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Peter J Carr, Niall S Higgins, Marie L Cooke, Gabor Mihala, Claire M Rickard
BACKGROUND: Most people admitted to hospitals worldwide require a vascular access device (VAD). Hundreds of millions of VADs are inserted annually in the USA with reports of over a billion peripheral intravenous catheters used annually worldwide. Numerous reports suggest that a team approach for the assessment, insertion, and maintenance of VADs improves clinical outcomes, the patient experience, and healthcare processes. OBJECTIVES: To compare the use of the vascular access specialist team (VAST) for VAD insertion and care to a generalist model approach for hospital or community participants requiring a VAD in terms of insertion success, device failure, and cost-effectiveness...
March 20, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Amber Hilliard, Dara Leong, Amy O'Callaghan, Eamonn P Culligan, Ciara A Morgan, Niall DeLappe, Colin Hill, Kieran Jordan, Martin Cormican, Cormac G M Gahan
Listeria monocytogenes is a major human foodborne pathogen that is prevalent in the natural environment and has a high case fatality rate. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) analysis has emerged as a valuable methodology for the classification of L. monocytogenes isolates and the identification of virulence islands that may influence infectivity. In this study, WGS was used to provide an insight into 25 L. monocytogenes isolates from cases of clinical infection in Ireland between 2013 and 2015. Clinical strains were either lineage I (14 isolates) or lineage II (11 isolates), with 12 clonal complexes (CC) represented, of which CC1 (6) and CC101 (4) were the most common...
March 20, 2018: Genes
Imran Ahmed, Niall Safir Ahmad, Shahnaz Ali, Shair Ali, Anju George, Hiba Saleem Danish, Encarl Uppal, James Soo, Mohammad H Mobasheri, Dominic King, Benita Cox, Ara Darzi
BACKGROUND: Medication adherence is an expensive and damaging problem for patients and health care providers. Patients adhere to only 50% of drugs prescribed for chronic diseases in developed nations. Digital health has paved the way for innovative smartphone solutions to tackle this challenge. However, despite numerous apps available claiming to improve adherence, a thorough review of adherence apps has not been carried out to date. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to (1) review medication adherence apps available in app repositories in terms of their evidence base, medical professional involvement in development, and strategies used to facilitate behavior change and improve adherence and (2) provide a system of classification for these apps...
March 16, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Christian J Burnham, Zdenek Futera, Niall J English
The force-matching method has been applied to parameterise an empirical potential model for water-water and water-hydrogen intermolecular interactions for use in clathrate-hydrate simulations containing hydrogen guest molecules. The underlying reference simulations constituted ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) of clathrate hydrates with various occupations of hydrogen-molecule guests. It is shown that the resultant model is able to reproduce AIMD-derived free-energy curves for the movement of a tagged hydrogen molecule between the water cages that make up the clathrate, thus giving us confidence in the model...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Patrick A Ott, Zhuting Hu, Derin B Keskin, Sachet A Shukla, Jing Sun, David J Bozym, Wandi Zhang, Adrienne Luoma, Anita Giobbie-Hurder, Lauren Peter, Christina Chen, Oriol Olive, Todd A Carter, Shuqiang Li, David J Lieb, Thomas Eisenhaure, Evisa Gjini, Jonathan Stevens, William J Lane, Indu Javeri, Kaliappanadar Nellaiappan, Andres M Salazar, Heather Daley, Michael Seaman, Elizabeth I Buchbinder, Charles H Yoon, Maegan Harden, Niall Lennon, Stacey Gabriel, Scott J Rodig, Dan H Barouch, Jon C Aster, Gad Getz, Kai Wucherpfennig, Donna Neuberg, Jerome Ritz, Eric S Lander, Edward F Fritsch, Nir Hacohen, Catherine J Wu
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/nature22991.
March 14, 2018: Nature
Martin Urner, Niall D Ferguson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Darryl Abrams, Eddy Fan, Niall D Ferguson, Daniel Brodie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Elham Karami Keshmarzi, R Niall Tait, Pierre Berini
Single-mode surface plasmon distributed feedback (DFB) lasers are realized in the near infrared using a two-dimensional non-uniform long-range surface plasmon polariton structure. The surface plasmon mode is excited onto a 20 nm-thick, 1 μm-wide metal stripe (Ag or Au) on a silica substrate, where the stripe is stepped in width periodically, forming a 1st order Bragg grating. Optical gain is provided by optically pumping a 450 nm-thick IR-140 doped PMMA layer as the top cladding, which covers the entire length of the Bragg grating, thus creating a DFB laser...
March 14, 2018: Nanoscale
Pengmin Qin, Niall W Duncan, David Yen-Ting Chen, Chi-Jen Chen, Li-Kai Huang, Zirui Huang, Chien-Yuan E Lin, Christine Wiebking, Che-Ming Yang, Georg Northoff, Timothy Lane
Neural activity varies continually from moment to moment. Such temporal variability (TV) has been highlighted as a functionally specific brain property playing a fundamental role in cognition. We sought to investigate the mechanisms involved in TV changes between two basic behavioural states, namely having the eyes open (EO) or eyes closed (EC) in vivo in humans. To these ends we acquired BOLD fMRI, ASL, and [18 F]-fluoro-deoxyglucose PET in a group of healthy participants (n = 15), along with BOLD fMRI and [18 F]-flumazenil PET in a separate group (n = 19)...
March 9, 2018: Neuroscience
Iglika G Ivanova, Catherine V Park, Adrian I Yemm, Niall S Kenneth
HIF1α (hypoxia inducible factor 1α) is the central regulator of the cellular response to low oxygen and its activity is deregulated in multiple human pathologies. Consequently, given the importance of HIF signaling in disease, there is considerable interest in developing strategies to modulate HIF1α activity and down-stream signaling events. In the present study we find that under hypoxic conditions, activation of the PERK branch of the unfolded protein response (UPR) can suppress the levels and activity of HIF1α by preventing efficient HIF1α translation...
February 26, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
David K Lau, Rebecca Y Tay, Yvonne H Yeung, Fiona Chionh, Jennifer Mooi, Carmel Murone, Effie Skrinos, Timothy J Price, John M Mariadason, Niall C Tebbutt
BACKGROUND: Advanced biliary tract cancers (BTCs) have a poor prognosis and limited treatment options. This exploratory phase II study aimed to evaluate the activity of the mTOR inhibitor everolimus in advanced BTC and explore prognostic biomarkers. METHODS: Patients with advanced BTCs, who had not received chemotherapy for advanced disease, were enroled to receive everolimus (10 mg daily). The primary endpoint was disease control rate (DCR) at 12 weeks. Secondary endpoints included overall response rate, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and adverse events...
March 12, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
Emma McCrory, Niall Jp McGuinness, Aman Ulhaq
OBJECTIVE: To determine the reproducibility of Index of Orthognathic Functional Treatment Need (IOFTN) scores derived from plaster casts and their three-dimensional (3D) digital equivalents. DESIGN: Pilot study, prospective analytical. SETTING: UK hospital orthodontic department. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty casts and their digital equivalents, representing the pre-treatment malocclusions of patients requiring orthodontic-orthognathic surgical treatment, were scored by four clinicians using IOFTN...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Orthodontics
Prithwish K Nandi, Christian J Burnham, Niall J English
Elucidating water-to-ice freezing, especially in "No Man's Land" (150 K < T < 235 K), is fundamentally important (e.g., predicting upper-troposphere cirrus-cloud formation) - and elusive. An oft-neglected aspect of tropospheric ice-crystallite formation lies in inevitably-present electric fields' role. Exploring nucleation in No Man's Land is technically demanding, owing to rapid nucleation rates, to mention nothing of difficulties of applying relevant electric fields thereto. Here, we tackle these intriguing open questions, via non-equilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations of sub-microsecond formation of rhombus-shaped ice Ic nano-crystallites from aggressively-quenched supercooled water nano-droplets in the gas phase, in external static electric fields...
March 7, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Tomas Barry, Mary Headon, Ronan Glynn, Niall Conroy, Helen Tobin, Mairead Egan, Gerard Bury
AIM: The aim of this study is to establish the role and outcome of general practitioner (GP) involvement in out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) resuscitation in the Republic of Ireland. METHODS: A ten year prospective observational study involving a cohort of Irish general practices. SETTING: 521 general practice settings distributed throughout the Republic of Ireland, representing approximately one quarter of all practices and a third of Irish GPs...
March 3, 2018: Resuscitation
Niall Scott
This article looks at what anarchism has to offer in debates concerning health and healthcare. I present the case that anarchism's interest in supporting the poor, sick, and marginalized, and rejection of state and corporate power, places it in a good position to offer creative ways to address health problems. I maintain that anarchistic values of autonomy, responsibility, solidarity, and community are central to this endeavor. Rather than presenting a case that follows one particular anarchist theory, my main goal is to raise issues and initiate debate in this underresearched field in mainstream bioethics...
April 2018: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
Steve Harris, Sinan Shi, David Brealey, Niall S MacCallum, Spiros Denaxas, David Perez-Suarez, Ari Ercole, Peter Watkinson, Andrew Jones, Simon Ashworth, Richard Beale, Duncan Young, Stephen Brett, Mervyn Singer
OBJECTIVE: To build and curate a linkable multi-centre database of high resolution longitudinal electronic health records (EHR) from adult Intensive Care Units (ICU). To develop a set of open-source tools to make these data 'research ready' while protecting patient's privacy with a particular focus on anonymisation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We developed a scalable EHR processing pipeline for extracting, linking, normalising and curating and anonymising EHR data. Patient and public involvement was sought from the outset, and approval to hold these data was granted by the NHS Health Research Authority's Confidentiality Advisory Group (CAG)...
April 2018: International Journal of Medical Informatics
Niall A M Klyn, Samantha Kleindienst Robler, Razan Alfakir, Donald W Nielsen, James W Griffith, Deborah L Carlson, Larry Lundy, Sumitrajit Dhar, David A Zapala
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the specificity and sensitivity of two red flag protocols in detecting ear diseases associated with changes in hearing. DESIGN: The presence of red-flag symptoms was determined in a chart review of 307 adult patients from the Mayo Clinic Florida Departments of Otorhinolaryngology and Audiology. Participants formed a convenience sample recruited for a separate study. Neurotologist diagnosis was the criterion for comparisons...
March 1, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Jeanette Whitaker, John L Field, Carl J Bernacchi, Carlos E P Cerri, Reinhart Ceulemans, Christian A Davies, Evan H DeLucia, Iain S Donnison, Jon P McCalmont, Keith Paustian, Rebecca L Rowe, Pete Smith, Patricia Thornley, Niall P McNamara
Perennial bioenergy crops have significant potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and contribute to climate change mitigation by substituting for fossil fuels; yet delivering significant GHG savings will require substantial land-use change, globally. Over the last decade, research has delivered improved understanding of the environmental benefits and risks of this transition to perennial bioenergy crops, addressing concerns that the impacts of land conversion to perennial bioenergy crops could result in increased rather than decreased GHG emissions...
March 2018: Global Change Biology. Bioenergy
Monica Tang, Timothy Jay Price, Jeremy Shapiro, Peter Gibbs, Daniel G Haller, Dirk Arnold, Marc Peeters, Eva Segelov, Amitesh Roy, Niall Tebbutt, Nick Pavlakis, Chris Karapetis, Matthew Burge
Oxaliplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy has been the standard of care for resected early colon cancer for over a decade. Recent results from the IDEA meta-analysis attempt to address the question of whether 3 or 6 months of adjuvant chemotherapy is preferable in stage III colon cancer. Areas covered: A review of the literature and recent conference presentations was undertaken on the topic of adjuvant therapy for resected early colon cancers. This article reviews the current evidence for adjuvant treatment of stage II and III colon cancer, as well as up-to-date data regarding optimal duration of therapy...
February 26, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Kate McArthur, Lachlan W Whitehead, John M Heddleston, Lucy Li, Benjamin S Padman, Viola Oorschot, Niall D Geoghegan, Stephane Chappaz, Sophia Davidson, Hui San Chin, Rachael M Lane, Marija Dramicanin, Tahnee L Saunders, Canny Sugiana, Romina Lessene, Laura D Osellame, Teng-Leong Chew, Grant Dewson, Michael Lazarou, Georg Ramm, Guillaume Lessene, Michael T Ryan, Kelly L Rogers, Mark F van Delft, Benjamin T Kile
Mitochondrial apoptosis is mediated by BAK and BAX, two proteins that induce mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization, leading to cytochrome c release and activation of apoptotic caspases. In the absence of active caspases, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) triggers the innate immune cGAS/STING pathway, causing dying cells to secrete type I interferon. How cGAS gains access to mtDNA remains unclear. We used live-cell lattice light-sheet microscopy to examine the mitochondrial network in mouse embryonic fibroblasts...
February 23, 2018: Science
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