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Sexual differentiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220321/a-snapshot-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-genetic-diversity-using-multilocus-sequence-type-analysis-in-an-australian-metropolitan-setting
#1
J A Danielewski, S Phillips, F Y S Kong, K S Smith, J S Hocking, R Guy, C K Fairley, S M Garland, S N Tabrizi
High-resolution screening methodologies which enable the differentiation of Chlamydia trachomatis at the strain level, directly from clinical samples, can provide the detailed information required for epidemiological questions such as the dynamics of treatment failure. In addition, they give a detailed snapshot of circulating C. trachomatis genetic variation, data which are currently lacking for the Australian population. In the context of two Australian clinical trials, we assessed the genetic diversity of C...
February 20, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213302/disrupting-effects-of-azocyclotin-to-the-hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal-axis-and-reproduction-of-xenopus-laevis
#2
Shuying Li, Meng Li, Wenjun Gui, Qiangwei Wang, Guonian Zhu
Over the past few decades, the hazards associated with the extensive use of organictin compounds have become an issue of extreme concern, while at present the effects of these substances on amphibians remain poorly understood. In the present study, we chose azocyclotin, one of common use acaricides in China. We focused on sexual development and steroidogenesis disrupting effects of azocyclotin in the Xenopus laevis. Tadpoles were exposed to azocyclotin (0.05 and 0.5μg/L) for long-term (4 months) study. Results showed that exposure to azocyclotin caused developmental toxicity, including decreased survival, body weight, body length, gonadosomatic index, hepatosomatic index and female phenotype...
February 8, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211207/social-amoebae-mating-types-do-not-invest-unequally-in-sexual-offspring
#3
Tracy E Douglas, David C Queller, Joan E Strassmann
Unequal investment by different sexes in their progeny is common and includes differential investment in the zygote and differential care of the young. The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum has a sexual stage in which isogamous cells of any two of the three mating types fuse to form a zygote which then attracts hundreds of other cells to the macrocyst. The latter cells are cannibalized and so make no genetic contribution to reproduction. Previous literature suggests that this sacrifice may be induced in cells of one mating type by cells of another, resulting in a higher than expected production of macrocysts when the inducing type is rare and a giving a reproductive advantage to this social cheat...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207760/preferential-expression-of-scores-of-functionally-and-evolutionarily-diverse-dna-and-rna-binding-proteins-during-oxytricha-trifallax-macronuclear-development
#4
Zachary T Neeb, Daniel J Hogan, Sol Katzman, Alan M Zahler
During its sexual reproduction, the stichotrichous ciliate Oxytricha trifallax orchestrates a remarkable transformation of one of the newly formed germline micronuclear genomes. Hundreds of thousands of gene pieces are stitched together, excised from chromosomes, and replicated dozens of times to yield a functional somatic macronuclear genome composed of ~16,000 distinct DNA molecules that typically encode a single gene. Little is known about the proteins that carry out this process. We profiled mRNA expression as a function of macronuclear development and identified hundreds of mRNAs preferentially expressed at specific times during the program...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207417/adrenarche-unmasks-compound-heterozygous-3%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-deficiency-c-244g-a-p-ala82thr-and-the-novel-931c-t-p-gln311-variant-in-a-non-salt-wasting-severely-undervirilised-46xy
#5
Stephanie Louise Teasdale, Adam Morton
3β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II deficiency (3βHSD2) congenital adrenal hyperplasia is a rare cause of ambiguous genitalia, resulting in abnormal virilisation in both 46XY and 46XX. We describe a case of 46XY ambiguous genitalia that was misdiagnosed as androgen insensitivity syndrome. The correct diagnosis was made after adrenarche. Genotyping demonstrated compound heterozygosity in two alleles, the previously described c.244G>A (p.Ala82Thr), and a novel 931C>T(p.Gln311*) variant. We suggest that adrenarche unmasked the condition by driving cortisol production to rates that caused the mutant 3bHSD2 enzyme to become rate limiting for cortisol production...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203244/pistil-transcriptome-analysis-to-disclose-genes-and-gene-products-related-to-aposporous-apomixis-in-hypericum-perforatum-l
#6
Giulio Galla, Sara Zenoni, Linda Avesani, Lothar Altschmied, Paride Rizzo, Timothy F Sharbel, Gianni Barcaccia
Unlike sexual reproduction, apomixis encompasses a number of reproductive strategies, which permit maternal genome inheritance without genetic recombination and syngamy. The key biological features of apomixis are the circumvention of meiosis (i.e., apomeiosis), the differentiation of unreduced embryo sacs and egg cells, and their autonomous development in functional embryos through parthenogenesis, and the formation of viable endosperm either via fertilization-independent means or following fertilization with a sperm cell...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202904/genome-wide-dna-de-methylation-is-associated-with-noninfectious-bud-failure-exhibition-in-almond-prunus-dulcis-mill-d-a-webb
#7
Jonathan Fresnedo-Ramírez, Helen M Chan, Dan E Parfitt, Carlos H Crisosto, Thomas M Gradziel
Noninfectious bud-failure (BF) remains a major threat to almond production in California, particularly with the recent rapid expansion of acreage and as more intensive cultural practices and modern cultivars are adopted. BF has been shown to be inherited in both vegetative and sexual progeny, with exhibition related to the age and propagation history of scion clonal sources. These characteristics suggest an epigenetic influence, such as the loss of juvenility mediated by DNA-(de)methylation. Various degrees of BF have been reported among cultivars as well as within sources of clonal propagation of the same cultivar...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195255/evaluation-of-vestibular-biopsy-features-in-patients-affected-by-fibromyalgia-by-vulvodynia-or-by-their-association
#8
A Ghizzani, G Tinacci
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the histologic features of vestibular biopsies from patients affected by fibro myalgia (FM), or vulvodynia (VD), or the their association (FM-VD) in order to facilitate differential diagnosis among conditions that present sexual pain with similar clinical characteristics. STUDY DESIGN: Fourty-four women already diagnosed with FM were recruited to evaluate the presence of sexual pain not owing to FM. Fourteen women affected by sexual pain of unknown origin who came to our department requesting treatment were also recruited...
December 2016: Pathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194504/variation-in-post-traumatic-response-the-role-of-trauma-type-in-predicting-icd-11-ptsd-and-cptsd-symptoms
#9
Philip Hyland, Jamie Murphy, Mark Shevlin, Frédérique Vallières, Eoin McElroy, Ask Elklit, Mogens Christoffersen, Marylène Cloitre
PURPOSE: The World Health Organization's 11th revision to the International Classification of Diseases manual (ICD-11) will differentiate between two stress-related disorders: PTSD and Complex PTSD (CPTSD). ICD-11 proposals suggest that trauma exposure which is prolonged and/or repeated, or consists of multiple forms, that also occurs under circumstances where escape from the trauma is difficult or impossible (e.g., childhood abuse) will confer greater risk for CPTSD as compared to PTSD...
February 14, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193729/sequential-divergent-and-cooperative-requirements-of-foxl2a-and-foxl2b-in-ovary-development-and-maintenance-of-zebrafish
#10
Yan-Jing Yang, Yang Wang, Zhi Li, Li Zhou, Jian-Fang Gui
Foxl2 is essential for mammalian ovary maintenance. Although sexually dimorphic expression of foxl2 was observed in many teleost, its role and regulative mechanism in fish remained largely unclear. In this study, we first identified two transcript variants of foxl2a and its homologous gene foxl2b in zebrafish, and revealed their specific expression in follicular layer cells in a sequential and divergent fashion during ovary differentiation, maturation and maintenance. Then, homozygous foxl2a mutants (foxl2a(-/-)) and foxl2b mutants (foxl2b(-/-)) were constructed, and detailed comparisons, such as sex ratio, gonadal histological structure, transcriptome profiling and dynamic expression of gonadal development-related genes, were carried out...
February 13, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193725/the-tgf-%C3%AE-family-in-the-reproductive-tract
#11
Diana Monsivais, Martin M Matzuk, Stephanie A Pangas
The transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) family has a profound impact on the reproductive function of various organisms. In this review, we discuss how highly conserved members of the TGF-β family influence the reproductive function across several species. We briefly discuss how TGF-β-related proteins balance germ-cell proliferation and differentiation as well as dauer entry and exit in Caenorhabditis elegans. In Drosophila melanogaster, TGF-β-related proteins maintain germ stem-cell identity and eggshell patterning...
February 13, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190772/sex-differences-a-resultant-of-an-evolutionary-pressure
#12
Sara Della Torre, Adriana Maggi
Spurred by current research policy, we are witnessing a significant growth in the number of studies that observe and describe sexual diversities in human physiology and sex prevalence in a large number of pathologies. Yet we are far from the comprehension of the mechanisms underpinning these differences, which are the result of a long evolutionary history. This Essay is meant to underline female reproductive function as a driver for the positive selection of the specific physiological features that explain male and female differential susceptibility to diseases and metabolic disturbances, in particular...
January 30, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190570/rethinking-research-on-sexual-exploitation-of-boys-methodological-challenges-and-recommendations-to-optimize-future-knowledge-generation
#13
Katherine Mitchell, Melissa Moynihan, Claire Pitcher, Annabel Francis, Abigail English, Elizabeth Saewyc
Research and policies on child and adolescent sexual exploitation frequently focus on the sexual exploitation of girls and fail to recognize the experiences of sexually exploited boys, including their potentially unique health care and social support needs. This oversight limits the ability of health care and social service providers to offer both targeted and evidence informed care to sexually exploited boys. As a first step in a larger grant to understand the experiences of sexually exploited boys and to develop interventions for this specific population, we conducted a systematic review to address the question, "What is the state of the research on sexually exploited boys internationally?" As we undertook this review, we faced a number of significant challenges that made the process more difficult than anticipated...
February 9, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188846/sexual-differentiation-of-the-adolescent-rat-brain-a-longitudinal-voxel-based-morphometry-study
#14
Akira Sumiyoshi, Hiroi Nonaka, Ryuta Kawashima
The sexual differentiation of the rat brain during the adolescent period has been well documented in post-mortem histological studies. However, to further understand the morphological changes occurring in the entire brain, a noninvasive neuroimaging method allowing an unbiased, comprehensive, and longitudinal investigation of brain morphology should be used. In this study, we investigated the sexual differentiation of the rat brain during the adolescent period using longitudinal voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis...
February 7, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184278/possible-sexually-dimorphic-role-of-mirna-and-other-sncrna-in-asd-brain
#15
Cynthia M Schumann, Frank R Sharp, Bradley P Ander, Boryana Stamova
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is sexually dimorphic in brain structure, genetics, and behaviors. In studies of brain tissue, the age of the population is clearly a factor in interpreting study outcome, yet sex is rarely considered. To begin to address this issue, we extend our previously published microarray analyses to examine expression of small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs), including microRNAs (miRNAs), in ASD and in the control temporal cortex in males and females. Predicted miRNA targets were identified as well as the pathways they overpopulate...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183866/self-fertilization-sex-allocation-and-spermatogenesis-kinetics-in-the-hypodermically-inseminating-flatworm-macrostomum-pusillum
#16
Athina Giannakara, Steven A Ramm
The free-living flatworm genus Macrostomum is an emerging model system for studying the links between sex allocation, sexual selection and mating system evolution, as well as the underlying developmental and physiological mechanisms responsible for wide intra- and inter-specific variability in reproductive phenotypes. Despite compelling comparative morphological evidence of sexual diversity, detailed experimental work on reproductive behaviour and physiology in Macrostomum has so far been largely limited to just two species, M...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179814/prenatal-stress-immune-programming-of-sex-differences-in-comorbidity-of-depression-and-obesity-metabolic-syndrome
#17
Jill M Goldstein, Laura Holsen, Grace Huang, Bradley D Hammond, Tamarra James-Todd, Sara Cherkerzian, Taben M Hale, Robert J Handa
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the number one cause of disability worldwide and is comorbid with many chronic diseases, including obesity/metabolic syndrome (MetS). Women have twice as much risk for MDD and comorbidity with obesity/MetS as men, although pathways for understanding this association remain unclear. On the basis of clinical and preclinical studies, we argue that prenatal maternal stress (ie, excess glucocorticoid expression and associated immune responses) that occurs during the sexual differentiation of the fetal brain has sex-dependent effects on brain development within highly sexually dimorphic regions that regulate mood, stress, metabolic function, the autonomic nervous system, and the vasculature...
December 2016: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179808/sex-differences-in-the-developing-brain-as-a-source-of-inherent-risk
#18
Margaret M McCarthy
Brain development diverges in males and females in response to androgen production by the fetal testis. This sexual differentiation of the brain occurs during a sensitive window and induces enduring neuroanatomical and physiological changes that profoundly impact behavior. What we know about the contribution of sex chromosomes is still emerging, highlighting the need to integrate multiple factors into understanding sex differences, including the importance of context. The cellular mechanisms are best modeled in rodents and have provided both unifying principles and surprising specifics...
December 2016: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176338/effects-of-neonatal-17%C3%AE-ethinyloestradiol-exposure-on-female-paced-mating-behaviour-in-the-rat
#19
Chiaki Komine, Shingo Nakajima, Yasuhiko Kondo, Yasuyuki Horii, Midori Yoshida, Maiko Kawaguchi
Correct perinatal oestrogen levels are critical for sexual differentiation. For example, perinatal exposure to oestrogen causes masculinization and defeminization of the brain in female rats and also induces delayed effects after maturation characterized by early onset of abnormal oestrus cycling. However, the mechanisms underlying the above effects of oestrogen remain to be fully determined. 17α-ethinyloestradiol (EE), a common synthetic oestrogen widely used in oral contraceptives, binds specifically to oestrogen receptors...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176027/prenatal-influences-on-human-sexual-orientation-expectations-versus-data
#20
S Marc Breedlove
In non-human vertebrate species, sexual differentiation of the brain is primarily driven by androgens such as testosterone organizing the brains of males in a masculine fashion early in life, while the lower levels of androgen in developing females organize their brains in a feminine fashion. These principles may be relevant to the development of sexual orientation in humans, because retrospective markers of prenatal androgen exposure, namely digit ratios and otoacoustic emissions, indicate that lesbians, on average, were exposed to greater prenatal androgen than were straight women...
February 7, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
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