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Sexual differentiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773679/comparative-proteomic-analysis-reveals-the-regulatory-network-of-the-vea-gene-during-asexual-and-sexual-spore-development-of-aspergillus-cristatus
#1
Hui Liu, Shilei Sang, Hui Wang, Xiyi Ren, Yumei Tan, Wei Chen, Zuoyi Liu, Yongxiang Liu
Aspergillus cristatus belongs to the homothallic fungal group that undergoes a sexual stage without asexual conidiation under hypotonic conditions, while hypertonic medium induces initiation of the asexual stage and completely blocks sexual development. However, the veA deletion mutant only produces conidia in hypotonic medium after a 24 h culture, but both asexual and sexual spores are observed after 72 h. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of how VeA regulates asexual and sexual spore development in A. cristatus , two dimensional electrophoresis combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-tandem time of flight mass spectrometry analysis were applied to identify 173 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) by comparing the agamotype (24 h) and teleomorph (72 h) with wild-type A...
May 17, 2018: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772966/variability-of-serum-aldosterone-concentrations-in-pet-ferrets-mustela-putorius-furo
#2
Nicola Di Girolamo, Kellie Fecteau, Alessandra Carnimeo, Laura Bongiovanni, Federico Fracassi, Gloria Isani, Paolo Selleri
OBJECTIVE To explore sources of serum aldosterone concentration variability in a population of healthy and diseased ferrets, determine a preliminary 1 -sided reference interval for serum aldosterone concentration in healthy ferrets, and identify a decision limit to differentiate healthy from diseased ferrets on the basis of serum aldosterone concentration. DESIGN Prospective threshold definition and diagnostic accuracy study. ANIMALS 78 healthy (n = 56) and diseased (22) ferrets. PROCEDURES Serum aldosterone concentrations were measured on consecutively admitted ferrets, and an upper reference limit for aldosterone concentrations was established...
June 1, 2018: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771782/differential-patterns-of-risk-and-vulnerability-suggest-the-need-for-novel-prevention-strategies-for-black-bisexual-men-in-the-hptn-061-study
#3
Typhanye V Dyer, Maria R Khan, Rotrease Regan, Nina T Harawa, LaRon E Nelson, Leo Wilton, Lei Wang, Lili Peng, San San Ou, Steve Shoptaw
BACKGROUND: Black men who have sex with men (BMSM); some who also have sex with women (BMSMW), account for over 70% of new HIV infections in the US representing an elevated HIV risk in this group, also informing risks for HIV transmission to other BMSM and female sexual partners. SETTINGS: We examined trajectories of self-reported substance use, HIV-related sexual risk behaviors and psychosocial vulnerabilities among BMSMW versus BMSM over a one-year study period...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771299/at-the-crossroads-of-fate-somatic-cell-lineage-specification-in-the-fetal-gonad
#4
Emmi Rotgers, Anne Jørgensen, Humphrey Hung-Chang Yao
The reproductive endocrine systems are vastly different between male and female. This sexual dimorphism of endocrine milieu originates from sex-specific differentiation of the somatic cells in the gonads during fetal life. The majority of gonadal somatic cells arise from the adrenogonadal primordium. After separation of the adrenal and gonadal primordia, the gonadal somatic cells initiate sex-specific differentiation during gonadal sex determination with the specification of the supporting cell lineages: Sertoli cells in the testis vs...
May 15, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771192/fine-scale-population-genetic-structure-and-within-tree-distribution-of-mating-types-of-venturia-effusa-cause-of-pecan-scab-in-the-u-s-a
#5
Clive Bock, Carolyn Young, Katherine Stevenson, Nikki Charlton
Scab (caused by Venturia effusa) is the major disease of pecan in the southeastern U.S.A. There is no information available on the fine scale population genetic diversity, or the occurrence of clonal types at small spatial scales that provides insight into inoculum sources and dispersal mechanisms, and potential opportunity for sexual reproduction. To investigate fine scale genetic diversity, 4 trees (cv. Wichita = populations) were sampled hierarchically: within each tree canopy, 4 approximately evenly spaced terminals (subpopulations) were selected and up to 6 leaflets (sub-subpopulations) were sampled from different compound leaves on each terminal...
May 17, 2018: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768628/androgen-insensitivity-syndrome-a-review
#6
Rafael Loch Batista, Elaine M Frade Costa, Andresa de Santi Rodrigues, Nathalia Lisboa Gomes, José Antonio Faria, Mirian Y Nishi, Ivo Jorge Prado Arnhold, Sorahia Domenice, Berenice Bilharinho de Mendonca
Androgenic insensitivity syndrome is the most common cause of disorders of sexual differentiation in 46,XY individuals. It results from alterations in the androgen receptor gene, leading to a frame of hormonal resistance, which may present clinically under 3 phenotypes: complete (CAIS), partial (PAIS) or mild (MAIS). The androgen receptor gene has 8 exons and 3 domains, and allelic variants in this gene occur in all domains and exons, regardless of phenotype, providing a poor genotype - phenotype correlation in this syndrome...
March 2018: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767781/adolescent-condom-use-and-connectivity-in-the-social-planful-brain
#7
Justin D Caouette, Karen A Hudson, Angela D Bryan, Sarah W Feldstein Ewing
Objective: To reduce rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unwanted pregnancy among adolescents, it is critical to investigate brain connectivity that may underlie adolescents' sexual health decision-making in the context of intercourse. This study explored relationships between adolescent condom use frequency and the brain's resting-state functional connectivity, to identify differential patterns of social-affective processing among sexually active youth. Methods: In this study, N = 143 sexually active adolescents (68...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767687/hormone-responsive-genes-in-the-shh-and-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathways-influence-urethral-closure-and-phallus-growth
#8
Yu Chen, Hongshi Yu, Andrew J Pask, Asao Fujiyama, Yutaka Suzuki, Sumio Sugano, Geoff Shaw, Marilyn B Renfree
Environmental endocrine disruptors (EEDs) that affect androgen or estrogen activity may disrupt gene regulation during normal phallus development to cause hypospadias or a masculinized clitoris. We treated developing male tammar wallabies with estrogen and females with androgen from day 20-40 postpartum (pp) during the established androgen imprinting window. Administration of estrogen to males inhibited phallus elongation but had no effect on urethral closure and did not significantly depress testicular androgen synthesis...
May 14, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765020/changes-in-genome-organization-of-parasite-specific-gene-families-during-the-plasmodium-transmission-stages
#9
Evelien M Bunnik, Kate B Cook, Nelle Varoquaux, Gayani Batugedara, Jacques Prudhomme, Anthony Cort, Lirong Shi, Chiara Andolina, Leila S Ross, Declan Brady, David A Fidock, Francois Nosten, Rita Tewari, Photini Sinnis, Ferhat Ay, Jean-Philippe Vert, William Stafford Noble, Karine G Le Roch
The development of malaria parasites throughout their various life cycle stages is coordinated by changes in gene expression. We previously showed that the three-dimensional organization of the Plasmodium falciparum genome is strongly associated with gene expression during its replication cycle inside red blood cells. Here, we analyze genome organization in the P. falciparum and P. vivax transmission stages. Major changes occur in the localization and interactions of genes involved in pathogenesis and immune evasion, host cell invasion, sexual differentiation, and master regulation of gene expression...
May 15, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764660/genomic-mechanisms-of-sympatric-ecological-and-sexual-divergence-in-a-model-agricultural-pest-the-european-corn-borer
#10
REVIEW
Brad S Coates, Erik B Dopman, Kevin W Wanner, Thomas W Sappington
The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, is a model species for elucidating mechanisms underlying adaptively differentiated subpopulations in the face of reciprocal gene flow, and is a major pest of cultivated maize in North America and Eurasia. Strains are characterized by different pheromone communication systems in combination with voltinism strains that are adapted to distinct local climate and photoperiod through adjustments in diapause traits. However, only partial barriers to inter-strain hybridization exist in areas of sympatry...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764377/transcriptome-display-during-tilapia-sex-determination-and-differentiation-as-revealed-by-rna-seq-analysis
#11
Wenjing Tao, Jinlin Chen, Dejie Tan, Jing Yang, Lina Sun, Jing Wei, Matthew A Conte, Thomas D Kocher, Deshou Wang
BACKGROUND: The factors determining sex in teleosts are diverse. Great efforts have been made to characterize the underlying genetic network in various species. However, only seven master sex-determining genes have been identified in teleosts. While the function of a few genes involved in sex determination and differentiation has been studied, we are far from fully understanding how genes interact to coordinate in this process. RESULTS: To enable systematic insights into fish sexual differentiation, we generated a dynamic co-expression network from tilapia gonadal transcriptomes at 5, 20, 30, 40, 90, and 180 dah (days after hatching), plus 45 and 90 dat (days after treatment) and linked gene expression profiles to both development and sexual differentiation...
May 15, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760888/adaptive-phenotypic-plasticity-in-a-clonal-invader
#12
Gerlien Verhaegen, Kyle E McElroy, Laura Bankers, Maurine Neiman, Martin Haase
Organisms featuring wide trait variability and occurring in a wide range of habitats, such as the ovoviviparous New Zealand freshwater snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum , are ideal models to study adaptation. Since the mid-19th century, P. antipodarum , characterized by extremely variable shell morphology, has successfully invaded aquatic areas on four continents. Because these obligately and wholly asexual invasive populations harbor low genetic diversity compared to mixed sexual/asexual populations in the native range, we hypothesized that (1) this phenotypic variation in the invasive range might be adaptive with respect to colonization of novel habitats, and (2) that at least some of the variation might be caused by phenotypic plasticity...
May 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759915/social-interaction-anxiety-and-personality-traits-predicting-engagement-in-health-risk-sexual-behaviors
#13
Ryan L Rahm-Knigge, Mark A Prince, Bradley T Conner
Individuals with social interaction anxiety, a facet of social anxiety disorder, withdraw from or avoid social encounters and generally avoid risks. However, a subset engages in health risk sexual behavior (HRSB). Because sensation seeking, emotion dysregulation, and impulsivity predict engagement in HRSB among adolescents and young adults, the present study hypothesized that latent classes of social interaction anxiety and these personality traits would differentially predict likelihood of engagement in HRSB...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758382/effects-of-exposure-to-bpf-on-development-and-sexual-differentiation-during-early-life-stages-of-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#14
Qian Yang, Xianhai Yang, Jining Liu, Yingwen Chen, Shubao Shen
Bisphenol F (BPF) has become a predominant bisphenol contaminant in recent years. It has significant estrogenic properties in both in vivo and in vitro studies. We have previously studied the disrupting mechanisms of BPF on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis of adult zebrafish. However, the effects of BPF exposure on development and sexual differentiation of zebrafish embryos/larvae remain unclear. To determine the effects of BPF on the critical stage of sex differentiation in zebrafish, zebrafish embryos/larvae were exposed to 1, 10, 100, and 1000 μg/L BPF from fertilization to 60 days post-fertilization (dpf)...
May 11, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755439/dicer-like-proteins-regulate-sexual-development-via-the-biogenesis-of-perithecium-specific-micrornas-in-a-plant-pathogenic-fungus-fusarium-graminearum
#15
Wenping Zeng, Jie Wang, Ying Wang, Jing Lin, Yanping Fu, Jiatao Xie, Daohong Jiang, Tao Chen, Huiquan Liu, Jiasen Cheng
Ascospores act as the primary inoculum of Fusarium graminearum , which causes the destructive disease Fusarium head blight (FHB), or scab. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported in the F. graminearum vegetative stage, and Fgdcl2 is involved in microRNA-like RNA (milRNA) biogenesis but has no major impact on vegetative growth, abiotic stress or pathogenesis. In the present study, we found that ascospore discharge was decreased in the Fgdcl1 deletion mutant, and completely blocked in the double-deletion mutant of Fgdcl1 and Fgdcl2 ...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750562/a-genomic-imprinting-model-of-termite-caste-determination-not-genetic-but-epigenetic-inheritance-influences-offspring-caste-fate
#16
Kenji Matsuura, Nobuaki Mizumoto, Kazuya Kobayashi, Tomonari Nozaki, Tadahide Fujita, Toshihisa Yashiro, Taro Fuchikawa, Yuki Mitaka, Edward L Vargo
Eusocial insects exhibit the most striking example of phenotypic plasticity. There has been a long controversy over the factors determining caste development of individuals in social insects. Here we demonstrate that parental phenotypes influence the social status of offspring not through genetic inheritance but through genomic imprinting in termites. Our extensive field survey and genetic analysis of the termite Reticulitermes speratus show that its breeding system is inconsistent with a genetic caste determination model...
June 2018: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750557/frequency-dependence-and-ecological-drift-shape-coexistence-of-species-with-similar-niches
#17
Erik I Svensson, Miguel A Gómez-Llano, Anais Rivas Torres, Hanna M Bensch
The coexistence of ecologically similar species might be counteracted by ecological drift and demographic stochasticity, both of which erode local diversity. With niche differentiation, species can be maintained through performance trade-offs between environments, but trade-offs are difficult to invoke for species with similar ecological niches. Such similar species might then go locally extinct due to stochastic ecological drift, but there is little empirical evidence for such processes. Previous studies have relied on biogeographical surveys and inferred process from pattern, while experimental field investigations of ecological drift are rare...
June 2018: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746996/plasma-biomarkers-in-juvenile-marine-fish-provide-evidence-for-endocrine-modulation-potential-of-organotin-compounds
#18
Byung Hwa Min, Bo-Mi Kim, Moonkoo Kim, Jung-Hoon Kang, Jee-Hyun Jung, Jae-Sung Rhee
Organotin compounds, such as tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT), have been widely used to control marine fouling. Here, we show that organotin stimulation reduces the hormone levels in the plasma of two economically important aquaculture fish. Blood plasma samples were collected from juvenile red seabream and black rockfish exposed to environmentally realistic concentrations of TBT and TPT for 14 days. The levels of two plasma biomarkers, namely the yolk protein precursor vitellogenin (VTG) and the sex steroid 17β-estradiol (E2), were measured to determine the endocrine disrupting potential of the organotin compounds...
May 7, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742513/human-adrenal-cortex-epigenetics-and-postnatal-functional-zonation
#19
María Sonia Baquedano, Alicia Belgorosky
The human adrenal cortex, involved in adaptive responses to stress, fluid homeostasis, and secondary sexual characteristics, arises from a tightly regulated development of a zone and cell type-specific secretory pattern. However, the molecular mechanisms governing adrenal zonation, particularly postnatal zona reticularis development, which produce adrenal androgens in a lifetime-specific manner, remain poorly understood. Epigenetic events, including DNA and histone modifications as well as regulation by noncoding RNAs, are crucial in establishing or maintaining the expression pattern of specific genes and thus contribute to the stability of a specific differentiation state...
May 9, 2018: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735758/the-impact-of-active-metabolism-on-chlamydia-trachomatis-elementary-body-transcript-profile-and-infectivity
#20
Scott Grieshaber, Nicole Grieshaber, Hong Yang, Briana Baxter, Ted Hackstadt, Anders Omsland
Bacteria of the genus Chlamydia include the significant human pathogens C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae All Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular parasites that depend on infection of a host cell and transition through a biphasic developmental cycle. Following host cell invasion by the infectious Elementary Body (EB), the pathogen transitions to the replicative but non-infectious Reticulate Body (RB). Differentiation of the RB back to the EB is essential to generate infectious progeny. While the EB form has historically been regarded as metabolically inert, maintenance of infectivity during incubation with specific nutrients has revealed active maintenance of the infectious phenotype...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
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