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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414791/speciation-in-progress-a-phylogeographic-study-among-populations-of-hemitrichia-serpula-myxomycetes
#1
Nikki Heherson A Dagamac, Carlos Rojas, Yuri K Novozhilov, Gabriel H Moreno, Rabea Schlueter, Martin Schnittler
Myxomycetes (plasmodial slime molds, Amoebozoa) are often perceived as widely distributed, confounding to the "everything is everywhere" hypothesis. To test if gene flow within these spore-dispersed protists is restricted by geographical barriers, we chose the widespread but morphologically unmistakable species Hemitrichia serpula for a phylogeographic study. Partial sequences from nuclear ribosomal RNA genes (SSU) revealed 40 ribotypes among 135 specimens, belonging to three major clades. Each clade is dominated by specimens from a certain region and by one of two morphological varieties which can be differentiated by SEM micrographs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139778/synchrotron-based-x-ray-fluorescence-microscopy-enables-multiscale-spatial-visualization-of-ions-involved-in-fungal-lignocellulose-deconstruction
#2
Grant Kirker, Sam Zelinka, Sophie-Charlotte Gleber, David Vine, Lydia Finney, Si Chen, Young Pyo Hong, Omar Uyarte, Stefan Vogt, Jody Jellison, Barry Goodell, Joseph E Jakes
The role of ions in the fungal decay process of lignocellulose biomaterials, and more broadly fungal metabolism, has implications for diverse research disciplines ranging from plant pathology and forest ecology, to carbon sequestration. Despite the importance of ions in fungal decay mechanisms, the spatial distribution and quantification of ions in lignocellulosic cell walls and fungal hyphae during decay is not known. Here we employ synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) to map and quantify physiologically relevant ions, such as K, Ca, Mn, Fe, and Zn, in wood being decayed by the model brown rot fungus Serpula lacrymans...
January 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130302/distinct-growth-and-secretome-strategies-for-two-taxonomically-divergent-brown-rot-fungi
#3
Gerald N Presley, Jonathan S Schilling
Brown rot fungi are wood-degrading fungi that employ both oxidative and hydrolytic mechanisms to degrade wood. Hydroxyl radicals that facilitate the oxidative component are powerful nonselective oxidants and are incompatible with hydrolytic enzymes unless they are spatially segregated in wood. Differential gene expression has been implicated in the segregation of these reactions in Postia placenta, but it is unclear if this two-step mechanism varies in other brown rot fungi with different traits and life history strategies that occupy different niches in nature...
April 1, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032229/fungal-variegatic-acid-and-extracellular-polysaccharides-promote-the-site-specific-generation-of-reactive-oxygen-species
#4
Yuan Zhu, James Mahaney, Jody Jellison, Jinzhen Cao, Julia Gressler, Dirk Hoffmeister, Barry Goodell
This study aims to clarify the role of variegatic acid (VA) in fungal attack by Serpula lacrymans, and also the generation and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the fungus. VA promotes a mediated Fenton reaction to generated ROS after oxalate solubilizes oxidized forms of iron. The fungal extracellular matrix (ECM) β-glucan scavenged ROS, and we propose this as a mechanism to protect the fungal hyphae while ROS generation is promoted to deconstruct the lignocellulose cell wall. A relatively high pH (4...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699944/bacteria-induce-pigment-formation-in-the-basidiomycete-serpula-lacrymans
#5
James P Tauber, Volker Schroeckh, Ekaterina Shelest, Axel A Brakhage, Dirk Hoffmeister
Basidiomycete fungi are characterized ecologically for their vital functional role in ecosystem carbon recycling and chemically for their capacity to produce a diverse array of small molecules. Chromophoric natural products derived from the quinone precursor atromentin, such as variegatic acid and involutin, have been shown to function in redox cycling. Yet, in the context of an inter-kingdom natural system these pigments are still elusive. Here, we co-cultured the model saprotrophic basidiomycete Serpula lacrymans with an ubiquitous terrestrial bacterium, either Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas putida, or Streptomyces iranensis...
December 2016: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27457378/multi-genome-analysis-identifies-functional-and-phylogenetic-diversity-of-basidiomycete-adenylate-forming-reductases
#6
Eileen Brandenburger, Daniel Braga, Anja Kombrink, Gerald Lackner, Julia Gressler, Markus Künzler, Dirk Hoffmeister
Among the invaluable benefits of basidiomycete genomics is the dramatically enhanced insight into the potential capacity to biosynthesize natural products. This study focuses on adenylate-forming reductases, which is a group of natural product biosynthesis enzymes that resembles non-ribosomal peptide synthetases, yet serves to modify one substrate, rather than to condense two or more building blocks. Phylogenetically, these reductases fall in four classes. The phylogeny of Heterobasidion annosum (Russulales) and Serpula lacrymans (Boletales) adenylate-forming reductases was investigated...
July 22, 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26873389/effect-of-metal-ions-on-autofluorescence-of-the-dry-rot-fungus-serpula-lacrymans-grown-on-spruce-wood
#7
Jiří Gabriel, Zdeněk Žižka, Karel Švec, Andrea Nasswettrová, Pavel Šmíra, Olga Kofroňová, Oldřich Benada
This work describes autofluorescence of the mycelium of the dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans grown on spruce wood blocks impregnated with various metals. Live mycelium, as opposed to dead mycelium, exhibited yellow autofluorescence upon blue excitation, blue fluorescence with ultraviolet (UV) excitation, orange-red and light-blue fluorescence with violet excitation, and red fluorescence with green excitation. Distinctive autofluorescence was observed in the fungal cell wall and in granula localized in the cytoplasm...
March 2016: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26624073/serpulidae-annelida-of-lizard-island-great-barrier-reef-australia
#8
Elena K Kupriyanova, Yanan Sun, Harry A Ten Hove, Eunice Wong, Greg W Rouse
Serpulidae are obligatory sedentary polychaetes inhabiting calcareous tubes that are most common in subtropical and tropical areas of the world. This paper describes serpulid polychaetes collected from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia in 1983-2013 and deposited in Australian museums and overseas. In total, 17 serpulid genera were recorded, but although the study deals with 44 nominal taxa, the exact number of species remains unclear because a number of genera (i.e., Salmacina, Protula, Serpula, Spirobranchus, and Vermiliopsis) need world-wide revisions...
2015: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25569520/lectins-with-anti-hiv-activity-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Ouafae Akkouh, Tzi Bun Ng, Senjam Sunil Singh, Cuiming Yin, Xiuli Dan, Yau Sang Chan, Wenliang Pan, Randy Chi Fai Cheung
Lectins including flowering plant lectins, algal lectins, cyanobacterial lectins, actinomycete lectin, worm lectins, and the nonpeptidic lectin mimics pradimicins and benanomicins, exhibit anti-HIV activity. The anti-HIV plant lectins include Artocarpus heterophyllus (jacalin) lectin, concanavalin A, Galanthus nivalis (snowdrop) agglutinin-related lectins, Musa acuminata (banana) lectin, Myrianthus holstii lectin, Narcissus pseudonarcissus lectin, and Urtica diocia agglutinin. The anti-HIV algal lectins comprise Boodlea coacta lectin, Griffithsin, Oscillatoria agardhii agglutinin...
2015: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25239607/population-structure-of-serpula-lacrymans-in-europe-with-an-outlook-to-the-french-population
#10
Sundy Maurice, Inger Skrede, Gaetan LeFloch, Georges Barbier, Håvard Kauserud
In this study the genetic variation and population structure in a French population of the dry rot fungus S. lacrymans was investigated using 14 microsatellites markers and compared to the rest of Europe. In that comparison the French population possessed the same allelic diversity as rest of Europe. A weak geographic structuring of the genetic variation was observed across Europe, where the French isolates to some extent separated from the rest of Europe, indicating that weak barriers to gene flow exists. Eighty percent of the isolates had unique multilocus microsatellite genotypes, which corresponds to high recombination and dispersal by sexual spores...
September 2014: Mycologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24891415/population-structure-of-serpula-lacrymans-in-europe-with-an-outlook-to-the-french-population
#11
Sundy Maurice, Inger Skrede, Gaetan Lefloch, Georges Barbier, Havard Kauserud
In this study the genetic variation and population structure in a French population of the dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans was investigated using fourteen microsatellites markers, and compared to the rest of Europe. The French population possessed the same allelic diversity as rest of Europe. A weak geographic structuring of the genetic variation was observed across Europe, where the French isolates to some extent separated from the rest of Europe, indicating that weak barriers to gene flow exists. 80% of the isolates had unique multi-locus microsatellite genotypes, which is in correspondence with high levels of recombination and dispersal by sexual spores...
June 2, 2014: Mycologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24859913/fungal-accumulation-of-metals-from-building-materials-during-brown-rot-wood-decay
#12
Anne Christine Steenkjær Hastrup, Bo Jensen, Jody Jellison
This study analyzes the accumulation and translocation of metal ions in wood during the degradation performed by one strain of each of the three brown rot fungi; Serpula lacrymans, Meruliporia incrassata and Coniophora puteana. These fungi species are inhabitants of the built environment where the prevention and understanding of fungal decay is of high priority. This study focuses on the influence of various building materials in relation to fungal growth and metal uptake. Changes in the concentration of iron, manganese, calcium and copper ions in the decayed wood were analyzed by induced coupled plasma spectroscopy and related to wood weight loss and oxalic acid accumulation...
August 2014: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24466198/systematic-identification-and-evolutionary-analysis-of-catalytically-versatile-cytochrome-p450-monooxygenase-families-enriched-in-model-basidiomycete-fungi
#13
Khajamohiddin Syed, Karabo Shale, Nataraj Sekhar Pagadala, Jack Tuszynski
Genome sequencing of basidiomycetes, a group of fungi capable of degrading/mineralizing plant material, revealed the presence of numerous cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) in their genomes, with some exceptions. Considering the large repertoire of P450s found in fungi, it is difficult to identify P450s that play an important role in fungal metabolism and the adaptation of fungi to diverse ecological niches. In this study, we followed Sir Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection to identify such P450s in model basidiomycete fungi showing a preference for different types of plant components degradation...
2014: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24414906/induction-of-polygalacturonase-and-the-formation-of-oxalic-acid-by-pectin-in-brown-rot-fungi
#14
F Green, C A Clausen, T A Kuster, T L Highley
Extracellular polygalacturonase (PG) production was estimated in vitro, using liquid cultures of three species of brown-rot decay fungi (Postia placenta, Gloeophyllum trabeum and Serpula incrassata), by cup-plate assay, assay of reducing sugars, and decrease in viscosity. Although all three experimental assays demonstrated that PG was induced by pectin in all three fungi, decrease in viscosity gave the best correlation with decay capacity in soil block tests. PG activity, determined as an increase in reducing sugar activity, was greatest in G...
September 1995: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23879624/molecular-phylogeny-of-marine-gregarine-parasites-apicomplexa-from-tube-forming-polychaetes-sabellariidae-cirratulidae-and-serpulidae-including-descriptions-of-two-new-species-of-selenidium
#15
Kevin C Wakeman, Brian S Leander
Selenidium is a genus of gregarine parasites that infect the intestines of marine invertebrates and have morphological, ecological, and motility traits inferred to reflect the early evolutionary history of apicomplexans. Because the overall diversity and phylogenetic position(s) of these species remain poorly understood, we performed a species discovery survey of Selenidium from tube-forming polychaetes. This survey uncovered five different morphotypes of trophozoites (feeding stages) living within the intestines of three different polychaete hosts...
September 2013: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23419112/fungal-biotransformation-of-zinc-silicate-and-sulfide-mineral-ores
#16
Zhan Wei, Xinjin Liang, Helen Pendlowski, Stephen Hillier, Kallaya Suntornvongsagul, Prakitsin Sihanonth, Geoffrey Michael Gadd
In this work, several fungi with geoactive properties, including Aspergillus niger, Beauveria caledonica and Serpula himantioides, were used to investigate their potential bioweathering effects on zinc silicate and zinc sulfide ores used in zinc extraction and smelting, to gain understanding of the roles that fungi may play in transformations of such minerals in the soil, and effects on metal mobility. Despite the recalcitrance of these minerals, new biominerals resulted from fungal interactions with both the silicate and the sulfide, largely resulting from organic acid excretion...
August 2013: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23390592/molecular-characterization-of-sexual-diversity-in-a-population-of-serpula-lacrymans-a-tetrapolar-basidiomycete
#17
Inger Skrede, Sundy Maurice, Håvard Kauserud
Different mating systems have evolved in the fungal kingdom, including a tetrapolar multiallelic mating system in many basidiomycetes. In tetrapolar species, the presence of different alleles at two mating loci (MAT A and MAT B) is necessary for mating to occur. The tetrapolar fungus Serpula lacrymans causes wood-decay in buildings in temperate regions worldwide and is present in Europe with a genetically homogeneous founder population. Using genome sequence data, we annotated the two mating type loci for S...
February 2013: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23377930/evidence-from-serpula-lacrymans-that-2-5-dimethoxyhydroquinone-is-a-lignocellulolytic-agent-of-divergent-brown-rot-basidiomycetes
#18
Premsagar Korripally, Vitaliy I Timokhin, Carl J Houtman, Michael D Mozuch, Kenneth E Hammel
Basidiomycetes that cause brown rot of wood are essential biomass recyclers in coniferous forest ecosystems and a major cause of failure in wooden structures. Recent work indicates that distinct lineages of brown rot fungi have arisen independently from ligninolytic white rot ancestors via loss of lignocellulolytic enzymes. Brown rot thus proceeds without significant lignin removal, apparently beginning instead with oxidative attack on wood polymers by Fenton reagent produced when fungal hydroquinones or catechols reduce Fe(3+) in colonized wood...
April 2013: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23157656/biodegradation-of-ivory-natural-apatite-possible-involvement-of-fungal-activity-in-biodeterioration-of-the-lewis-chessmen
#19
Flavia Pinzari, James Tate, Marina Bicchieri, Young Joon Rhee, Geoffrey Michael Gadd
Fungal biodeterioration of ivory was investigated with in vitro inoculation of samples obtained from boar and walrus tusks with the fungi Aspergillus niger and Serpula himantioides, species of known geoactive abilities. A combination of light and scanning electron microscopy together with associated analytical techniques was used to characterize fungal interactions with the ivory, including changes in ivory composition, dissolution and tunnelling, and the formation of new biominerals. The research was aimed at providing further understanding of the potential roles of fungi in the colonization and deterioration of ivory in terrestrial environments, but also contributes to our knowledge regarding the possible origins of the surface damage observed on early medieval sculptures made largely from walrus tusks, referred to as 'the Lewis hoard of gaming pieces', that were presumably produced for playing chess...
April 2013: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23069850/genome-wide-analysis-of-simple-sequence-repeats-in-the-model-medicinal-mushroom-ganoderma-lucidum
#20
Jun Qian, Haibin Xu, Jingyuan Song, Jiang Xu, Yingjie Zhu, Shilin Chen
Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) or microsatellites are one of the most popular sources of genetic markers and play a significant role in gene function and genome organization. We identified SSRs in the genome of Ganoderma lucidum and analyzed their frequency and distribution in different genomic regions. We also compared the SSRs in G. lucidum with six other Agaricomycetes genomes: Coprinopsis cinerea, Laccaria bicolor, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Postia placenta, Schizophyllum commune and Serpula lacrymans...
January 10, 2013: Gene
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