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Stem cell

Vionnie W C Yu, Rushdia Z Yusuf, Toshihiko Oki, Juwell Wu, Borja Saez, Xin Wang, Colleen Cook, Ninib Baryawno, Michael J Ziller, Eunjung Lee, Hongcang Gu, Alexander Meissner, Charles P Lin, Peter V Kharchenko, David T Scadden
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 23, 2017: Cell
Chia-Wei Cheng, Valentina Villani, Roberta Buono, Min Wei, Sanjeev Kumar, Omer H Yilmaz, Pinchas Cohen, Julie B Sneddon, Laura Perin, Valter D Longo
Stem-cell-based therapies can potentially reverse organ dysfunction and diseases, but the removal of impaired tissue and activation of a program leading to organ regeneration pose major challenges. In mice, a 4-day fasting mimicking diet (FMD) induces a stepwise expression of Sox17 and Pdx-1, followed by Ngn3-driven generation of insulin-producing β cells, resembling that observed during pancreatic development. FMD cycles restore insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis in both type 2 and type 1 diabetes mouse models...
February 23, 2017: Cell
Mi-Young Son, Hyuna Sim, Ye Seul Son, Kwang Bo Jung, Mi-Ok Lee, Jung-Hwa Oh, Sun-Ku Chung, Cho-Rok Jung, Janghwan Kim
AIMS: The leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) G2019S mutation is the most common genetic cause of Parkinson's disease (PD). There is compelling evidence that PD is not only a brain disease but also a gastrointestinal disorder; nonetheless, its pathogenesis remains unclear. We aimed to develop human neural and intestinal tissue models of PD patients harboring an LRRK2 mutation to understand the link between LRRK2 and PD pathology by investigating the gene expression signature. METHODS: We generated PD patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) carrying an LRRK2 G2019S mutation (LK2GS) and then differentiated into three-dimensional (3D) human neuroectodermal spheres (hNESs) and human intestinal organoids (hIOs)...
February 24, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
Marisa Simon, Fahmi Mesmar, Luisa Helguero, Cecilia Williams
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive, highly recurrent breast cancer subtype, affecting approximately one-fifth of all breast cancer patients. Subpopulations of treatment-resistant cancer stem cells within the tumors are considered to contribute to disease recurrence. A potential druggable target for such cells is the maternal embryonic leucine-zipper kinase (MELK). MELK expression is upregulated in mammary stem cells and in undifferentiated cancers, where it correlates with poor prognosis and potentially mediates treatment resistance...
2017: PloS One
Dale B Bosco, Mark D Roycik, Yonghao Jin, Martin A Schwartz, Ty J Lively, Diego A R Zorio, Qing-Xiang Amy Sang
Development of adipose tissue requires the differentiation of less specialized cells, such as human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), into adipocytes. Since matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play critical roles in the cell differentiation process, we conducted investigations to determine if a novel mercaptosulfonamide-based MMP inhibitor (MMPI), YHJ-7-52, could affect hMSC adipogenic differentiation and lipid accumulation. Enzyme inhibition assays, adipogenic differentiation experiments, and quantitative PCR methods were employed to characterize this inhibitor and determine its effect upon adipogenesis...
2017: PloS One
Yani Zhang, Yingjie Wang, Qisheng Zuo, Dong Li, Wenhui Zhang, Fei Wang, Yanqin Ji, Jing Jin, Zhenyu Lu, Man Wang, Chen Zhang, Bichun Li
An efficient genome editing approach had been established to construct the stable transgenic cell lines in the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) at present. Our objectives were to investigate gene function in the differentiation process of chicken embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into spermatogonial stem cells(SSCs). Three guides RNA (gRNAs) were designed to knockout the Stra8 gene, and knockout efficiency was evaluated in domestic chicken cells using cleavage activity of in vitro transcription of gRNA, Luciferase-SSA assay, T7 endonuclease I assay(T7E1) and TA clone sequence...
2017: PloS One
Lei Wang, Yujia Deng, Da Duan, Shuaiqi Sun, Lite Ge, Yi Zhuo, Ting Yuan, Pei Wu, Hao Wang, Ming Lu, Ying Xia
BACKGROUND: Temperature is an important parameter in the microenvironment of neural stem cells (NSCs); however, little is known about the precise effects of hyperthermia on fate determination in NSCs or the role of long non-coding (lnc)RNAs in this process. This was addressed in the present study using NSCs cultured at two different temperatures. METHODS: NSCs were divided into 37NSC and 40NSC groups that were cultured at 37°C or 40°C, respectively, for 72 h. Neuronal or glial cell differentiation was evaluated by flow cytometry and western blotting...
2017: PloS One
Arnold Kuzniar, Charlie Laffeber, Berina Eppink, Karel Bezstarosti, Dick Dekkers, Henri Woelders, A Peter M Zwamborn, Jeroen Demmers, Joyce H G Lebbink, Roland Kanaar
The potential effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields (EMFs), such as those emitted by power-lines (in extremely low frequency range), mobile cellular systems and wireless networking devices (in radio frequency range) on human health have been intensively researched and debated. However, how exposure to these EMFs may lead to biological changes underlying possible health effects is still unclear. To reveal EMF-induced molecular changes, unbiased experiments (without a priori focusing on specific biological processes) with sensitive readouts are required...
2017: PloS One
Kenji Hayashida, Shuhei Yoshida, Hiroshi Yoshimoto, Masaki Fujioka, Hiroto Saijo, Kiyoshi Migita, Misato Kumaya, Sadanori Akita
BACKGROUND: Secondary lymphedema is often observed in postmalignancy treatment of the breast and the gynecologic organs, but effective therapies have not been established in chronic cases even with advanced physiologic operations. Currently, reconstructive surgery with novel approaches has been attempted. METHODS: The hindlimbs of 10-week-old male C57BL/6J mice, after 30-Gy x-irradiation, surgical lymph node dissection, and 5-mm gap creation, were divided into four groups, with vascularized lymph node transfer abdominal flap and 1...
March 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Bong-Sung Kim, Veronica Ott, Arne Hendrick Boecker, Jan-Philipp Stromps, Nora Emilie Paul, Ziyad Alharbi, Ercan Cakmak, Jürgen Bernhagen, Richard Bucala, Norbert Pallua
BACKGROUND: Although chemical antiseptics are the most basic measure to control wound infection and frequently come into contact with subcutaneous adipose tissue, no studies have evaluated their toxicity on adipose tissue and its cell fractions. In the present study, the effects of five different antiseptics on adipose-derived stem cells were evaluated. METHODS: Human adipose-derived stem cells were harvested from healthy donors. Adipose-derived stem cell viability was measured after treatment with different concentrations of antiseptics over 5 days...
March 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Libor Streit, Josef Jaros, Veronika Sedlakova, Miroslava Sedlackova, Lubos Drazan, Michal Svoboda, Jakub Pospisil, Tomas Vyska, Jiri Vesely, Ales Hampl
BACKGROUND: Lipomodeling is a technique that uses the patient's own fat for tissue regeneration and augmentation. The extent of regenerative effect is reported to be determined by the numbers of adipose-derived stem cells and the viability of cells in processed adipose tissue which, together with other factors, influence the degree of graft retention. This study addresses whether differences exist in properties of fat graft obtained by three commonly used techniques. METHODS: Adipose tissue harvested from the hypogastric regions of 14 patients was processed by decantation, centrifugation, and membrane-based tissue filtration...
March 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Dazhi Liu, Brian Seyboth, Sherry Mathew, Stephen W Gilheeney, Alexander J Chou, Esther Drill, Rachel Kobos
BACKGROUND: Palifermin has been proven to decrease the frequency of severe oral mucositis in adult patients with sarcoma and metastatic colorectal cancer receiving chemotherapy. The impact of palifermin on the incidence of mucositis in nonhematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) pediatric population receiving chemotherapy has never been reported to date. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of pediatric patients who received palifermin as secondary prophylaxis to prevent chemotherapy-induced mucositis at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center from January 1, 2008 to 2014...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Miyuki Tanaka, Takahiro Kamata, Ryu Yanagisawa, Daisuke Morita, Shoji Saito, Kazuo Sakashita, Masaaki Shiohara, Hiroshi Kurita, Kenichi Koike, Yozo Nakazawa
BACKGROUND: Structural anomalies of teeth are observed at high rates in childhood cancer survivors (CCS). Several therapeutic exposures have been shown to be associated with dental developmental disturbances. This study was conducted to analyze the risk factors for dental developmental abnormality (DDA) and investigate the association between age at the time of cancer treatment and DDA in CCS. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-six CCS were enrolled. Orthopantomography and dental examination were performed in all the patients...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Mohammed Ramzan, Jane Lowry, Sarah Courtney, Joerg Krueger, Tal Schechter Finkelstein, Muhammad Ali
Patients with GATA2 (Emberger syndrome) deficiency needs early hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) before evolving in to myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukemia and with time given compromised organ dysfunction leads to increase regimen-related toxicities. Most published cases have used nonmyeloablative conditioning regimens, show higher incidences of rejection and relapse rates and umbilical cord blood transplant has been reported to be suboptimal in patients with GATA2 deficiency because of longer period of engraftment leads to more infections and mortality...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Farzaneh Mohamadyar-Toupkanlou, Ebrahim Vasheghani-Farahani, Hana Hanaee-Ahvaz, Masoud Soleimani, Masumeh Dodel, Parvaneh Havasi, Abdolreza Ardeshirylajimi, Elham Sadat Taherzadeh
The increasing demand for biocompatible bone substitutes has made it a priority to tissue engineering and regenerative medicine scientists. Combination of minerals, growth factors and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins with nanofibrous scaffolds is a potential promising strategy for bone reconstruction and clinical applications. In this study, nanohydroxyapatite (nHA) was incorporated in electrospun nanofibrous polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds coated with fibronectin (Fn). The potential bone regeneration capacities of these scaffolds were evaluated in vitro and in vivo using mouse mesenchymal stem cells (mMSCs)...
February 20, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
F Mohammadian, A Eatemadi, H Daraee
Over 278 million of people worldwide suffers from hearing loss, and this disease has significant detrimental effects emotionally and economically on individuals and the society in totality. Treatment using cochlear implant dramatically improve the perception, and production of speech, as well as the patient quality of life, with the different sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). Yet, there are some challenges faced by a cochlear implant. In this review, we propose the regeneration of spiral ganglion neurons which is an interface neuron using human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (hAFMSCs), due to its high pluripotency potentials, this stem cell source can regenerate the spiral ganglion and this in-turn will bring back the inner ear hair-cells to functionality...
January 30, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
J Yuan, X Liu, Y Chen, Y Zhao, P Liu, L Zhao, W Han
To explore the effect of SOX2 on osteogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and to develop a new method for facilitating osteogenic differentiation of DPSCs. SOX2-overexpressing human DPSCs (DPSCs-SOX2) were established through retrovirus infection. Differentiation was induced with osteogenic differentiation medium and further evaluated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining and qPCR. Following the differentiation procedure, the mechanism of SOX2 on osteogenic differentiation of DPSCs was analyzed using genome RNA microarray and flow cytometry...
January 30, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Ross M Fasano, Harold Cliff Sullivan, Robert A Bray, Howard M Gebel, Erin K Meyer, Annie M Winkler, Cassandra D Josephson, Sean R Stowell, Alexander Sandy Duncan, John D Roback
Current genotyping methodologies for transplantation and transfusion management employ multiplex systems that allow for simultaneous detection of multiple HLA antigens, human platelet antigens, and red blood cell (RBC) antigens. The development of high-resolution, molecular HLA typing has led to improved outcomes in unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplants by better identifying compatible alleles of the HLA-A, B, C, DRB1, and DQB1 antigens. In solid organ transplantation, the combination of high-resolution HLA typing with solid-phase antibody identification has proven of value for highly sensitized patients and has significantly reduced incompatible crossmatches at the time of organ allocation...
March 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Wei-Lun Chen, Yulin Ren, Jinhong Ren, Christian Erxleben, Michael E Johnson, Saverio Gentile, A Douglas Kinghorn, Steven M Swanson, Joanna E Burdette
(+)-Strebloside, a cardiac glycoside isolated from the stem bark of Streblus asper collected in Vietnam, has shown some potential for further investigation as an antineoplastic agent. A mechanistic study using an in vitro assay and molecular docking analysis indicated that (+)-strebloside binds and inhibits Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in a similar manner to digitoxin. Inhibition of growth of different high-grade serous ovarian cancer cells including OVCAR3, OVSAHO, Kuramochi, OVCAR4, OVCAR5, and OVCAR8 resulted from treatment with (+)-strebloside...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
Jun Sung Kim, Ji Suk Choi, Yong Woo Cho
Well-designed scaffolds provide appropriate niches that can effectively recruit the host cells and induce differentiation of recruited cells into desired cell types, facilitating the in situ tissue regeneration. Here we report a tissue-specific extracellular matrix (ECM) hydrogel composed of adipose-derived soluble ECM (sECM) and methylcellulose (MC) as a cell-free scaffold system for adipose tissue regeneration. The sECM-MC hydrogels showed a thermosensitive sol-gel phase transition and rapidly forming a soft hydrogel with the stiffness of 3...
February 24, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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