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Sexual differentiation

Yu Shi, Wenguang Liu, Maoxian He
Bivalve mollusks exhibit hermaphroditism and sex reversal/differentiation. Studies generally focus on transcriptional profiling and specific genes related to sex determination and differentiation. Few studies on sex reversal/differentiation have been reported. A combination analysis of gonad proteomics and transcriptomics was conducted on Chlamys nobilis to provide a systematic understanding of sex reversal/differentiation in bivalves. We obtained 4258 unique peptides and 93,731 unigenes with good correlation between messenger RNA and protein levels...
March 15, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Dorothea L Floris, Meng-Chuan Lai, Tanmay Nath, Michael P Milham, Adriana Di Martino
Background: The male predominance in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has motivated research on sex differentiation in ASD. Multiple sources of evidence have suggested a neurophenotypic convergence of ASD-related characteristics and typical sex differences. Two existing, albeit competing, models provide predictions on such neurophenotypic convergence. These two models are testable with neuroimaging. Specifically, the Extreme Male Brain (EMB) model predicts that ASD is associated with enhanced brain maleness in both males and females with ASD (i...
2018: Molecular Autism
Cécile Molinier, Céline M O Reisser, Peter Fields, Adeline Ségard, Yan Galimov, Christoph R Haag
Daphnia reproduce by cyclic-parthenogenesis, where phases of asexual reproduction are intermitted by sexual production of diapause stages. This life cycle, together with environmental sex determination, allow the comparison of gene expression between genetically identical males and females. We investigated gene expression differences between males and females in four genotypes of Daphnia magna and compared the results with published data on sex-biased gene expression in two other Daphnia species, each representing one of the major phylogenetic clades within the genus...
March 13, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Na Wang, Renkai Wang, Ruoqing Wang, Songlin Chen
The Chinese tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) is a typical female heterogamete species that exhibits female-biased sexual size dimorphism, which has severely hindered the sustainable development of the species in aquaculture. In the present study, four important somatotropic and reproductive tissues including brain, pituitary, liver, and gonad from 15 females and 15 males were used for transcriptome analysis via RNA-seq. A mean of 37,533,991 high-quality clean reads was obtained from each library and 806, 1482, 818, and 14,695 differentially expressed genes in female and male were identified from the brain, pituitary, liver, and gonad, respectively (fold change ≥ 2 and q < 0...
March 12, 2018: Functional & Integrative Genomics
Jonas Kneer, Viola Borchardt, Christian Kärgel, Christopher Sinke, Claudia Massau, Gilian Tenbergen, Jorge Ponseti, Henrik Walter, Klaus M Beier, Boris Schiffer, Kolja Schiltz, Martin Walter, Tillmann H C Kruger
BACKGROUND: Child sexual abuse and neglect have been related to an increased risk for the development of a wide range of behavioral, psychological, and sexual problems and increased rates of suicidal behavior. Contrary to the large amount of research focusing on the negative mental health consequences of child sexual abuse, very little is known about the characteristics of child sexual offenders and the neuronal underpinnings contributing to child sexual offending. METHODS AND SAMPLE: This study investigates differences in resting state functional connectivity (rs-FC) between non-pedophilic child sexual offenders (N = 20; CSO-P) and matched healthy controls (N = 20; HC) using a seed-based approach...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Béatrice Milon, Sunayana Mitra, Yang Song, Zachary Margulies, Ryan Casserly, Virginia Drake, Jessica A Mong, Didier A Depireux, Ronna Hertzano
BACKGROUND: Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is the most prevalent form of acquired hearing loss and affects about 40 million US adults. Among the suggested therapeutics tested in rodents, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) has been shown to be otoprotective from NIHL; however, these results were limited to male mice. METHODS: Here we tested the effect of SAHA on the hearing of 10-week-old B6CBAF1/J mice of both sexes, which were exposed to 2 h of octave-band noise (101 dB SPL centered at 11...
March 12, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
Yang He, Deguang Liu, Peng Dai, Da Wang, Xiaoqin Shi
Drought is predicted to be more frequent, prolonged, and intensive in many areas around the globe under future warming scenarios, which can have significant impacts on aphids in different agricultural systems. However, studies on the genetic structuring process underlying changing aphid biology and ecology under drought are rare. To address the issue, we collected the wheat aphid, Sitobion avenae (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), clones from moist, semiarid, and arid areas of northwestern China and genotyped them with microsatellite markers...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
C Berthin, P Sibilia, J Martins-Hericher, A Donzeau, L Martin
BACKGROUND: Non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NC-CAH) is a recessive autosomal disease caused by a deficiency of adrenal steroidogenesis enzymes. It must be distinguished from classical CAH, either simple virilising or salt-wasting, diagnosed during the neonatal period and responsible for potentially lethal disorders of sexual differentiation. NC-CAH presents a simpler and less specific clinical picture. Herein, we present two cases comprising twin girls consulting for diffuse hypertrichosis...
March 7, 2018: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
Xiujuan Zhang, Linmiao Li, Haiying Jiang, Jinge Ma, Juan Li, Jinping Chen
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) cooperate with sex-related genes in post-transcriptional regulation and play extremely important roles in the establishment of sexually dimorphic traits in animals. However, the gonad miRNAs and expression patterns of miRNAs in sturgeon have not been investigated. METHODS: In the present study, we used high-throughput small RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to discover gonad miRNAs from the ovaries and testes of Amur sturgeons (Acipenser schrenckii)...
March 7, 2018: Gene
Lanlan Chen, Yu Zhao, Linchao Li, Lubin Xie, Xianwu Chen, Jianpeng Liu, Xiaoheng Li, Lixu Jin, Xingwang Li, Ren-Shan Ge
Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used in consumer products and a potential endocrine disruptor linked with sexual precocity. However, its action and underlying mechanisms on male sexual maturation is unclear. In the present study, we used a unique in vivo ethane dimethane sulfonate (EDS)-induced Leydig cell regeneration model that mimics the pubertal development of Leydig cells and an in vitro stem Leydig cell differentiation model to examine the roles of BPA in Leydig cell development in rats. Intratesticular exposure to doses (100 and 1000 pmol/testis) of BPA from post-EDS day 14-28 stimulated Leydig cell developmental regeneration process by increasing serum testosterone level and Leydig cell-specific gene (Lhcgr, Star, Cyp11a1, Hsd3b1, Cyp17a1, Hsd17b3, and Hsd11b1) and their protein expression levels...
March 7, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Seungyeop Lee, Si-On Lee, Gyu-Lee Kim, Dong-Kwon Rhee
AIMS: Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in acute bacterial meningitis can lead to widespread brain damage and mortality. Inflammatory responses by immune cells in the brain are thought to determine the degree of brain injury. Yet, the mechanisms underlying host responses to pneumococcal meningitis are largely unknown. To explore host responses as a potential therapeutic target for preventing brain injury after pneumococcal meningitis. METHODS: We evaluated signaling mechanisms that minimize neuronal damage caused by pneumococcal infection; specifically, we assessed pathways related to neuronal survival after enhancing estrogen receptor-β (ER-β) expression using a natural therapeutic substance known as ginsenoside Rb1 and Rg3 enhanced ginseng...
March 9, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Christoph Rosche, Karin Schrieber, Susanne Lachmuth, Walter Durka, Heidi Hirsch, Viktoria Wagner, Matthias Schleuning, Isabell Hensen
Habitat fragmentation and small population size can lead to genetic erosion in threatened plant populations. Classical theory implies that dioecy can counteract genetic erosion as it decreases the magnitude of inbreeding and genetic drift due to obligate outcrossing. However, in small populations, sex ratios may be strongly male- or female-biased leading to substantial reductions in effective population size. This may theoretically result in a unimodal relationship between sex ratios and genetic diversity; yet, empirical studies on this relationship are scarce...
March 9, 2018: Plant Biology
Aisha J L Munk, Aaron C Zoeller, Juergen Hennig
BACKGROUND: While several studies examined the reactivity towards negative emotional stimuli across women's menstrual cycle, only few investigated responses to positive emotional cues in association with sexual hormones on a neural level. Therefore, the aim of the current EEG-experiment was to study the differential reactivity towards positive (erotic) words during the menstrual cycle (i.e. with fluctuations in the steroids estradiol and progesterone) in the late positive potential (LPP)...
February 27, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Rafal P Piprek, Milena Damulewicz, Malgorzata Kloc, Jacek Z Kubiak
Development of the gonads is a complex process, which starts with a period of undifferentiated, bipotential gonads. During this period the expression of sex-determining genes is initiated. Sex determination is a process triggering differentiation of the gonads into the testis or ovary. Sex determination period is followed by sexual differentiation, i.e. appearance of the first testis- and ovary-specific features. In Xenopus laevis W-linked DM-domain gene (DM-W) had been described as a master determinant of the gonadal female sex...
March 2, 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Radka Symonová, Iva Vrbová, Dunja K Lamatsch, Jürgen Paar, Renate Matzke-Karasz, Olivier Schmit, Koen Martens, Stefan Müller
Transitions from sexual to asexual reproduction are often associated with polyploidy and increased chromosomal plasticity in asexuals. We investigated chromosomes in the freshwater ostracod species Eucypris virens (Jurine, 1820), where sexual, asexual and mixed populations can be found. Our initial karyotyping of multiple populations from Europe and North Africa, both sexual and asexual, revealed a striking variability in chromosome numbers. This would suggest that chromosomal changes are likely to be accelerated in asexuals because the constraints of meiosis are removed...
March 8, 2018: Genes
Xiaoduo Wen, Denggui Wen, Hui Zhang, Huifeng Zhang, Yi Yang
Rapid and noninvasive diagnosis on and differentiation between normal, central precocious puberty (CPP), and isolated precocious puberty (IPP) is imperative before a decision can be made with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist treatment. Our study aims to evaluate such a role by pelvic ultrasound.We consecutively enrolled 84 cases of IPP (59 with premature thelarche/ pubarche and 25 with premature menarche), 47 CPP, and 177 age-matched normal controls. The IPP and CPP were diagnosed by clinical examination and GnRH-stimulation test and confirmed by over 2 years' follow-up...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Chenyang Yue, Qi Li, Hong Yu
The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas is a commercially important bivalve in aquaculture worldwide. C. gigas has a fascinating sexual reproduction system consisting of dioecism, sex change, and occasional hermaphroditism, while knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of sex determination and differentiation is still limited. In this study, the transcriptomes of male and female gonads at different gametogenesis stages were characterized by RNA-seq. Hierarchical clustering based on genes differentially expressed revealed that 1269 genes were expressed specifically in female gonads and 817 genes were expressed increasingly over the course of spermatogenesis...
March 8, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Anne M Fairlie, Tracey A Garcia, Christine M Lee, Melissa A Lewis
INTRODUCTION: Few studies have examined associations between using alcohol only and using both alcohol and marijuana with sexual behavior on specific occasions. The current study examined alcohol and marijuana use during the most recent sexual experience in association with relationship characteristics, psychological issues, and condom use. METHODS: Young adult drinkers aged 18-25 who reported not using a condom during sex in the past month were recruited nationally...
March 3, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Nancy G Forger, Elara Ruszkowski, Andrew Jacobs, Kim Wallen
The role of gonadal steroids in sexual differentiation of the central nervous system (CNS) is well established in rodents, but no study to date has manipulated androgens prenatally and examined their effects on any CNS structure in a primate. Onuf's nucleus is a column of motoneurons in the sacral spinal cord that innervates the striated perineal muscles. This cell group is larger in males than in females of many species, due to androgens acting during a sensitive perinatal period. Here, we examined Onuf's nucleus in 21 adult rhesus monkeys, including control males and females, as well as males whose mothers had been treated with an anti-androgen or testosterone during gestation...
March 3, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Saifa Binte Sanawar, Mohammad Amirul Islam, Shankar Majumder, Farjana Misu
The aim of this study was to assess whether women's empowerment ensures reduced intimate partner violence (IPV). The differential relationship between women's empowerment and IPV among married women in Bangladesh was investigated using 2007 Demographic and Health Survey data. Logistic regression models were used to assess whether women's empowerment had any influence on their likelihood of experiencing IPV while controlling for other covariates. The analyses revealed that older cohorts of women, who were more empowered, were more vulnerable to physical violence than less-empowered, younger women...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
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