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Sexual differentiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533987/exoskeleton-may-influence-the-internal-body-temperatures-of-neotropical-dung-beetles-col-scarabaeinae
#1
Valentina Amore, Malva I M Hernández, Luis M Carrascal, Jorge M Lobo
The insect exoskeleton is a multifunctional coat with a continuum of mechanical and structural properties constituting the barrier between electromagnetic waves and the internal body parts. This paper examines the ability of beetle exoskeleton to regulate internal body temperature considering its thermal permeability or isolation to simulated solar irradiance and infrared radiation. Seven Neotropical species of dung beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeinae) differing in colour, surface sculptures, size, sexual dimorphism, period of activity, guild category and altitudinal distribution were studied...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533820/medip-seq-and-ncpg-analyses-illuminate-sexually-dimorphic-methylation-of-gonadal-development-genes-with-high-historic-methylation-in-turtle-hatchlings-with-temperature-dependent-sex-determination
#2
Srihari Radhakrishnan, Robert Literman, Beatriz Mizoguchi, Nicole Valenzuela
BACKGROUND: DNA methylation alters gene expression but not DNA sequence and mediates some cases of phenotypic plasticity. Temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) epitomizes phenotypic plasticity where environmental temperature drives embryonic sexual fate, as occurs commonly in turtles. Importantly, the temperature-specific transcription of two genes underlying gonadal differentiation is known to be induced by differential methylation in TSD fish, turtle and alligator. Yet, how extensive is the link between DNA methylation and TSD remains unclear...
2017: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531277/genome-wide-discovery-of-viral-micrornas-based-on-phylogenetic-analysis-and-structural-evolution-of-various-human-papillomavirus-subtypes
#3
Shun-Long Weng, Kai-Yao Huang, Julia Tzu-Ya Weng, Fang-Yu Hung, Tzu-Hao Chang, Tzong-Yi Lee
In mammals, microRNAs (miRNAs) play key roles in controlling posttranscriptional regulation through binding to the mRNAs of target genes. Recently, it was discovered that viral miRNAs may be involved in human cancers and diseases. It is likely that viral miRNAs help viruses enter the latent phase of their life cycle and become undetected by the host's immune system, while increasing the host's risk for cancer development. Cervical cancer is typically related to the infection of human papillomavirus (HPV) through sexual transmission...
May 20, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526728/genetic-subtraction-profiling-identifies-candidate-mirnas-involved-in-rice-female-gametophyte-abortion
#4
Liyu Yang, Ya Wu, Wenliang Wang, Bigang Mao, Bingran Zhao, Jianbo Wang
Female gametophyte is an important participant in sexual reproduction of plants. The molecular mechanism of its development has received much attention in recent years. As important regulators of gene expression, miRNAs have been certified to play a significant role in many biological processes of plants including sexual reproduction. In this study, to investigate the potential regulatory effects of miRNAs on rice female gametophytes abortion, we used the high-throughput sequencing method to compare the miRNA transcriptome in ovules of a high frequency female-sterile line (fsv1) and a rice wild-type line (Gui 99) during ovule development...
May 19, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526032/multiplex-dnase-free-one-step-reverse-transcription-pcr-for-plasmodium-18s-rrna-and-spliced-gametocyte-specific-mrnas
#5
Amelia E Hanron, Zachary P Billman, Annette M Seilie, Tayla M Olsen, Matthew Fishbaugher, Ming Chang, Thomas Rueckle, Nicole Andenmatten, Bryan Greenhouse, Emmanuel Arinaitwe, John Rek, Smita Das, Gonzalo J Domingo, Kelly Shipman, Stefan H Kappe, James G Kublin, Sean C Murphy
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium gametocytes are sexual stages transmitted to female Anopheles mosquitoes. While Plasmodium parasites can be differentiated microscopically on Giemsa-stained blood smears, molecular methods are increasingly used because of their increased sensitivity. Molecular detection of gametocytes requires methods that discriminate between asexual and sexual stage parasites. Commonly tested gametocyte-specific mRNAs are pfs25 and pfs230 detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
May 19, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525535/sexual-dimorphism-and-aging-differentially-regulate-adaptive-homeostasis
#6
Laura C D Pomatto, John Tower, Kelvin J A Davies
External and internal stimuli cause modifications to gene and biochemical pathways. In turn, demonstrating that biological systems continuously make short-term adaptations both to set-points, and to the range of "normal" capacity, due to mild conditional changes, or to subtoxic, nondamaging levels of chemical agents. This is termed as "Adaptive Homeostasis," defined with the following: "The transient expansion or contraction of the homeostatic range in response to exposure to sub-toxic, nondamaging, signaling molecules or events, or the removal or cessation of such molecules or events...
May 18, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523122/sex-differences-in-rat-placental-development-from-pre-implantation-to-late-gestation
#7
J I Kalisch-Smith, D G Simmons, M Pantaleon, K M Moritz
BACKGROUND: A male fetus is suggested to be more susceptible to in utero and birth complications. This may be due in part to altered morphology or function of the XY placenta. We hypothesised that sexual dimorphism begins at the blastocyst stage with sex differences in the progenitor trophectoderm (TE) and its derived trophoblast lineages, as these cells populate the majority of cell types within the placenta. We investigated sex-specific differences in cell allocation in the pre-implantation embryo and further characterised growth and gene expression of the placental compartments from the early stages of the definitive placenta through to late gestation...
2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521213/phylogenetic-analysis-of-an-epidemic-outbreak-of-acute-hepatitis-c-in-hiv-infected-patients-by-ultra-deep-pyrosequencing
#8
Noelia Caro-Pérez, María Martínez-Rebollar, Josep Gregori, Josep Quer, Patricia González, Martina Gambato, Neris García-González, Fernando González-Candelas, Josep Costa, Juan Ignacio Esteban, Josep Mallolas, Xavier Forns, Montse Laguno, Sofía Pérez-Del-Pulgar
BACKGROUND: The incidence of acute hepatitis C (AHC) among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) has increased significantly in the last 10 years. Several studies point to a social and sexual network of HIV-positive MSM that extends internationally. OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to investigate the dynamics of HCV transmission in an outbreak of AHC in HIV-infected MSM in Barcelona by ultra-deep pyrosequencing. STUDY DESIGN: Between 2008 and 2013, 113 cases of AHC in HIV-infected MSM were diagnosed in the Infectious Diseases Unit, Hospital Clínic, Barcelona...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514276/sexual-network-drivers-of-hiv-and-herpes-simplex-virus-type-2-hsv-2-transmission-a-comparative-mathematical-modeling-analysis
#9
Ryosuke Omori, Laith J Abu-Raddad
OBJECTIVES: HIV and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections are sexually transmitted and propagate in sexual networks. Using mathematical modeling, we aimed to quantify effects of key network statistics on infection transmission, and extent to which HSV-2 prevalence can be a proxy of HIV prevalence. DESIGN/METHODS: An individual-based simulation model was constructed to describe sex partnering and infection transmission, and was parameterized with representative natural history, transmission, and sexual behavior data...
May 16, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511726/executive-functioning-in-pedophilia-and-child-sexual-offending
#10
Claudia Massau, Gilian Tenbergen, Christian Kärgel, Simone Weiß, Hannah Gerwinn, Alexander Pohl, Till Amelung, Sebastian Mohnke, Jonas Kneer, Matthias Wittfoth, Inka Ristow, Kolja Schiltz, Klaus M Beier, Jorge Ponseti, Martin Walter, Tillmann H C Kruger, Henrik Walter, Boris Schiffer
OBJECTIVES: Pedophilia (P) is a psychiatric disease associated with sexual attraction toward children and often accompanied by child sexual offending (CSO). Consequently, it is important to address the understanding of executive dysfunctions that may increase the probability of CSO. Moreover, this research field has been lacking to disentangle executive deficits associated with pedophilia (as a deviant sexual preference) from those associated with CSO (as a deviant sexual behavior). METHODS: The German multi-sided research network NeMUP offers the opportunity to overcome these limitations...
May 17, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511487/a-comparative-study-of-liquid-nitrogen-cryotherapy-as-monotherapy-versus-in-combination-with-podophyllin-in-the-treatment-of-condyloma-acuminata
#11
Nidhi Sharma, Sanjeev Sharma, Chetna Singhal
INTRODUCTION: Condyloma Acuminata (CA) is a common viral sexually transmitted disease. Although various treatment modalities are available for treating CA, but none of them can achieve 100% response rate. In a search for better response rate and less recurrence rate, the combination of cytotoxic agent Podophyllin with ablative liquid nitrogen cryotherapy was evaluated over cryotherapy alone. AIM: To evaluate the synergistic effect of Podophyllin as a chemotherapeutic adjunct to an ablative therapy of liquid nitrogen cryotherapy versus liquid nitrogen cryotherapy alone in the treatment of CA...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508054/flexible-adaptation-of-male-germ-cells-from-female-ipscs-of-endangered-tokudaia-osimensis
#12
Arata Honda, Narantsog Choijookhuu, Haruna Izu, Yoshihiro Kawano, Mizuho Inokuchi, Kimiko Honsho, Ah-Reum Lee, Hiroki Nabekura, Hiroshi Ohta, Tomoyuki Tsukiyama, Yasuhide Ohinata, Asato Kuroiwa, Yoshitaka Hishikawa, Mitinori Saitou, Takamichi Jogahara, Chihiro Koshimoto
In mammals, the Y chromosome strictly influences the maintenance of male germ cells. Almost all mammalian species require genetic contributors to generate testes. An endangered species, Tokudaia osimensis, has a unique sex chromosome composition XO/XO, and genetic differences between males and females have not been confirmed. Although a distinctive sex-determining mechanism may exist in T. osimensis, it has been difficult to examine thoroughly in this rare animal species. To elucidate the discriminative sex-determining mechanism in T...
May 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507425/a-multigroup-longitudinal-study-of-truant-youths-marijuana-use-depression-and-std-associated-sexual-risk-behavior
#13
Richard Dembo, Julie Krupa, Jennifer Wareham, James Schmeidler, Ralph J DiClemente
Truant youth are likely to engage in a number of problem behaviors, including sexual risky behaviors. Previous research involving non-truant youth has found sexual risk behaviors to be related to marijuana use and depression, with differential effects for male and female youth. Using data collected in a NIDA funded, prospective intervention project, results are reported of a male-female, multi-group, longitudinal analysis of the relationships among truant youth baseline sexual risk behavior, marijuana use, and depression, and their sexual risk behavior over four follow-up time points...
2017: Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506988/dmrt1-induces-the-male-pathway-in-a-turtle-with-temperature-dependent-sex-determination
#14
Chutian Ge, Jian Ye, Haiyan Zhang, Yi Zhang, Wei Sun, Yapeng Sang, Blanche Capel, Guoying Qian
The molecular mechanism underlying temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) has been a long-standing mystery; in particular, the thermo-sensitive genetic triggers for gonadal sex differentiation are largely unknown. Here, we characterized a conserved DM domain gene, Dmrt1, in the red-eared slider turtle Trachemys scripta (T. scripta), which exhibits TSD. We found that Dmrt1 has a temperature-dependent, sexually dimorphic expression pattern, preceding gonadal sex differentiation, and is capable of responding rapidly to temperature shifts and aromatase inhibitor treatment...
May 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504460/the-cyclin-dependent-kinase-subunit-cks1-is-required-for-infection-associated-development-of-the-rice-blast-fungus-magnaporthe-oryzae
#15
Xiaofeng Yue, Yawei Que, Shuzhen Deng, Lin Xu, Miriam Oses-Ruiz, Nicholas J Talbot, Youliang Peng, Zhengyi Wang
Cell cycle regulation is pivotal for proper cell division and cellular differentiation in eukaryotic cells. The central regulators that govern eukaryotic cell cycle progression are cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and their partners. Here, we report that Magnaporthe oryzae CKS1 encodes a cyclin-dependent kinase subunit, which plays a significant role in regulation of plant infection. We demonstrate that CKS1 is a functional homolog of CKS1/SUC1 and can physically interact with the CDK protein Cdc28, and Som1, a downstream regulator of the cyclic AMP-dependent Protein Kinase A pathway...
May 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503933/highly-hiv-exposed-seronegative-men-have-lower-mucosal-innate-immune-reactivity
#16
Jennifer A Fulcher, Laura Romas, Jennifer C Hoffman, Julie Elliott, Terry Saunders, Adam Burgener, Peter A Anton, Otto O Yang
Risk of HIV acquisition varies, and some individuals are highly HIV-1-exposed yet persistently seronegative (HESN). The immunologic mechanisms contributing to this phenomenon are an area of intense interest. As immune activation and inflammation facilitate disease progression in HIV-1-infected persons, and gastrointestinal-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) is a highly susceptible site for transmission, we hypothesized that reduced gut mucosal immune reactivity may contribute to reduced HIV-1 susceptibility in HESN men with a history of numerous rectal sexual exposures...
May 13, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502832/sexually-dimorphic-expression-in-developing-and-adult-gonads-shows-an-important-role-of-gonadal-soma-derived-factor-during-sex-differentiation-in-olive-flounder-paralichthys-olivaceus
#17
Yuezhong Liu, Wei Zhang, Xinxin Du, Jun Zhao, Xiaobing Liu, Xiaojing Li, Quanqi Zhang, Xubo Wang
Gonadal soma-derived factor (gsdf) is a new member of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily. As a teleost- and gonad-specific growth factor, gsdf has been indicated to play an important role in early germ cell development. However, little is known about its significance in germ cell development of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). In the present study, a 1338 bp gsdf gene was isolated from P. olivaceus for the first time. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that the genomic structure and synteny relationship of gsdf in teleosts were conserved...
May 11, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498935/the-association-of-changes-in-dna-methylation-with-temperature-dependent-sex-determination-in-cucumber
#18
Yun-Song Lai, Xiaohui Zhang, Wei Zhang, Di Shen, Haiping Wang, Yudong Xia, Yang Qiu, Jiangping Song, Chenchen Wang, Xixiang Li
Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is characterized by its diverse and flexible sexual types. Here, we evaluated the effect of low temperature (LT) exposure on cucumber femaleness under short-day conditions. Shoot apices were subjected to whole-genome bisulfate sequencing (WGBS), mRNA-seq, and sRNA-seq. The results showed that temperature had a substantial and global impact on transposable element (TE)-related small RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) mechanisms, resulting in large amounts of CHH-type cytosine demethylation...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498835/is-traditional-male-circumcision-effective-as-an-hiv-prevention-strategy-evidence-from-lesotho
#19
Elisa M Maffioli
In many developing countries, male circumcision has been promoted as an effective HIV prevention strategy, and medical randomized controlled trials have indeed shown a causal link. However, there is limited empirical evidence to support this conclusion in countries where individuals can voluntary opt for different types of circumcision. The present study considers male circumcision in Lesotho, where HIV prevalence is among the highest in the world (23%). Here, men can opt for one of two types of circumcision: traditional male circumcision in initiation schools, or the medical option in health clinics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498531/developmental-latent-patterns-of-identification-as-mostly-heterosexual-versus-lesbian-gay-or-bisexual
#20
Jerel P Calzo, Katherine E Masyn, S Bryn Austin, Hee-Jin Jun, Heather L Corliss
Scant research exists on the development of mostly heterosexual identity, the largest sexual orientation minority subgroup. We used longitudinal latent class analysis to characterize the patterns of identification with lesbian, gay, bisexual (LGB), or mostly heterosexual identities from ages 12 to 23 in 13,859 youth (57% female) in a U.S. national cohort. Three classes emerged: completely heterosexual (88.2%), mostly heterosexual (9.5%), and LGB (2.4%). LGB class youth generally identified with sexual minority identities by ages 12-17...
March 2017: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
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