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Sexual differentiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917944/tetrabromoethylcyclohexane-affects-gonadal-differentiation-and-development-in-the-frog-pelophylax-nigromaculatus
#1
Peng-Yan Liu, Tan Meng, Yuan-Yuan Li, Man Cai, Xing-Hong Li, Juan Chen, Zhan-Fen Qin
Tetrabromoethylcyclohexane (TBECH), an additive brominated flame retardant, has been shown to have an androgenic activity in vitro. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of TBECH on gonadal differentiation and development in the frog Pelophylax nigromaculatus, an amphibian species sensitive to androgenic chemicals, and to assess the androgenic activity of TBECH in vivo. P. nigromaculatus tadpoles were exposed to TBECH (1, 10, 100nM) from Gosner stage 24 to complete metamorphosis, and to 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) as a positive control...
September 9, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916559/omics-analyses-of-trichoderma-reesei-cbs999-97-and-qm6a-indicate-a-relevance-of-female-fertility-for-cazyme-and-transporter-levels
#2
Doris Tisch, Kyle R Pomraning, James R Collett, Michael Freitag, Scott E Baker, Chia-Ling Chen, Paul Wei-Che Hsu, Yu Chien Chuang, Andre Schuster, Christoph Dattenböck, Eva Stappler, Michael Sulyok, Stefan Böhmdorfer, Josua Oberlerchner, Ting-Fang Wang, Monika Schmoll
The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is predominantly found in the tropics, but also in more temperate regions, such as Europe and is widely known as producer of high amounts of plant cell wall degrading enzymes. We sequenced the genome of the sexually competent isolate CBS999.97, which is phenotypically different from female sterile QM6a, but can cross sexually with QM6a. Transcriptome data for growth on cellulose showed that entire CAZyme families are consistently differentially regulated between these strains...
September 15, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914211/-a-toddler-with-a-vaginal-mass-and-blood-loss-the-rhabdomyosarcoma
#3
N Pleunis, W B Breunis, J H M Merks, A E Bouwma, J W van der Steeg
BACKGROUND: The differential diagnosis of vaginal blood loss in childhood is broad, and includes irritation of the mucous membranes, trauma, tumours, foreign bodies and sexual abuse. Physical and additional examination is often initially difficult; however, prompt detection of a rhabdomyosarcoma, a soft-tissue tumour principally diagnosed in childhood, is vitally important. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 3-year-old girl with a history of vaginal blood loss and an introital mass was referred to the gynaecologist...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910392/karyotype-analysis-and-sex-determination-in-australian-brush-turkeys-alectura-lathami
#4
Madison T Ortega, Dustin J Foote, Nicholas Nees, Jason C Erdmann, Charles D Bangs, Cheryl S Rosenfeld
Sexual differentiation across taxa may be due to genetic sex determination (GSD) and/or temperature sex determination (TSD). In many mammals, males are heterogametic (XY); whereas females are homogametic (XX). In most birds, the opposite is the case with females being heterogametic (ZW) and males the homogametic sex (ZZ). Many reptile species lack sex chromosomes, and instead, sexual differentiation is influenced by temperature with specific temperatures promoting males or females varying across species possessing this form of sexual differentiation, although TSD has recently been shown to override GSD in Australian central beaded dragons (Pogona vitticeps)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910329/classification-and-conservation-priority-of-five-deccani-sheep-ecotypes-of-maharashtra-india
#5
Dinesh Kumar Yadav, Reena Arora, Anand Jain
Characterization of Indian livestock breeds has mostly been limited to single breed/population focused on either physical description of traditionally recognized breeds/populations or to their genetic description. Usually, morphological and genetic characterization has taken place in isolation. A parallel morphological characterization of genetically identified breeds or genetic characterization of morphologically described breeds is mostly missing, and their conservation priorities have largely been based on solely considering degree of endangerment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904765/the-evolutionary-consequences-of-habitat-fragmentation-body-morphology-and-coloration-differentiation-among-brook-trout-populations-of-varying-size
#6
Carol Zastavniouk, Laura K Weir, Dylan J Fraser
A reduction in population size due to habitat fragmentation can alter the relative roles of different evolutionary mechanisms in phenotypic trait differentiation. While deterministic (selection) and stochastic (genetic drift) mechanisms are expected to affect trait evolution, genetic drift may be more important than selection in small populations. We examined relationships between mature adult traits and ecological (abiotic and biotic) variables among 14 populations of brook trout. These naturally fragmented populations have shared ancestry but currently exhibit considerable variability in habitat characteristics and population size (49 < Nc < 10,032; 3 < Nb < 567)...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903904/insights-of-sex-determination-and-differentiation-from-medaka-as-a-teleost-model
#7
Yi Kang, Gui-Jun Guan, Yun-Han Hong
The mechanisms of sex determination and differentiation in fish are highly divergent with a broad range of gonadal differentiation types from hermaphroditism to gonochorism. Multiple triggers regulate the process of sexual differentiation including genetic or environmental factors (temperature, light, hormones and/or pH value, etc.). In recent years, with the advances of molecular technologies and genetic engineering approaches, there are significant breakthroughs in identifying the master genes of vertebrate sex determination and differentiation...
June 20, 2017: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901720/vitellogenin-expression-in-the-oilseed-rape-pest-meligethes-aeneus
#8
Caroline Kaiser, Christina Lazaridou, Karl-Martin Vagn Jensen, Rodrigo Labouriau, Michael Kristensen
When investigating insecticide resistance of pest insects e.g. the pollen beetle Meligethes aeneus, it is relevant to differentiate toxicological and molecular genetic data between male and female specimens. A molecular sex determination method would allow resistance testing to be run without prior sorting of the samples. A one-step quantitative RT-PCR method for quantification of the yolk protein vitellogenin expression in the pollen beetle was established. The expression level of vitellogenin, relative to tubulin was determined...
September 13, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901197/sexually-dimorphic-faciometrics-in-humans-from-early-adulthood-to-late-middle-age-dynamic-declining-and-differentiated
#9
Julia M Robertson, Barbara E Kingsley, Gina C Ford
Faciometrics have widely been used in contemporary studies on gender-related behavioral traits, for example, perceived and actual aggression, co-operation and trustworthiness, prejudicial beliefs, unethical behavior, and achievement drive, as well as, but to a lesser degree, in nonhuman primates. For the large part, these studies have focused primarily on "student-aged" populations with little empirical scrutiny regarding the efficacy of applying these measures with older participants. This study therefore investigated sexual dimorphism across four age-groups (20s, 30s, 40s, and 50s) in 444 participants (225 men)...
July 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895797/neuroendocrine-disruption-of-organizational-and-activational-hormone-programming-in-poikilothermic-vertebrates
#10
Cheryl S Rosenfeld, Nancy D Denslow, Edward F Orlando, Juan Manuel Gutierrez-Villagomez, Vance L Trudeau
In vertebrates, sexual differentiation of the reproductive system and brain is tightly orchestrated by organizational and activational effects of endogenous hormones. In mammals and birds, the organizational period is typified by a surge of sex hormones during differentiation of specific neural circuits; whereas activational effects are dependent upon later increases in these same hormones at sexual maturation. Depending on the reproductive organ or brain region, initial programming events may be modulated by androgens or require conversion of androgens to estrogens...
2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894236/genome-wide-functional-analysis-reveals-that-autophagy-is-necessary-for-growth-sporulation-deoxynivalenol-production-and-virulence-in-fusarium-graminearum
#11
Wuyun Lv, Chunyan Wang, Nan Yang, Yawei Que, Nicholas J Talbot, Zhengyi Wang
Autophagy is a conserved cellular recycling and trafficking pathway in eukaryotic cells and has been reported to be important in the virulence of a number of microbial pathogens. Here, we report genome-wide identification and characterization of autophagy-related genes (ATGs) in the wheat pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum. We identified twenty-eight genes associated with the regulation and operation of autophagy in F. graminearum. Using targeted gene deletion, we generated a set of 28 isogenic mutants...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894175/sexual-congruency-in-the-connectome-and-translatome-of-vta-dopamine-neurons
#12
Amanda S Chung, Samara M Miller, Yanjun Sun, Xiangmin Xu, Larry S Zweifel
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine system is important for reward, motivation, emotion, learning, and memory. Dysfunctions in the dopamine system are linked to multiple neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders, many of which present with sex differences. Little is known about the extent of heterogeneity in the basic organization of VTA dopamine neurons with regard to sex. Here, we characterized the cell-specific connectivity of VTA dopamine neurons, their mRNA translational profile, and basic electrophysiological characteristics in a common strain of mice...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893907/compositional-and-expression-analyses-of-the-glideosome-during-the-plasmodium-life-cycle-reveal-an-additional-myosin-light-chain-required-for-maximum-motility
#13
Judith L Green, Richard J Wall, Juha Vahokoski, Noor A Yusuf, Mohd A Mohd Ridzuan, Rebecca R Stanway, Jessica Stock, Ellen Knuepfer, Declan Brady, Stephen R Martin, Steven A Howell, Isa P Pires, Robert W Moon, Justin E Molloy, Inari Kursula, Rita Tewari, Anthony A Holder
Myosin A (MyoA) is a Class XIV myosin implicated in gliding motility and host cell and tissue invasion by malaria parasites. MyoA is part of a membrane-associated protein complex called the glideosome, which is essential for parasite motility and includes the MyoA light chain MTIP, and several glideosome-associated proteins (GAPs). However, most studies of MyoA have focused on single stages of the parasite life cycle. We examined MyoA expression throughout the Plasmodium berghei life cycle in both mammalian and insect hosts...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891264/hormonal-and-genetic-factors-interact-to-control-aromatase-expression-in-the-developing-brain
#14
REVIEW
Carla Daniela Cisternas, Luis Miguel Garcia-Segura, María Julia Cambiasso
The brain expression of the enzyme P450-aromatase has been extensively studied. Since the aromatization hypothesis established brain aromatase as a key factor to convert gonadal testosterone to oestradiol, several studies have investigated the regulation of aromatase during the critical period of brain sexual differentiation. Here, we review previous and recent findings concerning regulation of aromatase. The role of gonadal hormones, sex chromosome genes and neurosteroids is analysed in term of their contribution to aromatase expression and the implications for the organizational effect of steroids during development...
September 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891218/prostate-vascular-flow-the-effect-of-the-ejaculation-on-the-power-doppler-ultrasonographic-examination
#15
S Alonge, M Melandri, L Fanciullo, G M Lacalandra, G Aiudi
Power Doppler sonography (PD) can accurately depict tissue perfusion, recognize slow flows, and is relatively angle independent. The monitoring of local blood flow by Doppler ultrasonography is helpful in differentiating prostatic physio-pathological conditions, but the recognizing of physiological variables that could affect it is crucial to apply this technique in clinical practice. This study aimed to evaluate if ejaculation affects blood flow to the prostate and to state how long this effect lasts. Serial PD examinations of prostate were performed in 18 dogs (1-5 years, 6-40 kg) immediately before (T0) and after (T1) the ejaculation, and repeated 6 (T2), 18 (T3) and 24 (T4) hours later...
September 11, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890130/effects-of-perinatal-bisphenol-a-exposure-on-the-volume-of-sexually-dimorphic-nuclei-of-juvenile-rats-a-clarity-bpa-consortium-study
#16
Sheryl E Arambula, Joelle Fuchs, Jinyan Cao, Heather B Patisaul
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high volume endocrine disrupting chemical found in a wide variety of products including plastics and epoxy resins. Human exposure is nearly ubiquitous, and higher in children than adults. Because BPA has been reported to interfere with sex steroid hormone signaling, there is concern that developmental exposure, even at levels below the current FDA No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) of 5mg/kg body weight (bw)/day, can disrupt brain sexual differentiation. The current studies were conducted as part of the CLARITY-BPA (Consortium Linking Academic and Regulatory Insights on BPA Toxicity) program and tested the hypothesis that perinatal BPA exposure would induce morphological changes in hormone sensitive, sexually dimorphic brain regions...
September 7, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889019/psychotraumatology-what-researchers-and-clinicians-can-learn-from-an-evolutionary-perspective
#17
REVIEW
Alfonso Troisi
This review outlines the contribution of evolutionary science to experimental and clinical psychotraumatology. From an evolutionary perspective, traumatic and psychosocial stressors are conceived of as events or circumstances that thwart the achievement of biological goals. The more important is the adaptive value of the goal, the more painful is the emotional impact of the life event that endangers goal achievement. Life history theory and sexual selection theory help to explain why goal priorities differ between the sexes and across age groups...
September 6, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888397/social-reorganization-and-biological-change-an-examination-of-stature-variation-among-iron-age-samnites-from-abruzzo-central-italy
#18
Vitale Stefano Sparacello, Giuseppe Vercellotti, Vincenzo d'Ercole, Alfredo Coppa
Stature is a sensitive indicator of overall environmental quality experienced during growth and development, and can provide insights on a population's 'well-being'. This study investigated changes in estimated adult stature in a large (N=568) sample of Samnite Iron Age (800-27 BCE) people from central Italy, during a period of increasing sociopolitical complexity. Stature was analyzed diachronically, between sexes, and across social strata inferred using the 'Status Index' based on funerary treatment. It was expected: 1) a decrease in stature from the Orientalizing-Archaic period (O-A) to the fifth century BC (V SEC) and the following Hellenistic period (ELL), due to population increase and urbanization; 2) social status to positively influence the attainment of the full stature potential; 3) sexual dimorphism to be higher in more stratified groups...
September 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887703/examining-the-impact-of-intimate-partner-violence-type-and-timing-on-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-awareness-interest-and-coercion
#19
Tiara C Willie, Jamila K Stockman, Nicole M Overstreet, Trace S Kershaw
Previous research suggests that intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with acceptability of and adherence to pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). However, very few studies have examined whether the type (i.e., physical, sexual, and psychological IPV) and timing (i.e., lifetime, past-year) of IPV experiences differentially relate to PrEP awareness, interest, and perceived PrEP coercion. Therefore, the objective of this study is to examine associations between lifetime and past-year physical, sexual, and psychological IPV experiences on PrEP awareness, interest, and perceived PrEP coercion...
September 8, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886577/what-s-the-harm-alcohol-and-marijuana-use-and-perceived-risks-of-unprotected-sex-among-adolescents-and-young-adults
#20
Allyson L Dir, Amanda K Gilmore, Angela D Moreland, Tatiana M Davidson, April L Borkman, Alyssa A Rheingold, Carla Kmett Danielson
The link between substance use and risky sexual behavior, particularly unprotected sex, among adolescents and young adults has been well established in the literature; however, less is known regarding how different patterns and types of substance use differentially relate to unprotected sex and perceived risks of unprotected sex. The current study examined perceived risks and unprotected sex among adolescents and young adults, and examined whether marijuana use, alcohol use, and dual marijuana and alcohol use were differentially linked to unprotected sex and perceived risks of unprotected sex...
September 1, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
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