poorly understood, we performed a species discovery survey of Selenidium from tube-forming polychaetes. This survey uncovered five different morphotypes of trophozoites (feeding stages) living within the intestines of three different polychaete hosts...
September 2013: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Zhan Wei, Xinjin Liang, Helen Pendlowski, Stephen Hillier, Kallaya Suntornvongsagul, Prakitsin Sihanonth, Geoffrey Michael Gadd
In this work, several fungi with geoactive properties, including Aspergillus niger, Beauveria caledonica and Serpula himantioides, were used to investigate their potential bioweathering effects on zinc silicate and zinc sulfide ores used in zinc extraction and smelting, to gain understanding of the roles that fungi may play in transformations of such minerals in the soil, and effects on metal mobility. Despite the recalcitrance of these minerals, new biominerals resulted from fungal interactions with both the silicate and the sulfide, largely resulting from organic acid excretion...
August 2013: Environmental Microbiology
Inger Skrede, Sundy Maurice, Håvard Kauserud
Different mating systems have evolved in the fungal kingdom, including a tetrapolar multiallelic mating system in many basidiomycetes. In tetrapolar species, the presence of different alleles at two mating loci (MAT A and MAT B) is necessary for mating to occur. The tetrapolar fungus Serpula lacrymans causes wood-decay in buildings in temperate regions worldwide and is present in Europe with a genetically homogeneous founder population. Using genome sequence data, we annotated the two mating type loci for S...
February 2013: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Premsagar Korripally, Vitaliy I Timokhin, Carl J Houtman, Michael D Mozuch, Kenneth E Hammel
Basidiomycetes that cause brown rot of wood are essential biomass recyclers in coniferous forest ecosystems and a major cause of failure in wooden structures. Recent work indicates that distinct lineages of brown rot fungi have arisen independently from ligninolytic white rot ancestors via loss of lignocellulolytic enzymes. Brown rot thus proceeds without significant lignin removal, apparently beginning instead with oxidative attack on wood polymers by Fenton reagent produced when fungal hydroquinones or catechols reduce Fe(3+) in colonized wood...
April 2013: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Flavia Pinzari, James Tate, Marina Bicchieri, Young Joon Rhee, Geoffrey Michael Gadd
Fungal biodeterioration of ivory was investigated with in vitro inoculation of samples obtained from boar and walrus tusks with the fungi Aspergillus niger and Serpula himantioides, species of known geoactive abilities. A combination of light and scanning electron microscopy together with associated analytical techniques was used to characterize fungal interactions with the ivory, including changes in ivory composition, dissolution and tunnelling, and the formation of new biominerals. The research was aimed at providing further understanding of the potential roles of fungi in the colonization and deterioration of ivory in terrestrial environments, but also contributes to our knowledge regarding the possible origins of the surface damage observed on early medieval sculptures made largely from walrus tusks, referred to as 'the Lewis hoard of gaming pieces', that were presumably produced for playing chess...
April 2013: Environmental Microbiology
Jun Qian, Haibin Xu, Jingyuan Song, Jiang Xu, Yingjie Zhu, Shilin Chen
Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) or microsatellites are one of the most popular sources of genetic markers and play a significant role in gene function and genome organization. We identified SSRs in the genome of Ganoderma lucidum and analyzed their frequency and distribution in different genomic regions. We also compared the SSRs in G. lucidum with six other Agaricomycetes genomes: Coprinopsis cinerea, Laccaria bicolor, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Postia placenta, Schizophyllum commune and Serpula lacrymans...
January 10, 2013: Gene
Rolando Bastida-Zavala
Six species of Serpula and Spiraserpula were identified, mainly, from the material of the expeditions of the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, including two new species of Serpula. Serpula madrigalaesp. n. from the Turks and Caicos has a tube with five longitudinal ridges, four rows of alveoli and a medium-sized shallow symmetrical opercular funnel with 17 radii, and an inner surface with opercular tubercles. Serpula vossaesp. n. from the Western Caribbean and Bahamas has a tube with 6-8 longitudinal ridges, and a large, deep symmetrical opercular funnel, with 21-33 radii, and a smooth inner surface...
2012: ZooKeys
Zhan Wei, Stephen Hillier, Geoffrey M Gadd
The ability of the soil fungi Aspergillus niger and Serpula himantioides to tolerate and solubilize manganese oxides, including a fungal-produced manganese oxide and birnessite, was investigated. Aspergillus niger and S. himantioides were capable of solubilizing all the insoluble oxides when incorporated into solid medium: MnO(2) and Mn(2) O(3) , mycogenic manganese oxide (MnO(x) ) and birnessite [(Na(0.3) Ca(0.1) K(0.1) )(Mn(4+) ,Mn(3+) )(2) O(4) ·1.5H(2) O]. Manganese oxides were of low toxicity and A...
July 2012: Environmental Microbiology
S C Watkinson, D C Eastwood
Serpula lacrymans, the causative agent of dry rot timber decay in buildings, is a Basidiomycete fungus in the Boletales clade. It owes its destructiveness to a uniquely well-developed capacity to colonize by rapid mycelial spread from sites of initial spore infection, coupled with aggressive degradation of wood cellulose. Genomic methods have recently elucidated the evolution and enzymic repertoire of the fungus, suggesting that it has a distinctive mode of brown rot wood decay. Using novel methods to image nutrient translocation, its mycelium has been modeled as a highly responsive resource-supply network...
2012: Advances in Applied Microbiology
Juliet D Tang, Andy D Perkins, Tad S Sonstegard, Steven G Schroeder, Shane C Burgess, Susan V Diehl
The feasibility of short-read sequencing for genomic analysis was demonstrated for Fibroporia radiculosa, a copper-tolerant fungus that causes brown rot decay of wood. The effect of read quality on genomic assembly was assessed by filtering Illumina GAIIx reads from a single run of a paired-end library (75-nucleotide read length and 300-bp fragment size) at three different stringency levels and then assembling each data set with Velvet. A simple approach was devised to determine which filter stringency was "best...
April 2012: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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