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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633410/cryptococcus-neoformans-and-gattii-promote-dna-damage-in-human-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells
#1
Jéssica Cristina Bilizario Noguerol Andrade, Mariana Gatto, Daniela Ramos Rodrigues, Ângela Maria Victoriano de Campos Soares, Sueli Aparecida Calvi
Cryptococcosis, a systemic mycosis capable of disseminating to the central nervous system with frequent lethal effects, is caused by the species Cryptococus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. Several infectious agents such as virus, bacteria, and parasites may be associated to DNA damage and carcinogenesis in humans. Products of the oxidative metabolism, such as NO, produced as a host defense mechanism to destroy these pathogens, have been implicated in this damage process, due to excessive production related to an established chronic inflammatory response...
June 15, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631642/sporadic-occurrence-of-cryptococcal-meningitis-in-hiv-seronegative-patients-uncommon-etiology
#2
Shukla Das, Shyama Datt, Priyamvada Roy, Rumpa Saha, Immaculata Xess
Cryptococcosis in HIV-seronegative patients is rarely reported from India. This prospective study was conducted to look for cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-seronegative individuals and compare their laboratory features to cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-seropositive patients. Cerebrospinal fluid was collected from 153 suspected cases of meningitis and subjected to India ink preparation, antigen detection, and culture. Nineteen samples tested positive for Cryptococcus neoformans infection. Seventeen and two patients were HIV reactive and nonreactive, respectively...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631547/cryptococcal-maxillary-osteomyelitis-and-osteonecrosis-in-a-18-month-old-dog
#3
Katherine Block, Jean Battig
An 18-month-old neutered male labradoodle was treated with surgical debridement for maxillary osteomyelitis and sequestrum formation. Histopathologic findings of the necrotic bone were consistent with Cryptococcus subspecies, confirmed with latex agglutination serum titer testing. The patient responded to a combination of fluconazole and surgical debridement and was titer negative after 8 months of medical therapy. The patient never exhibited signs of systemic illness which is commonly reported with cryptococcosis...
June 2017: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630940/fluconazole-induced-ploidy-change-in-cryptococcus-neoformans-results-from-the-uncoupling-of-cell-growth-and-nuclear-division
#4
Sophie Altamirano, Diana Fang, Charles Simmons, Shreyas Sridhar, Peipei Wu, Kaustuv Sanyal, Lukasz Kozubowski
Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic yeast that causes lethal cryptococcal meningitis in immunocompromised patients. One of the challenges in treating cryptococcosis is the development of resistance to azole antifungals. Previous studies linked azole resistance to elevated numbers of copies of critical resistance genes in aneuploid cells. However, how aneuploidy is formed in the presence of azole drugs remains unclear. This study showed that treatment with inhibitory concentrations of an azole drug, fluconazole (FLC), resulted in a significant population of cells with increased DNA content, through the following defects: inhibition of budding, premature mitosis, and inhibition of cytokinesis followed by replication in the mother cell...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617817/prevalence-of-cryptococcal-infection-among-advanced-hiv-patients-in-argentina-using-lateral-flow-immunoassay
#5
Claudia Frola, Liliana Guelfand, Gabriela Blugerman, Edgardo Szyld, Sara Kaufman, Pedro Cahn, Omar Sued, Héctor Pérez
BACKGROUND: Globally, Latin America ranks third among regions with most cases of AIDS related cryptococcal meningitis. In 2009, a lateral flow immunoassay (LFA) for the detection of cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) was developed as a potential point-of-care test for diagnosis of cryptococcal infection. In 2011 World Health Organizations recommended on CrAg screening for HIV positive persons with CD4 below 100 cells/μL, followed by preemptive fluconazole treatment. However, in Argentina no formal recommendations for CrAg screening have been issued...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598792/croi-2017-complications-and-comorbidities-of-hiv-disease-and-its-treatment
#6
Judith S Currier, Diane V Havlir
Complications of HIV disease remained a major focus at the 2017 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI), and included studies focused on noncommunicable chronic diseases (eg, cardiovascular disease, obesity, bone disease, and malignancies) and opportunistic infections (Mycobacterium tuberculosis and cryptococcosis). Progress in identifying predictors of specific complications as well as interventions for the prevention and treatment of these comorbidities are summarized below.
May 2017: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596945/treatment-with-pcramoll-alone-and-in-combination-with-fluconazole-provides-therapeutic-benefits-in-c-gattii-infected-mice
#7
Jannyson J Jandú, Marliete C Costa, Julliana R A Santos, Fernanda M Andrade, Thais F Magalhães, Márcia V Silva, Maria C A B Castro, Luanna C B B Coelho, Aline G Gomes, Tatiane A Paixão, Daniel A Santos, Maria T S Correia
Cryptococcus gattii is one of the main causative agents of cryptococcosis in immunocompetent individuals. Treatment of the infection is based on the use of antimycotics, however, the toxicity of these drugs and the increase of drug-resistant strains have driven the search for more effective and less toxic therapies for cryptococcosis. pCramoll are isolectins purified from seeds of Cratylia mollis, a native forage plant from Brazil, which has become a versatile tool for biomedical application. We evaluated the effect of pCramoll alone and in combination with fluconazole for the treatment of mice infected with C...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595777/disseminated-cryptococcus-deuterogattii-aflp6-vgii-infection-in-an-arabian-horse-from-dubai-united-arab-emirates
#8
Jörg Kinne, Marina Joseph, Ulrich Wernery, Nora Nogradi, Ferry Hagen
BACKGROUND: During the past decades there has been an increase in cryptococcal infections caused by the basidiomycetous yeast species Cryptococcus gattii sensu lato, among humans and animals that live in endemic regions in Australia, Europe and the Americas. Unlike human cryptococcosis, little epidemiological data are available about C. gattii sensu lato infections in horses. CASE REPORT: A fatal case of a disseminated C. gattii sensu lato infection in an 11-year-old Arabian gelding imported from South Africa into the United Arab Emitares is reported...
June 5, 2017: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592745/clinicopathological-features-of-cryptococcal-lymphadenitis-and-a-review-of-literature
#9
Keisuke Kawamoto, Hiroaki Miyoshi, Takaharu Suzuki, Reiji Muto, Kyohei Yamada, Eriko Yanagida, Mayuko Koshino, Yuya Sasaki, Jun Takizawa, Hirohito Sone, Yasuo Sugita, Masao Seto, Koichi Ohshima
Cryptococcosis is an invasive fungal infection in immunocompromised patients. The clinicopathological characteristics of cryptococcal lymphadenitis are not well known. We analyzed three cases of cryptococcal lymphadenitis and compared their characteristics with those in previous reports. Two patients were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) carriers, and one patient was a human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) carrier. The age of the HTLV-1 carrier with cryptococcosis was much higher than that of the HIV-1 carriers...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hematopathology: JCEH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591262/fatal-cryptococcus-gattii-genotype-vgi-infection-in-an-hiv-positive-patient-in-barranquilla-colombia
#10
María Clara Noguera, Patricia Escandón, Elizabeth Castañeda
Cryptococcosis is a major invasive fungal disease related worldwide with the AIDS population. New reports of HIV/AIDS cases to the national public health surveillance system (SIVIGILA) in Colombia have shown that there is a growing community at risk of contracting cryptococcosis throughout the country who do not have access to ART. Even though the most prevalent species Cryptococcus neoformans is mainly associated with the HIV population, we report a fatal case of cryptococcosis in an AIDS patient in Barranquilla, associated with Cryptococcus gattii VGI, isolated from blood culture...
June 1, 2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585000/immunization-with-antigen-pulsed-dendritic-cells-against-highly-virulent-cryptococcus-gattii-infection-analysis-of-cytokine-producing-t-cells
#11
Keigo Ueno, Makoto Urai, Shogo Takatsuka, Masahiro Abe, Yoshitsugu Miyazaki, Yuki Kinjo
Cryptococcosis caused by highly virulent Cryptococcus gattii (Hv-Cg) is an emerging infectious disease that affects immunocompetent individuals. The Hv-Cg outbreak began in 1999, but the mechanisms responsible for its hyper-virulence as well as protective immunity against Hv-Cg infection remain to be elucidated. To better understand the protective immunity against Hv-Cg infection, we developed a novel immunization method using antigen-pulsed dendritic cells (DCs). We constructed a capsule-deficient Cg strain (∆cap60) and used it as a vaccine antigen...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584988/methodology-for-anti-cryptococcal-vaccine-development
#12
Ashok K Chaturvedi, Floyd L Wormley
Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii, the predominant etiological agents of cryptococcosis, are fungal pathogens that cause disease ranging from a mild pneumonia to life-threatening infections of the central nervous system (CNS). C. neoformans is widely considered an opportunistic fungal pathogen which targets individuals with impaired immune systems, while C. gattii is predominantly associated with fungal infections in immunocompetent individuals. However, C. neoformans and C. gattii have certainly been identified as the causative agent of cryptococcosis in both immune compromised and immune competent individuals...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576330/first-report-of-two-cases-of-cryptococcosis-in-tripoli-libya-infected-with-cryptococcus-neoformans-isolates-present-in-the-urban-area
#13
M S Ellabib, Z A Krema, A A Allafi, M Cogliati
Cryptococcosis is a potentially fatal fungal disease caused by the basidiomycetes yeasts Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii with high predilection to invade the central nervous system mainly in immunocompromised hosts. Skin can be secondarily involved in disseminated infection or be exceptionally involved as primary cutaneous infection by inoculation with contaminated materials. We report the first two Libyan cases of cryptococcal meningitis in HIV patients, in which one of them presented a secondary cutaneous involvement due to systemic dissemination...
May 30, 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566662/practical-management-of-deep-cutaneous-fungal-infections
#14
Tomotaka Sato
Understanding deep cutaneous fungal infection requires not only reading many case reports and checking the typical clinical images of skin lesions, but also managing the patients properly to prevent misdiagnosis. Herein, I review my recent experiences with eight typical cases of deep cutaneous infections (including protothecosis and nocardiosis) in Japan. It is very important to do the four management processes; namely, KOH direct microscopic examination, skin biopsy, fungal culture, and microscopic examination of the histopathological specimen of PAS and Grocott staining...
2017: Medical Mycology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566315/low-cryptococcus-antigen-titers-by-a-lateral-flow-assay-should-be-interpreted-cautiously-in-patients-without-a-prior-diagnosis-of-cryptococcal-infection
#15
Marie Dubbels, Dane Granger, Elitza S Theel
Detection of Cryptococcus antigen (CrAg) is invaluable for establishing cryptococcal disease. Multiple different methods for CrAg detection are available, including a lateral flow assay (LFA). Despite excellent performance of the CrAg LFA, we have observed multiple cases of low-titer (≤1:5) CrAg LFA positive results in patients for whom cryptococcosis was ultimately excluded. To investigate the accuracy of low-titer positive CrAg LFA results, we performed chart reviews on all CrAg LFA positive patients between June 2014 and December 2016...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558705/disseminated-cryptococcosis-with-recurrent-multiple-abscesses-in-an-immunocompetent-patient-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#16
Qiaoling Ruan, Yimin Zhu, Shu Chen, Liping Zhu, Shu Zhang, Wenhong Zhang
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcus neoformans is frequently present as an opportunistic pathogen mainly affecting immunocompromised populations. Disseminated C. neoformans infection in immunocompetent population is rare and usually involves lung and central nerve system. Cryptococcus from biologic samples can easily grow on routine fungal and bacterial culture media. Besides, cryptococcal latex agglutination test has been established as a reliable diagnostic tool with overall sensitivities of 93-100%...
May 30, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551495/capsular-specific-igm-enhances-complement-mediated-phagocytosis-and-killing-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-by-methamphetamine-treated-j774-16-macrophage-like-cells
#17
Lilit Aslanyan, Vaibhav V Ekhar, Carlos M DeLeon-Rodriguez, Luis R Martinez
Methamphetamine (METH) is a powerful and highly addictive stimulant that affects the central nervous system of users in the United States and worldwide, and its consumption is associated to the acquisition of HIV and AIDS-related infections. METH enhances cryptococcosis in mice, an opportunistic infection caused by the encapsulated fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. Due to its ability to survive within macrophages, C. neoformans is an ideal model to study pathogen-macrophage interactions. METH abrogates normal macrophage function, which might contribute to the higher rate and more rapid progression of infections in drug abusers...
May 25, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533240/heterocycle-thiazole-compounds-exhibit-antifungal-activity-through-increase-in-the-production-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-cryptococcus-neoformans-cryptococcus-gattii-species-complex
#18
Nívea Pereira de Sá, Caroline Miranda de Lima, Cleudiomar Inácio Lino, Paulo Jorge Sanches Barbeira, Ludmila de Matos Baltazar, Daniel Assis Santos, Renata Barbosa de Oliveira, Eleftherios Mylonakis, Beth Burgwyn Fuchs, Susana Johann
Human cryptococcosis can occur as a primary or opportunistic infection and develops as an acute, sub-acute, or chronic systemic infection, involving different organs of the host. Given the limited therapeutic options and the occasional resistance to fluconazole, there is a need to develop novel drugs for the treatment of cryptococcosis. In this report, we describe promising thiazoles 1, 2, 3, and 4 and explore their possible modes of action against Cryptococcus. To this end, we show evidence of interference in the Cryptococcus antioxidant system...
May 22, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532447/clinical-characteristics-of-disseminated-cryptococcosis-in-previously-healthy-children-in-china
#19
Li-Wei Gao, An-Xia Jiao, Xi-Rong Wu, Shun-Ying Zhao, Yun Ma, Gang Liu, Ju Yin, Bao-Ping Xu, Kun-Ling Shen
BACKGROUND: Disseminated cryptococcosis is a rare and fatal disease, and limited data exist regarding it in children. This study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics of disseminated cryptococcosis in previously healthy children in China. METHODS: Hospitalized patients with disseminated cryptococcosis were enrolled during January 1996 to December 2015 in Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, China. Data on clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, treatment, and prognosis were evaluated...
May 22, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502949/pulmonary-cryptococcosis-complicated-by-sarcoidosis
#20
Shin-Ichi Nureki, Eishi Miyazaki, Yu-Ichi Tokunaga, Jun-Ichi Kadota
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Internal Medicine
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