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cryptococcal antigene

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527158/asymptomatic-cryptococcal-antigenemia-in-people-living-with-hiv-plhiv-with-severe-immunosuppression-is-routine-crag-screening-indicated-in-india
#1
S Anuradha, Abhaya Narayana H, Richa Dewan, Ravinder Kaur, K Rajeshwari
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a common, life-threatening opportunistic infection (OI) among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in India. Serum Cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) positivity is predictive of future occurrence of CM and pre-emptive treatment reduces its mortality. Routine CrAg screening among PLHIV is not adopted by India's national programme. This study evaluated the prevalence of CrAg and assessed CrAg positivity in predicting all-cause mortality among PLHIV. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted in a tertiary care, public health facility in New Delhi, India...
April 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527157/cryptococcal-antigen-detection-in-serum-significance-as-a-screening-modality-for-indian-plhiv
#2
Smrati Bajpai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502948/disseminated-cryptococcosis-with-adrenal-insufficiency-and-meningitis-in-an-immunocompetent-individual
#3
Misa Ito, Takashi Hinata, Kaku Tamura, Ayano Koga, Toshimitsu Ito, Hiroko Fujii, Fumihiko Hirata, Hidenari Sakuta
We present a case of cryptococcosis with adrenal insufficiency and meningitis in a healthy host without any risk factors. Antifungal therapy did not reduce the cryptococcal antigen titers of the cerebrospinal fluid and serum or the bilateral adrenal gland enlargement. It was suggested that the adrenal glands were the focus of persistent fungemia. Removal of both adrenal glands brought about a response to antifungal therapy. We conclude that if antifungal therapy is ineffective, bilateral adrenalectomy is an effective measure for treatment of such patients...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493865/preheating-of-urine-improves-the-specificity-of-urinary-cryptococcal-antigen-testing-using-the-lateral-flow-assay
#4
Fábio Brito-Santos, Marcela de Faria Ferreira, Luciana Trilles, Mauro de Medeiros Muniz, Valdiléa Gonçalves Veloso Dos Santos, Filipe Anibal Carvalho-Costa, Wieland Meyer, Bodo Wanke, Márcia Dos Santos Lazéra
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483415/global-burden-of-disease-of-hiv-associated-cryptococcal-meningitis-an-updated-analysis
#5
Radha Rajasingham, Rachel M Smith, Benjamin J Park, Joseph N Jarvis, Nelesh P Govender, Tom M Chiller, David W Denning, Angela Loyse, David R Boulware
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcus is the most common cause of meningitis in adults living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Global burden estimates are crucial to guide prevention strategies and to determine treatment needs, and we aimed to provide an updated estimate of global incidence of HIV-associated cryptococcal disease. METHODS: We used 2014 Joint UN Programme on HIV and AIDS estimates of adults (aged >15 years) with HIV and antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage...
May 5, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419364/examination-of-cryptococcal-glucuronoxylomannan-antigen-in-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-for-diagnosing-pulmonary-cryptococcosis-in-hiv-negative-patients
#6
Kazuhiro Oshima, Takahiro Takazono, Tomomi Saijo, Masato Tashiro, Shintaro Kurihara, Kazuko Yamamoto, Yoshifumi Imamura, Taiga Miyazaki, Misuzu Tsukamoto, Katsunori Yanagihara, Hiroshi Mukae, Shigeru Kohno, Koichi Izumikawa
We clarified the performance of a cryptococcal glucuronoxylomannan (GXM) antigen test using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples, in an HIV-negative Japanese population. Between March 2008 and December 2014, we examined cryptococcal GXM antigens in both serum and BALF specimens from 429 cases at Nagasaki University hospital. The diagnoses, underlying diseases, chest computed tomography findings, and cryptococcal GXM antigen test results were retrospectively investigated. Twenty-three patients were confirmed to have pulmonary cryptococcosis, another six were clinically diagnosed with cryptococcosis because they were seropositive for the GXM antigen, and five possible cryptococcosis cases had BALF samples that were positive for the GXM antigen and serum samples that were negative...
April 17, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414687/disseminated-cryptococcal-disease-with-diffuse-pulmonary-infiltrates-in-a-non-hiv-host
#7
M Hughes, K Trivedi, M Rudrappa
INTRODUCTION: We present a case of disseminated Cryptococcus in a non-HIV host, where the primary manifestation was pulmonary with diffuse pulmonary infiltrates. This patient was on high dose corticosteroids for autoimmune hemolytic anemia. CASE: A 79 year old Caucasian man with a history of autoimmune hemolytic anemia on 100 mg of prednisone daily, coronary artery disease s/p bypass surgery, ischemic cardiomyopathy, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, sleep apnea, chronic kidney disease, and history of bilateral pulmonary emboli presented to Hematology/Oncology clinic with symptoms of productive cough, worsening shortness of breath, hemoptysis...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384860/fungal-opportunistic-pneumonias-in-hiv-aids-patients-an-indian-tertiary-care-experience
#8
Ravinder Kaur, Bhanu Mehra, Megh Singh Dhakad, Ritu Goyal, Preena Bhalla, Richa Dewan
INTRODUCTION: Opportunistic pneumonias are a major cause of mortality and morbidity in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) reactive patients. Despite the significant role that fungi play in causation of this opportunistic mycoses, very few Indian studies have attempted to investigate the burden and aetiological spectrum of HIV/AIDS-associated fungal pneumonias. AIM: To document the prevalence of fungal aetiology in HIV/AIDS-related opportunistic pneumonias in an Indian setting; and to elucidate the various fungal opportunists responsible for the same...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362939/primary-prophylaxis-for-cryptococcosis-with-fluconazole-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-patients-with-cd4-t-cell-counts-100-cells-%C3%A2%C2%B5l-and-receiving-antiretroviral-therapy
#9
Somnuek Sungkanuparph, Chutchaiwat Savetamornkul, Warisara Pattanapongpaiboon
A prospective observational cohort study was conducted in 302 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients who had a CD4 T-cell count <100 cells/µL and negative serum cryptococcal antigen initiating antiretroviral therapy in a resource-limited setting. During 2-year follow-up, there were no differences of survival rates and occurrences of newly diagnosed cryptococcosis between patients with and without fluconazole for primary prophylaxis of cryptococcosis.
April 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335769/cost-effectiveness-of-crag-lfa-screening-for-cryptococcal-meningitis-among-people-living-with-hiv-in-uganda
#10
Anu Ramachandran, Yukari Manabe, Radha Rajasingham, Maunank Shah
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) constitutes a significant source of mortality in resource-limited regions. Cryptococcal antigen (CRAG) can be detected in the blood before onset of meningitis. We sought to determine the cost-effectiveness of implementing CRAG screening using the recently developed CRAG lateral flow assay in Uganda compared to current practice without screening. METHODS: A decision-analytic model was constructed to compare two strategies for cryptococcal prevention among people living with HIV with CD4 < 100 in Uganda: No cryptococcal screening vs...
March 23, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329080/differences-in-immunologic-factors-among-patients-presenting-with-altered-mental-status-during-cryptococcal-meningitis
#11
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Sarah Lofgren, Kathy H Hullsiek, Bozena M Morawski, Henry W Nabeta, Reuben Kiggundu, Kabanda Taseera, Abdu Musubire, Charlotte Schutz, Mahsa Abassi, Nathan C Bahr, Lillian Tugume, Conrad Muzoora, Darlisha A Williams, Melissa A Rolfes, Sruti S Velamakanni, Radha Rajasingham, Graeme Meintjes, Joshua Rhein, David B Meya, David R Boulware
Altered mental status in cryptococcal meningitis results in poorer survival, but underlying causes of altered mentation are poorly understood. Within two clinical trials, we assessed risk factors for altered mental status (GCS score<15) considering baseline clinical characteristics, CSF cytokines/chemokines, and antiretroviral therapy. Among 326 enrolled participants, 97 (30%) had GCS<15 and these patients had lower median CSF cryptococcal antigen titers (P = .042) and CCL2 (P = .005) but higher opening pressures (320 vs...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326747/laboratory-methods-for-diagnostics-of-hiv-infection-and-hiv-associated-neuroinfections
#12
Pavol Beno, Alzbeta Kaiglova, Martin Samohyl
HIV Infection resulting in AIDS remains serious global public health problem. In the fight with the global health problem plays a key role a simple, reliable and fast diagnostics. An important method in diagnostics is the identification and detection of viral capside p24 antigen levels. Fourth generation tests for the diagnostics of HIV infection simultaneously detect the presence of HIV antibodies and p24 antigen. Based on the monitoring of CD4 count, we can estimate the stage in which the infection is, and we can also suggest a therapeutic approach...
January 2017: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303828/high-prevalence-of-cryptococcal-antigenaemia-amongst-asymptomatic-advanced-hiv-patients-in-pune-india
#13
Dileep Kadam, Ajay Chandanwale, Renu Bharadwaj, Neetal Nevrekar, Samir Joshi, Sandesh Patil, Nikhil Gupte, Shashi Sangle, Kavita Chopade, Vandana Kulkarni, Usha Balasubramanian, Nishi Suryavanshi, Divyashri Jain, Savita Kanade, Sujata Dharmashale, Anju Kagal, Amita Gupta, Vidya Mave
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends routine cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) screening in advanced AIDS patients initiating antiretroviral treatment (ART). India has yet to adopt this strategy as the burden of cryptococcal antigenaemia is unknown. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in a large public sector ART centre and the inpatient wards of Sassoon Hospital, Pune, India. All consenting patients> 18 years of age with CD4 count <100 cells/mm3 were screened for CrAg by latex agglutination assay...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303817/screening-of-invasive-fungal-infections-by-a-real-time-panfungal-pan-acf-polymerase-chain-reaction-assay-in-patients-with-haematological-malignancy
#14
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Malini Rajinder Capoor, Shikha Puri, Hitesh Raheja, Ritin Mohindra, Dinesh Kumar Gupta, Pradeep Kumar Verma, Ranadeep Chowdhary
BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal infection (IFI) is a fatal infection in haematology patients. There is an urgent need for reliable screening methods facilitating timely diagnosis and treatment. A real-time panfungal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay based on TaqMan technology targeting 18S ribosomal RNA gene was used to screen whole blood specimen obtained from series of Haematology malignancy patients for IFIs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The panfungal (Pan-ACF) assay was employed to investigate specimen from 133 patients in duplicate with suspected IFI...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217607/concurrent-central-nervous-system-infective-pathology-in-a-severely-immunocompromised-patient
#15
Thein Swe, Bordes P Laurent, Nickul N Shah
To our knowledge and literature search, concurrent cryptococcal meningitis and neurosyphilis in a patient have rarely been reported. Here, we report a 37-year-old male with HIV infection presented with headache and dizziness for 5 days along with memory difficulty and personality changes for about 1 week. During the hospital stay, cryptococcal meningitis was confirmed with positive cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) cryptococcal antigen titer (1:320) and positive CSF culture. Diagnosis of neurosyphilis was made based upon CSF white blood cell count of 85 cells/μL, with CSF total protein of 87 mg/dL, reactive CSF treponemal antibody, and fluorescent treponemal antibody...
July 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166254/establishing-a-cost-per-result-of-laboratory-based-reflex-cryptococcal-antigenaemia-screening-crag-in-hiv-patients-with-cd4-counts-less-than-100-cells-%C3%AE-l-using-a-lateral-flow-assay-lfa-at-a-typical-busy-cd4-laboratory-in-south-africa
#16
Naseem Cassim, Kathryn Schnippel, Lindi Marie Coetzee, Deborah Kim Glencross
INTRODUCTION: Cryptococcal meningitis is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in countries with high HIV prevalence, primarily affecting patients whose CD4 are < = 100 cells/μl. Routine Cryptococcal Antigen (CrAg) screening is thus recommended in the South African HIV treatment guidelines for all patients with CD4 counts < = 100 cells/μl, followed by pre-emptive anti-fungal therapy where CrAg results are positive. A laboratory-based reflexed CrAg screening approach, using a Lateral Flow Assay (LFA) on remnant EDTA CD4 blood samples, was piloted at three CD4 laboratories...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134711/looking-for-fungi-in-all-the-right-places-screening-for-cryptococcal-disease-and-other-aids-related-mycoses-among-patients-with-advanced-hiv-disease
#17
Greg Greene, Charlotte Sriruttan, Thuy Le, Tom Chiller, Nelesh P Govender
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As HIV treatment programmes scale up to meet the UNAIDS 90-90-90 goals, care must be taken to start antiretroviral treatment safely in patients with advanced disease (CD4 counts <200 cells/μl) who are simultaneously at risk for opportunistic infections and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Invasive fungal diseases pose a great threat at this critical time point, though the development of inexpensive and highly accurate rapid diagnostic tests has changed the approach HIV programmes are taking to reduce the high mortality associated with these opportunistic infections...
March 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133852/atypical-cutaneous-cryptococcosis-in-four-cats-in-the-usa
#18
Alexandra Myers, Courtney Meason-Smith, Joanne Mansell, Mark Krockenberger, Jeanine Peters-Kennedy, Harold Ross Payne, Aline Rodrigues Hoffmann
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcosis is an uncommon fungal infection in humans and mammals. Occasionally, cryptococcosis manifests as cutaneous lesions, either as an extension of nasal disease or as stand alone lesions unassociated with the nose. Histologically, these lesions are typically characterized by abundant organisms with mild granulomatous dermatitis. Herein, four feline cases of atypical cutaneous cryptococcal infections are described. METHODS: Skin punch biopsies from four client owned cats were submitted for histological evaluation between 2006 and 2015...
January 29, 2017: Veterinary Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101016/cellulitis-in-a-liver-transplant-patient-as-an-initial-manifestation-of-disseminated-cryptococcal-disease
#19
Marcos Davi Gomes de Sousa, Fred Bernardes Filho, Luís Eduardo Barros Costa Fernandes, Cássia Regina Guedes Leal, Cristiane Rocha Magalhães, Marcos Antonio Custódio Neto da Silva, Halime Silva Barcaui
A 50-year-old male underwent liver transplantation due to cryptogenic cirrhosis and was admitted with severe pain in the left leg as well as phlogosis. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was prescribed, assuming bullous erysipelas. Among the tests performed, the latex agglutination test for the Cryptococcus sp. antigen was positive, and in both the blood culture and blister culture Cryptococcus sp. was isolated. Daily fluconazole was started. Even though liposomal amphotericin B has been started on the fifth day of hospitalization, the patient progressed to death...
September 2016: Case Reports in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919843/non-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-in-patients-infected-with-hiv-and-cryptococcal-meningitis-two-cases-at-the-lambar%C3%A3-n%C3%A3-hospital-center-in-gabon
#20
U D Kombila, J Iba Ba, G Tsoumbou-Bakana, J-B Moussavou Kombila
Cryptococcal meningitis is a serious infection occurring mainly in immunodepressed patients, especially those with AIDS. Its incidence is growing among people living with HIV/AIDS who interrupt their antiretroviral treatment. We report two cases that occurred in this situation and had lethal outcomes in the short term. Testing for cryptococcal antigen in serum (serum CRAG test) enables a reliable and early diagnosis, and its use should be promoted in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa.
December 5, 2016: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
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