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Sexual differentiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905879/transcriptome-profiling-in-the-damselfly-ischnura-elegans-identifies-genes-with-sex-biased-expression
#1
Pallavi Chauhan, Maren Wellenreuther, Bengt Hansson
BACKGROUND: Sexual dimorphism occurs widely across the animal kingdom and has profound effects on evolutionary trajectories. Here, we investigate sex-specific gene expression in Ischnura elegans (Odonata: dragonflies and damselflies), a species with pronounced sexual differences including a female-limited colour polymorphism with two female-like gynochrome morphs and one male-mimicking, androchrome morph. Whole-organism transcriptome profiling and sex-biased gene expression analysis was conducted on adults of both sexes (pooling all females as well as separating the three morphs) to gain insights into genes and pathways potentially associated with sexual development and sexual conflict...
December 1, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900396/-persistent-mullerian-duct-syndrome-rare-incidental-finding-during-treatment-of-pediatric-inguinal-hernia
#2
P Sperling, T Meyer
BACKGROUND: Persistent mullerian duct syndrome (PMDS) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder. It is a form of male disorder of sexual differentiation in which mullerian duct structures are present in male phenotypes and 46XY karyotypes. In affected individuals, uterus, fallopian tubes, cervix and vagina are present. METHODS: A 2-month-old boy was admitted to hospital with a right-sided inguinal hernia. The physical examination showed a phenotypically normal boy with a right sided indirect inguinal hernia and impalpable testis...
November 29, 2016: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899901/association-of-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-related-gene-variants-with-the-severity-of-autism-spectrum-disorders
#3
Takashi X Fujisawa, Shota Nishitani, Ryoichiro Iwanaga, Junko Matsuzaki, Chisato Kawasaki, Mamoru Tochigi, Tsukasa Sasaki, Nobumasa Kato, Kazuyuki Shinohara
Exposure to environmental chemicals, such as dioxin, is known to have adverse effects on the homeostasis of gonadal steroids, thereby potentially altering the sexual differentiation of the brain to express autistic traits. Dioxin-like chemicals act on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), polymorphisms, and mutations of AhR-related gene may exert pathological influences on sexual differentiation of the brain, causing autistic traits. To ascertain the relationship between AhR-related gene polymorphisms and autism susceptibility, we identified genotypes of them in patients and controls and determined whether there are different gene and genotype distributions between both groups...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894930/sex-dependent-influence-of-chronic-mild-stress-cms-on-voluntary-alcohol-consumption-study-of-neurobiological-consequences
#4
Eva M Marco, Javier Antonio Ballesta, Carlos Irala, María-Donina Hernández, María Elisa Serrano, Virginia Mela, Meritxell López-Gallardo, María-Paz Viveros
Alcohol use disorder and depression are highly comorbid, and both conditions exhibit important sexual dimorphisms. Here, we aimed to investigate voluntary alcohol consumption after 6weeks of chronic mild stress (CMS) in Wistar rats - employed as an animal model of depression. Male and female rats were investigated, and changes in several molecular markers were analysed in frontal cortex (FCx) and hippocampal formation (HF). CMS induced depressive-like responses in the forced swimming test - increased immobility time - in male and female animals, without affecting anhedonia (sucrose preference test) nor motor activity (holeboard); body weight gain and food intake were diminished only among CMS males...
November 25, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894252/transcriptome-analysis-reveals-the-genetic-basis-underlying-the-seasonal-development-of-keratinized-nuptial-spines-in-leptobrachium-boringii
#5
Wei Zhang, Yue Guo, Jun Li, Li Huang, Eric Gilbert Kazitsa, Hua Wu
BACKGROUND: The expression of sexually selected traits often varies with populations' breeding cycles in many animals. The elucidation of mechanisms underlying the expression of such traits is a research topic in evolutionary biology; however, the genetic basis of the seasonal development of their expression remains unknown. Male Leptobrachium boringii develop keratinized nuptial spines on their upper jaw during the breeding season that fall off when the breeding season ends. To illuminate the genetic basis for the expression of this trait and its seasonal development, we assessed the de novo transcriptome for L...
November 28, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890947/profile-of-pneumocystis-infection-in-a-tertiary-care-institute-in-north-india
#6
Ravinder Kaur, Pragyan Swagatika Panda, Richa Dewan
CONTEXT: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PcP) is still remains a common opportunistic disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals. Study on PcP in developing countries are scarce. AIMS: To study the occurrence of P. jirovecii infection in clinically suspected individuals in a tertiary care institute. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Retrospective study conducted in a tertiary care hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two years data regarding respiratory sample analysis, HIV status, and cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) cell count of clinically suspected pneumocystis infection patients with known/unknown HIV status were analyzed...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881036/comparative-proteomics-analysis-of-spermary-and-ovary-in-hyriopsis-schlegelii
#7
Jianwu Shi, Dexia Wang, Yan Zhou, Yiran Gu, Di Wu, Junhua Wang, Yijiang Hong
We provide the first large-scale quantitative proteomics analysis in Hyriopsis schlegelii. To investigate the proteins expressed in the gonads, a quantitative proteomics approach has been utilized to analyze differentially expressed proteins between the spermary and ovary. In this study, we identified and quantified 2416 proteins in the gonads of Hyriopsis schlegelii. Of these, 559 proteins showed significantly different expression between the spermary and ovary. Some specific proteins expressed in either the spermary or ovary were identified in Hyriopsis schlegelii...
November 24, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880791/common-noctule-bats-are-sexually-dimorphic-in-migratory-behaviour-and-body-size-but-not-wing-shape
#8
M Teague O'Mara, Karla Bauer, Dominik Blank, Justin W Baldwin, Dina K N Dechmann
Within the large order of bats, sexual size dimorphism measured by forearm length and body mass is often female-biased. Several studies have explained this through the effects on load carrying during pregnancy, intrasexual competition, as well as the fecundity and thermoregulation advantages of increased female body size. We hypothesized that wing shape should differ along with size and be under variable selection pressure in a species where there are large differences in flight behaviour. We tested whether load carrying, sex differential migration, or reproductive advantages of large females affect size and wing shape dimorphism in the common noctule (Nyctalus noctula), in which females are typically larger than males and only females migrate long distances each year...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879329/phenotypic-profiling-reveals-that-candida-albicans-opaque-cells-represent-a-metabolically-specialized-cell-state-compared-to-default-white-cells
#9
Iuliana V Ene, Matthew B Lohse, Adrian V Vladu, Joachim Morschhäuser, Alexander D Johnson, Richard J Bennett
: The white-opaque switch is a bistable, epigenetic transition affecting multiple traits in Candida albicans including mating, immunogenicity, and niche specificity. To compare how the two cell states respond to external cues, we examined the fitness, phenotypic switching, and filamentation properties of white cells and opaque cells under 1,440 different conditions at 25°C and 37°C. We demonstrate that white and opaque cells display striking differences in their integration of metabolic and thermal cues, so that the two states exhibit optimal fitness under distinct conditions...
November 22, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876832/knockout-of-zebrafish-ovarian-aromatase-gene-cyp19a1a-by-talen-and-crispr-cas9-leads-to-all-male-offspring-due-to-failed-ovarian-differentiation
#10
Esther Shuk-Wa Lau, Zhiwei Zhang, Mingming Qin, Wei Ge
Sexual or gonadal differentiation is a complex event and its mechanism remains elusive in teleosts. Despite its complexity and plasticity, the process of ovarian differentiation is believed to involve gonadal aromatase (cyp19a1a) in nearly all species studied. However, most data concerning the role of aromatase have come from gene expression analysis or studies involving pharmacological approaches. There has been a lack of genetic evidence for the importance of aromatase in gonadal differentiation, especially the timing when the enzyme starts to exert its effect...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876454/will-the-global-hiv-response-fail-gay-and-bisexual-men-and-other-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#11
George Ayala, Glenn-Milo Santos
INTRODUCTION: Gay and bisexual men and other men who have sex with men are among the small number of groups for whom HIV remains uncontrolled worldwide. Although there have been recent and notable decreases in HIV incidence across several countries, prevalence and incidence is consistently higher or rising among men who have sex with men when compared with other groups. METHODS: In 2014, MSMGF (the Global Forum on MSM & HIV) conducted its third biennial Global Men's Health and Rights Study, an international, multilingual, web-based cross-sectional survey of men who have sex with men recruited through online convenience sampling...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872022/comparing-the-prevalence-risk-factors-and-repercussions-of-postpartum-genito-pelvic-pain-and-dyspareunia
#12
REVIEW
Natalie O Rosen, Caroline Pukall
INTRODUCTION: Childbirth is a risk factor for developing genito-pelvic pain and/or dyspareunia during the postpartum period and potentially in the longer term. These two types of pain can occur simultaneously or sequentially and could be affected by different risk factors and have a range of repercussions to women's lives, including their sexual functioning. AIM: This study reviewed the available evidence to compare and contrast the prevalence, risk factors, and repercussions of postpartum genito-pelvic pain vs dyspareunia...
April 2016: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871978/differences-in-testosterone-and-its-precursors-by-sex-of-the-offspring-in-meconium
#13
Alexander J Frey, Bo Y Park, Emily R Schriver, Daniel R Feldman, Samuel Parry, Lisa A Croen, Daniele M Fallin, Irva Hertz-Picciotto, Craig J Newschaffer, Nathaniel W Snyder
Prenatal metabolism exerts profound effects on development. The first stool of the newborn, meconium, provides a window into the prenatal metabolic environment. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of meconium as a novel matrix to quantify prenatal steroid levels. We quantified parameters of analytical interest regarding the use of meconium, including sample stability. We hypothesized that meconium steroid content would differ by sex, prompting analysis of meconium to test effects of prenatal steroid metabolism...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871958/current-perspectives-on-stem-cell-therapy-for-erectile-dysfunction
#14
REVIEW
Taylor C Peak, James Anaissie, Wayne J G Hellstrom
INTRODUCTION: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common sexual disorder that affects the lives of millions of male patients and their partners. Various medical and surgical therapies exist, with the most common being oral intake of phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors. One therapeutic strategy in preclinical development to treat ED is stem cell transplantation. AIM: To examine the studies that have investigated stem cells for the treatment of ED. METHODS: A literature review was performed through PubMed focusing on stem cells and ED...
July 2016: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870450/the-immune-system-as-a-novel-regulator-of-sex-differences-in-brain-and-behavioral-development
#15
REVIEW
Lars H Nelson, Kathryn M Lenz
Sexual differentiation of the brain occurs early in life as a result of sex-typical hormone action and sex chromosome effects. Immunocompetent cells are being recognized as underappreciated regulators of sex differences in brain and behavioral development, including microglia, astrocytes, and possibly other less well studied cell types, including T cells and mast cells. Immunocompetent cells in the brain are responsive to steroid hormones, but their role in sex-specific brain development is an emerging field of interest...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870447/sex-on-the-brain-are-gender-dependent-structural-and-functional-differences-associated-with-behavior
#16
REVIEW
Anna Grabowska
A substantial number of studies provide evidence documenting a variety of sex differences in the brain. It remains unclear whether sexual differentiation at the neural level is related to that observed in daily behavior, cognitive function, and the risk of developing certain psychiatric and neurological disorders. Some investigators have questioned whether the brain is truly sexually differentiated and support this view with several arguments including the following: (1) brain structural or functional differences are not necessarily reflected in appropriate differences at the behavioral level, which might suggest that these two phenomena are not linked to each other; and (2) sex-related differences in the brain are rather small and concern features that significantly overlap between males and females...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870435/a-general-theory-of-sexual-differentiation
#17
REVIEW
Arthur P Arnold
A general theory of mammalian sexual differentiation is proposed. All biological sex differences are the result of the inequality in effects of the sex chromosomes, which are the only factors that differ in XX vs. XY zygotes. This inequality leads to male-specific effects of the Y chromosome, including expression of the testis-determining gene Sry that causes differentiation of testes. Thus, Sry sets up lifelong sex differences in effects of gonadal hormones. Y genes also act outside of the gonads to cause male-specific effects...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870428/-putative-sex-differences-in-neuroimmune-modulation-of-memory
#18
REVIEW
Natalie C Tronson, Katie M Collette
The neuroimmune system is significantly sexually dimorphic, with sex differences evident in the number and activation states of microglia, in the activation of astrocytes, and in cytokine release and function. Neuroimmune cells and signaling are now recognized as critical for many neural functions throughout the life span, including synaptic plasticity and memory function. Here we address the question of how cytokines, astrocytes, and microglia contribute to memory, and specifically how neuroimmune modulation of memory differentially affects males and females...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870426/sex-dependent-effects-of-nicotine-on-the-developing-brain
#19
REVIEW
Sarah J Cross, Kay E Linker, Frances M Leslie
The use of tobacco products represents a major public health concern, especially among women. Epidemiological data have consistently demonstrated that women have less success quitting tobacco use and a higher risk for developing tobacco-related diseases. The deleterious effects of nicotine are not restricted to adulthood, as nicotinic acetylcholine receptors regulate critical aspects of neural development. However, the exact mechanisms underlying the particular sensitivity of women to develop tobacco dependence have not been well elucidated...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870425/sex-and-the-development-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
REVIEW
Christian J Pike
Men and women exhibit differences in the development and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The factors underlying the sex differences in AD are not well understood. This Review emphasizes the contributions of sex steroid hormones to the relationship between sex and AD. In women, events that decrease lifetime exposure to estrogens are generally associated with increased AD risk, whereas estrogen-based hormone therapy administered near the time of menopause may reduce AD risk. In men, estrogens do not exhibit age-related reduction and are not significantly associated with AD risk...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
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