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cryptococcosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150356/cryptococcosis-manifesting-as-isolated-biliary-infection-case-report-and-brief-review-of-literature
#1
Hua-Ying Zhou, Xiao-Bo Zeng, Sheng-Long Shi, Min Wang, Da-Min Li
BACKGROUND: Biliary cryptococci infection is rare, which is frequently diagnosed by exploratory laparotomy, preoperative diagnosis is difficult. CASE PRESENTATION: A 14-year-old girl presented with intermittent jaundice for 6 years. She had no pruritus, anorexia, nausea or vomiting, fever, abdominal pain, or clay stools. Laboratory tests showed obstructive jaundice, eosinophilia, and increased IgE levels. The patient was ultimately diagnosed as Cryptococcal infection by bone marrow culture...
November 14, 2017: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144957/fluconazole-levels-in-serum-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-according-to-daily-dosage-in-patients-with-cryptococcosis-and-other-fungal-infections
#2
Letícia Aparecida Schiave, Erika Nascimento, Fernando Crivelenti Vilar, Tissiana Marques de Haes, Osvaldo Massaiti Takayanagui, Cristiane Masetto de Gaitani, Roberto Martinez
Fluconazole is extensively used for the treatment of candidiasis and cryptococcosis. Among other factors, successful treatment is related to appropriate fluconazole levels in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In the present study, fluconazole levels were determined in 15 patients, 14 of whom had AIDS and 13 had neurocryptococcosis. The only selection criterion was treatment with fluconazole, which was performed with a generic or similar form of the drug. Fluconazole level was determined by high performance liquid chromatography and the susceptibility profile of Cryptococcus spp...
November 13, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142368/fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography-in-disseminated-cryptococcosis
#3
Sarthak Tripathy, Girish Kumar Parida, Shambo Guha Roy, Abhinav Singhal, Saumya Ranjan Mallick, Madhavi Tripathi, Shamim Ahmed Shamim
Disseminated cryptococcosis without pulmonary involvement is a very rare phenomenon. Patterns of organ involvement in cryptococcosis resemble various other infective conditions as well as malignant conditions on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography. We present a case of a 43-year-old male patient who had disseminated cryptococcosis. The rarity of the case being noninvolvement of lungs and meninges and resembling more like lymphoma due to the diffuse involvement of the lymph nodes on both sides of the diaphragm...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine: IJNM: the Official Journal of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133871/exploration-of-antifungal-and-immunomodulatory-potentials-of-a-furanone-derivative-to-rescue-disseminated-cryptococosis-in-mice
#4
Sudarshan Singh Rathore, Muthukrishnan Isravel, Sridharan Vellaisamy, David Raj Chellappan, Lalitha Cheepurupalli, Thiagarajan Raman, Jayapradha Ramakrishnan
Cryptococcus neoformans infection is quite complex with both host-pathogen interaction and host immune profile determining disease progress and therapeutic outcome. Hence in the present study, the potential utility of (E)-5-benzylidenedihydrofuran-2(3 H)-one (compound-6) was explored as an effective anticryptococcal compound with immunomodulatory potential. The efficacy of compound-6 in pulmonary cryptococosis model using H99 strain was investigated. The effective dose was found to provide 100% survival, with a significant reduction of yeast burden in lungs and brain...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132792/-neuromeningeal-cryptococcosis-in-patients-infected-with-hiv-at-agadir-regional-hospital-souss-massa-morocco
#5
S Chadli, M Aghrouch, N Taqarort, M Malmoussi, Z Ouagari, F Moustaoui, M Bourouache, S Oulkheir
INTRODUCTION: Neuromeningeal cryptococcosis (NMC) is a severe and fatal opportunistic infection. Lethality is frequent in the absence of treatment, especially in the presence of HIV co-infection. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence, epidemiological, clinical, biological and therapeutic aspects as well as the evolution of NMC for patients infected with HIV. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 40 cases of neuromeningeal cryptococcosis diagnosed in HIV-infected patients...
November 10, 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130027/cryptococcosis-today-it-is-not-all-about-hiv-infection
#6
Jane A O'Halloran, William G Powderly, Andrej Spec
Purpose of the review: Cryptococcal disease is most often thought of in the context of HIV infection. Much of our knowledge of the disease originates from its management in the HIV-positive population over the last 30 years. While the majority of cases globally continue to occur in the setting of advanced HIV, Cryptococcus species is increasingly responsible for disease in HIV-negative populations including those considered normal hosts and these HIV-negative populations will be the focus of this review...
June 2017: Current Clinical Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129578/cryptococcosis-in-an-infectious-diseases-hospital-of-buenos-aires-argentina-revision-of-2041-cases-diagnosis-clinical-features-and-therapeutics
#7
Alicia Arechavala, Ricardo Negroni, Fernando Messina, Mercedes Romero, Emmanuel Marín, Roxana Depardo, Laura Walker, Gabriela Santiso
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcosis is still a life-threatening mycosis that continues to be of serious concern in Latin American countries, especially among HIV+positive population. However, there is not any reliable information about the prevalence of this disease in this region. AIMS: The aim of this study is to report data of 2041 patients with cryptococcosis that were attended at the Infectious Diseases Hospital F. J. Muñiz over a 30 year-period. METHODS: Information about demographic and clinical data, survival time and the applied treatment, was taken from the Mycology Unit database...
November 9, 2017: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125786/novel-recombinant-multiepitope-proteins-for-the-detection-of-anti-cryptococcus-antibodies
#8
Rafael Melo Santos de Serpa Brandão, Angélica Rosa Faria, Hélida Monteiro de Andrade, Liline Maria Soares Martins, Adalberto Socorro da Silva, Semiramis Jamil Hadad do Monte
AIM: To produce and test recombinant multiepitope proteins as an alternative assay for the serological diagnosis of cryptococcosis. MATERIALS & METHODS: Previously, synthetic peptides were used to detect anti-Cryptococcus antibodies, and in silico analyses showed that the union of peptides would improve the results. Here, the coding sequences of these peptides were assembled into synthetic genes. Four genes have been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, producing recombinant multiepitope proteins: proteins A, B, C and D...
November 10, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123908/a-case-of-disseminated-cryptococcosis-with-necrotizing-fasciitis-in-a-non-hiv-patient
#9
Tetsuya Hoshino, Kazuya Omura, Shinichi Kimura, Hiroyuki Takahashi, Katsuhiko Kamei, Misako Ohkusu
Case: Disseminated cryptococcosis is a well-recognized condition among HIV patients, but it also occurs in non-HIV patients. Necrotizing fasciitis caused by cryptococcus is rare. An 81-year-old man who had received steroid therapy presented with erythema and pain in his right thigh. After the rapid progression of symptoms and a failure to respond to antibiotic therapy, a clinical diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis was made. We performed debridement, and yeasts were detected using a Gram stain of the fascia...
October 2017: Acute Medicine & Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113016/cryptococcal-dissemination-to-the-central-nervous-system-requires-the-vacuolar-calcium-transporter-pmc1
#10
Eamim D Squizani, Natália K Oliveira, Júlia C V Reuwsaat, Bárbara M Marques, William Lopes, Alexandra L Gerber, Ana Tereza R de Vasconcelos, Sophie Lev, Julianne T Djordjevic, Augusto Schrank, Marilene H Vainstein, Charley C Staats, Lívia Kmetzsch
Cryptococcus neoformans is a basidiomycetous yeast and the cause of cryptococcosis in immunocompromised individuals. The most severe form of the disease is meningoencephalitis, which is one of the leading cause of death in HIV/AIDS patients. In order to access the central nervous system (CNS), C. neoformans relies on the activity of certain virulence factors such as urease, which allows transmigration through the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In the present study, we demonstrate that the calcium transporter Pmc1 enables C...
November 7, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109169/environmental-triazole-induces-cross-resistance-to-clinical-drugs-and-affects-morphophysiology-and-virulence-of-cryptococcus-gattii-and-c-neoformans
#11
Rafael Wesley Bastos, Hellem Cristina Silva Carneiro, Lorena Vívien Neves de Oliveira, Karen Maia Rocha, Gustavo José Cota Freitas, Marliete Carvalho Costa, Thaís Furtado Ferreira Magalhães, Vanessa Silva Dutra de Carvalho, Cláudia Emanuela Rocha, Gabriella Freitas Ferreira, Tatiane Alves de Paixão, Frédérique Moyrand, Guilhem Janbon, Daniel Assis Santos
Cryptococcus gattii and Cryptococcus neoformans are environmental fungi that cause cryptococcosis, which is usually treated with amphotericin B and fluconazole. However, therapeutic failure is increasing because of the emergence of resistant strains. Because these species are constantly isolated from vegetal materials and the usage of agrochemicals is growing, we postulate pesticides could be responsible for the altered susceptibility of these fungi to clinical drugs. Therefore, we evaluated the influence of the pesticide tebuconazole on the susceptibility to clinical drugs, morphophysiology, and virulence of C...
November 6, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104652/plain-and-contrast-enhanced-chest-computed-tomography-scan-findings-of-pulmonary-cryptococcosis-in-immunocompetent-patients
#12
Rongshui Yang, Yan Yan, Yuhuan Wang, Xiaohuan Liu, Xinhui Su
Pulmonary cryptococcosis is most commonly reported in immunocompromised patients, whereas immunocompetent hosts are rarely affected and may be asymptomatic, resulting in reduced diagnostic performance of computed tomography (CT) imaging. Thus, the aim of the present study was to review the plain and contrast-enhanced chest CT scan findings of primary pulmonary cryptococcosis in immunocompetent patients, with the aim of improving the diagnosis of this type of pulmonary disease. In the present study, a total of 27 immunocompetent patients of clinically confirmed pulmonary cryptococcosis were analyzed retrospectively...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103990/a-call-to-arms-quest-for-a-cryptococcal-vaccine
#13
REVIEW
Marley C Caballero Van Dyke, Floyd L Wormley
Cryptococcosis remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality world-wide, particularly among AIDS patients. Yet, to date, there are no licensed vaccines clinically available to treat or prevent cryptococcosis. In this review, we provide a rationale to support continued investment in Cryptococcus vaccine research, potential challenges that must be overcome along the way, and a literature review of the current progress underway towards developing a vaccine to prevent cryptococcosis.
November 2, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102114/in-vivo-probiotic-and-antimicrobial-photodynamic-therapy-as-alternative-therapies-against-cryptococcosis-are-ineffective
#14
Lorena Vívien Neves de Oliveira, Rafael Wesley Bastos, Noelly de Queiroz Ribeiro, Marliete Carvalho Costa, Leonardo Borges Acurcio, Karen Maia Rocha, Julliana Ribeiro Alves Santos, Rosana de Carvalho Cruz, Betânia Maria Soares, Daniel Assis Santos
Cryptococcosis, an invasive fungal infection distributed worldwide that affects both domestic and wild animals, has incredible rates regarding treatment failure, leading to the necessity of the development of new therapies. In this way, we aimed to evaluate the probiotic (Saccharomyces boulardii, Lactobacillus paracasei ST-11, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG) and antimicrobial photodynamic alternative therapies against Cryptococcus gattii in a murine model. Although previous studies suggest that these therapies can be promising against cryptococcosis, our experimental conditions for both probiotic and antimicrobial photodynamic therapies (aPDT) were not able to improve the survival of mice with cryptococcosis, even with the treatment combined with fluconazole...
November 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070785/asymptomatic-meningitis-and-lung-cavity-in-a-case-of-cryptococcosis
#15
Aixin Li, Qunhui Li, Caiping Guo, Yulin Zhang
BACKGROUND Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans) infection is one of the most common opportunistic infections in AIDS patients. C. neoformans usually infects the central nervous system (CNS) and/or lungs with typical clinical manifestation. CASE REPORT Here, we report the case of a 52-year-old HIV-1-infected man with disseminated cryptococcosis, including subacute meningitis, pulmonary, and cutaneous cryptococcosis, but only skin lesion served as the chief complaint. Moreover, the results of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tests and lung computed tomography (CT) scan were atypical...
October 26, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069886/liquid-based-cytology-of-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-a-case-of-cryptococcal-meningitis
#16
Jiwoon Choi, Se Hoon Kim
Cryptococcus neoformans is the most common microorganism found in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology and causes life-threatening infections in immunocompromised hosts. Although its cytomorphologic features in conventional smear cytology have been well described, those in liquid-based cytology have rarely been. A 73-year-old woman with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma presented with mental confusion and a spiking fever. To rule out infectious conditions, CSF examination was performed. A cytology slide that was prepared using the ThinPrep method showed numerous spherical yeast-form organisms with diameters of 4-11 μm and thick capsules...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064061/molecular-characterization-and-antifungal-susceptibility-testing-of-sequentially-obtained-clinical-cryptococcus-deneoformans-and-cryptococcus-neoformans-isolates-from-ljubljana-slovenia
#17
Rok Tomazin, Tadeja Matos, Jacques F Meis, Ferry Hagen
AIM: To retrospectively investigate the epidemiology of cryptococcosis in Ljubljana, Slovenia. METHODOLOGY: Forty-six sequentially obtained isolates from 19 patients were subjected to amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) genotyping, microsatellite typing, mating- and serotype PCRs and antifungal susceptibility testing. RESULTS: Majority of the isolates were Cryptococcus deneoformans (n = 29/46; 63%) followed by Cryptococcus neoformans (n = 16/46; 34...
October 24, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063707/pulmonary-cryptococcosis-diagnosed-on-a-lung-fine-needle-aspiration
#18
Jing Lu, Elizabeth L Palavecino, Ziyan T Salih
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 24, 2017: Diagnostic Cytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048509/plasma-but-not-cerebrospinal-fluid-interleukin-7-and-interleukin-5-levels-pre-antiretroviral-therapy-commencement-predict-cryptococcosis-associated-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome
#19
Ngomu Akeem Akilimali, Christina C Chang, Daniel M Muema, Tarylee Reddy, Mahomed-Yunus S Moosa, Sharon R Lewin, Martyn A French, Thumbi Ndung'u
Background: Patients with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS-associated cryptococcal meningitis (CM) frequently experience clinical deterioration, known as cryptococcosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (C-IRIS), upon initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). The immunological mechanisms underlying C-IRIS are incompletely defined and no reliable predictive biomarkers exist. We investigated whether plasma or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of cytokines and chemokines predicted C-IRIS and are potential predictive biomarkers...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033946/exploitation-of-scavenger-receptor-macrophage-receptor-with-collagenous-structure-by-cryptococcus-neoformans-promotes-alternative-activation-of-pulmonary-lymph-node-cd11b-conventional-dendritic-cells-and-non-protective-th2-bias
#20
Jintao Xu, Adam Flaczyk, Lori M Neal, Zhenzong Fa, Daphne Cheng, Mike Ivey, Bethany B Moore, Jeffrey L Curtis, John J Osterholzer, Michal A Olszewski
Macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) contributes to fungal containment during the early/innate phase of cryptococcal infection; however, its role in adaptive antifungal immunity remains unknown. Using a murine model of cryptococcosis, we compared host adaptive immune responses in wild-type and MARCO(-/-) mice throughout an extended time course post-infection. Unlike in early infection, MARCO deficiency resulted in improved pulmonary fungal clearance and diminished cryptococcal dissemination during the efferent phase...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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