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Sexual differentiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349513/3d-qsar-study-of-steroidal-and-azaheterocyclic-human-aromatase-inhibitors-using-quantitative-profile-of-protein-ligand-interactions
#1
Sehan Lee, Mace G Barron
Aromatase is a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily responsible for a key step in the biosynthesis of estrogens. As estrogens are involved in the control of important reproduction-related processes, including sexual differentiation and maturation, aromatase is a potential target for endocrine disrupting chemicals as well as breast cancer therapy. In this work, 3D-QSAR combined with quantitative profile of protein-ligand interactions was employed in the identification and characterization of critical steric and electronic features of aromatase-inhibitor complexes and the estimation of their quantitative contribution to inhibition potency...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Cheminformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346618/evidence-of-adaptive-evolution-and-relaxed-constraints-in-sex-biased-genes-of-south-american-and-west-indies-fruit-flies-diptera-tephritidae
#2
Carlos Congrains, Emeline B Campanini, Felipe R Torres, Víctor B Rezende, Aline M Nakamura, Janaína L de Oliveira, André L A Lima, Samira Chahad-Ehlers, Iderval S Sobrinho, Reinaldo A de Brito
Several studies have demonstrated that genes differentially expressed between sexes (sex-biased genes) tend to evolve faster than unbiased genes, particularly in males. The reason for this accelerated evolution is not clear, but several explanations have involved adaptive and non-adaptive mechanisms. Furthermore, the differences of sex-biased expression patterns of closely related species are also little explored out of Drosophila. To address the evolutionary processes involved with sex-biased expression in species with incipient differentiation, we analyzed male and female transcriptomes of Anastrepha fraterculus and A...
January 15, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339074/identification-and-characterization-of-a-doublesex-gene-which-regulates-the-expression-of-insulin-like-androgenic-gland-hormone-in-fenneropenaeus-chinensis
#3
Shihao Li, Fuhua Li, Kuijie Yu, Jianhai Xiang
The doublesex and its homologue genes are important regulators of sexual differentiation which are conserved among animal kingdom. In the present study, we reported a doublesex gene (designated as FcDsx) identified from the Chinese shrimp F. chinensis. The gene structure, nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of FcDsx were characterized. The results showed that the deduced amino acid sequence of FcDsx had the common features of Dsx proteins, including a doublesex/male abnormal 3 (DM) domain, an oligomerization domain and a predicted monopartite nuclear localization signal...
January 12, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338643/high-school-coaches-experiences-with-openly-lesbian-gay-and-bisexual-athletes
#4
Meghan K Halbrook, Jack C Watson, Dana K Voelker
Despite reports that there has been a positive trend in perception and treatment of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals in recent years (Griffin, 2012; Loftus, 2001), sport, in general, is still an uncertain, and sometimes even hostile, environment for LGB athletes (Anderson, 2005; Beylin, 2006; Waldron & Krane, 2005). To gain more information on coach understanding and perceptions of the team environment, ten high school head coaches in the United States were interviewed to explore their experiences coaching openly LGB athletes...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338542/the-novel-microtubule-associated-cap-glycine-protein-cgp1-governs-growth-differentiation-and-virulence-of-cryptococcus-neoformans
#5
Li Li Wang, Kyung-Tae Lee, Kwang-Woo Jung, Dong-Gi Lee, Yong-Sun Bahn
Microtubules are involved in mechanical support, cytoplasmic organization, and several cellular processes by interacting with diverse microtubule-associated proteins such as plus-end tracking proteins, motor proteins, and tubulin-folding cofactors. A number of the cytoskeleton-associated proteins (CAPs) contain the CAP-glycine-rich (CAP-Gly) domain, which is evolutionarily conserved and generally considered to bind to α-tubulin to regulate the function of microtubules. However, there has been a dearth of research on CAP-Gly proteins in fungal pathogens, including Cryptococcus neoformans, which is a global cause of fatal meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised patients...
January 17, 2018: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336511/differential-visual-ornamentation-between-brood-parasitic-and-parental-cuckoos
#6
Masaru Hasegawa, Emi Arai
The evolution of brood parasitism should affect adult phenotypic traits due to sexual selection as well as the parasite-host interactions, though it is rarely focused on. Sexual selection theory predicts extravagant secondary sexual characteristics in brood parasites while immature-like modest sexual characteristics in parental species. This is because juvenile-like immature traits can attract mates by exploiting parental care for young (i.e. attraction to young), and because the good parent process, which favors traits that signal parental care ability, would constrain the evolution of costly secondary sexual characteristics due to evolutionary tradeoffs between parental investment and sexually selected traits...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336199/the-rust-fungus-melampsora-larici-populina-expresses-a-conserved-genetic-program-and-distinct-sets-of-secreted-protein-genes-during-infection-of-its-two-host-plants-larch-and-poplar
#7
Cécile Lorrain, Clémence Marchal, Stéphane Hacquard, Christine Delaruelle, Jérémy Pétrowski, Benjamin Petre, Arnaud Hecker, Pascal Frey, Sebastien Duplessis
Mechanisms required for broad spectrum or specific host colonization of plant parasites are poorly understood. As a perfect illustration, heteroecious rust fungi require two alternate host plants to complete their life cycles. Melampsora larici populina infects two taxonomically unrelated plants, larch on which sexual reproduction is achieved and poplar on which clonal multiplication occurs leading to severe epidemics in plantations. We applied deep RNA sequencing to three key developmental stages of M. larici-populina infection on larch: basidia, pycnia and aecia; and we performed comparative transcriptomics of infection on poplar and larch hosts using available expression data...
January 16, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335024/sex-differences-in-the-late-first-trimester-human-placenta-transcriptome
#8
Tania L Gonzalez, Tianyanxin Sun, Alexander F Koeppel, Bora Lee, Erica T Wang, Charles R Farber, Stephen S Rich, Lauren W Sundheimer, Rae A Buttle, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Jerome I Rotter, Stephen D Turner, John Williams, Mark O Goodarzi, Margareta D Pisarska
BACKGROUND: Development of the placenta during the late first trimester is critical to ensure normal growth and development of the fetus. Developmental differences in this window such as sex-specific variation are implicated in later placental disease states, yet gene expression at this time is poorly understood. METHODS: RNA-sequencing was performed to characterize the transcriptome of 39 first trimester human placentas using chorionic villi following genetic testing (17 females, 22 males)...
January 15, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332494/an-evaluation-of-adolescent-and-young-adult-re-victimization-experiences-problematic-substance-use-and-negative-consequences
#9
D J Angelone, Tiffany Marcantonio, Jessica Melillo
We investigated substance use and negative consequences in women who experienced an initial sexual assault (SA) in high school and subsequently in college. More than 650 participants completed questionnaires assessing substance use/consequences, SA history, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomology. Revictimized women reported differential substance use/consequences relative to controls underscoring the need to conceptualize adolescence as a key developmental period with a unique pathway to a subsequent SA, especially in association with substance use...
June 1, 2017: Violence Against Women
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331353/mechanisms-of-sex-differences-in-fear-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#10
REVIEW
Teniel Sonya Ramikie, Kerry James Ressler
Following sexual maturity, females disproportionately have higher rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and experience greater symptom severity and chronicity as compared with males. This observation has led many to examine sex differences in PTSD risk factors. Though relatively few, these studies reveal that the root causes of PTSD sex differences are complex, and partly represent interactions between sex-specific nonbiological and biological risk factors, which differentially shape PTSD vulnerability...
November 21, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330317/trna-production-links-nutrient-conditions-to-the-onset-of-sexual-differentiation-through-the-torc1-pathway
#11
Yoko Otsubo, Tomohiko Matsuo, Akiko Nishimura, Masayuki Yamamoto, Akira Yamashita
Target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase controls cell growth and metabolism in response to nutrient availability. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, TOR complex 1 (TORC1) promotes vegetative growth and inhibits sexual differentiation in the presence of ample nutrients. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of mutants with similar phenotypes as TORC1 mutants, in that they initiate sexual differentiation even in nutrient-rich conditions. In most mutants identified, TORC1 activity is downregulated and the mutated genes are involved in tRNA expression or modification...
January 12, 2018: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329082/the-domestic-fowl-gallus-gallus-domesticus-embryo-as-an-alternative-for-mammalian-experiments-validation-of-a-test-method-for-the-detection-of-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals
#12
Luzie Jessl, Jessica Scheider, Jörg Oehlmann
In recent decades the embryo of Gallus g. domesticus has been widely used as a model for the study of early sexual development and the potential impact of substances affecting development, including endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Since there is no standardized procedure available for experiments with the chicken embryo, the objective of our project is to expedite the protocol to assess the potential effects of EDCs on early sexual differentiation. The main aim of the present study was to systematically investigate the natural variability of individual developmental and histological key parameters in untreated and solvent-treated control groups, since this has been insufficiently addressed so far...
December 28, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323249/probabilistic-data-integration-identifies-reliable-gametocyte-specific-proteins-and-transcripts-in-malaria-parasites
#13
Lisette Meerstein-Kessel, Robin van der Lee, Will Stone, Kjerstin Lanke, David A Baker, Pietro Alano, Francesco Silvestrini, Chris J Janse, Shahid M Khan, Marga van de Vegte-Bolmer, Wouter Graumans, Rianne Siebelink-Stoter, Taco W A Kooij, Matthias Marti, Chris Drakeley, Joseph J Campo, Teunis J P van Dam, Robert Sauerwein, Teun Bousema, Martijn A Huynen
Plasmodium gametocytes are the sexual forms of the malaria parasite essential for transmission to mosquitoes. To better understand how gametocytes differ from asexual blood-stage parasites, we performed a systematic analysis of available 'omics data for P. falciparum and other Plasmodium species. 18 transcriptomic and proteomic data sets were evaluated for the presence of curated "gold standards" of 41 gametocyte-specific versus 46 non-gametocyte genes and integrated using Bayesian probabilities, resulting in gametocyte-specificity scores for all P...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321908/rapid-song-divergence-leads-to-discordance-between-genetic-distance-and-phenotypic-characters-important-in-reproductive-isolation
#14
Emmanuel C Nwankwo, Chryso Th Pallari, Louis Hadjioannou, Andreas Ioannou, Ronald K Mulwa, Alexander N G Kirschel
The criteria for species delimitation in birds have long been debated, and several recent studies have proposed new methods for such delimitation. On one side, there is a large consensus of investigators who believe that the only evidence that can be used to delimit species is molecular phylogenetics, and with increasing numbers of markers to gain better support, whereas on the other, there are investigators adopting alternative approaches based largely on phenotypic differences, including in morphology and communication signals...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321849/population-genomics-and-geographical-parthenogenesis-in-japanese-harvestmen-opiliones-sclerosomatidae-leiobunum
#15
Mercedes Burns, Marshal Hedin, Nobuo Tsurusaki
Naturally occurring population variation in reproductive mode presents an opportunity for researchers to test hypotheses regarding the evolution of sex. Asexual reproduction frequently assumes a geographical pattern, in which parthenogenesis-dominated populations are more broadly dispersed than their sexual conspecifics. We evaluate the geographical distribution of genomic signatures associated with parthenogenesis using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence data from two Japanese harvestman sister taxa, Leiobunum manubriatum and Leiobunum globosum...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321364/illumina-based-de-novo-transcriptome-sequencing-and-analysis-of-chinese-forest-musk-deer
#16
Zhongxian Xu, Hang Jie, Binlong Chen, Uma Gaur, Nan Wu, Jian Gao, Pinming Li, Guijun Zhao, Dejun Zeng, Mingyao Yang, Diyan Li
The Chinese forest musk deer (Moschus berezovskii Flerov) is an endangered artiodactyl mammal. The musk secreted by sexually mature males is highly valued for alleged pharmaceutical properties and perfume manufacturing. However, the genomic and transcriptomic resources of musk deer remain deficiently represented and poorly understood. Next-generation sequencing technique is an efficient method for generating an enormous amount of sequence data that can represent a large number of genes and their expression levels...
December 2017: Journal of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318446/vitamin-d-improves-neurogenesis-and-cognition-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Maria Morello, Véréna Landel, Emmanuelle Lacassagne, Kevin Baranger, Cedric Annweiler, François Féron, Pascal Millet
The impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis at the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is believed to support early cognitive decline. Converging studies sustain the idea that vitamin D might be linked to the pathophysiology of AD and to hippocampal neurogenesis. Nothing being known about the effects of vitamin D on hippocampal neurogenesis in AD, we assessed them in a mouse model of AD. In a previous study, we observed that dietary vitamin D supplementation in female AD-like mice reduced cognitive decline only when delivered during the symptomatic phase...
January 9, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317645/computational-modelling-of-meiotic-entry-and-commitment
#18
Tanvi Bhola, Orsolya Kapuy, P K Vinod
In response to developmental and environmental conditions, cells exit the mitotic cell cycle and enter the meiosis program to generate haploid gametes from diploid germ cells. Once cells decide to enter the meiosis program they become irreversibly committed to the completion of meiosis irrespective of the presence of cue signals. How meiotic entry and commitment occur due to the dynamics of the regulatory network is not well understood. Therefore, we constructed a mathematical model of the regulatory network that controls the transition from mitosis to meiosis in Schizosaccharomyces pombe...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317356/comparative-proteomics-of-the-larval-and-adult-stages-of-the-model-cestode-parasite-mesocestoides-corti
#19
Jeferson Camargo de Lima, Karina Mariante Monteiro, Tatiana Noel Basika Cabrera, Gabriela Prado Paludo, Hercules Moura, John R Barr, Arnaldo Zaha, Henrique Bunselmeyer Ferreira
Mesocestoides corti is a widely used model for the study of cestode biology, and its transition from the larval tetrathyridium (TT) stage to the strobilated, adult worm (ST) stage can be induced and followed in vitro. Here, a proteomic approach was used to describe and compare M. corti TT and ST protein repertories. Overall, 571 proteins were identified, 238 proteins in TT samples and 333 proteins in ST samples. Among the identified proteins, 207 proteins were shared by TTs and STs, while 157 were stage-specific, being 31 exclusive from TTs, and 126 from STs...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316814/biology-of-the-adrenal-gland-cortex-obviates-effective-use-of-adeno-associated-virus-vectors-to-treat-hereditary-adrenal-disorders
#20
Sandra Markmann, Bishnu P De, Jasmine Reid, Clarisse Jose, Jonathan B Rosenberg, Philip Leopold, Stephen M Kaminsky, Dolan Sondhi, Odelya E Pagovich, Ronald G Crystal
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an autosomal recessive disorder occurring in 1:10,000-1:20,000 live births. In >95% of the cases, CAH results from mutations in the CYP21A2 gene, encoding the adrenal steroid enzyme 21-hydroxylase (21OH). Cardinal phenotypic features of CAH include genital ambiguity and sexual precocity, and in severe cases, neonatal salt loss and death. Current standard of care consists of life-long oral steroid replacement to reverse the cortisol deficiency. Although significant advances in the treatment of CAH have been made, the burden of a life-long therapeutic intervention is not ideal for quality of life...
January 9, 2018: Human Gene Therapy
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