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Karen L Wozniak
The fungal pathogens Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii can cause life-threatening infections in immune compromised and immune competent hosts. These pathogens enter the host via inhalation, and respiratory tract innate immune cells such as dendritic cells (DCs) are one of the first host cells they encounter. The interactions between Cryptococcus and innate immune cells play a critical role in the progression of disease in the host. This review will focus specifically on the interactions between Cryptococcus and dendritic cells (DCs), including recognition/processing by DCs, effects of immune mediators on DC recruitment and activity, and the potential for DC vaccination against cryptococcosis...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Lucas de Pádua Gomes de Farias, Igor Gomes Padilha, Márcia Rosana Leite Lemos, Carla Jotta Justo Dos Santos, Christiana Maria Nobre Rocha de Miranda
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Radiologia Brasileira
Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi, Sandra de M G Bosco, Sybren de Hoog, Frank Ebel, Daniel Elad, Renata R Gomes, Ilse D Jacobsen, An Martel, Bernard Mignon, Frank Pasmans, Elena Piecková, Anderson Messias Rodrigues, Karuna Singh, Vania A Vicente, Gudrun Wibbelt, Nathan P Wiederhold, Jacques Guillot
The importance of fungal infections in both human and animals has increased over the last decades. This article represents an overview of the different categories of fungal infections that can be encountered in animals originating from environmental sources without transmission to humans. In addition, the endemic infections with indirect transmission from the environment, the zoophilic fungal pathogens with near-direct transmission, the zoonotic fungi that can be directly transmitted from animals to humans, mycotoxicoses and antifungal resistance in animals will also be discussed...
April 1, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Yan Xiu, Jie Zhang, Hongcheng Shi
A 73-year-old man presented with fatigue and anorexia and underwent FDG PET/CT scan to evaluate a right lung nodule revealed by a chest CT. The FDG PET/CT not only showed that the lung nodule was hypermetabolic but also revealed that there was significantly increased activity in the region of the duodenum. The findings were suspected as primary duodenal malignancy with metastases. However, an upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopic examination with further culture led to a diagnosis of duodenal cryptococcosis...
March 13, 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Sanata Bamba, Adama Zida, Ibrahim Sangaré, Mamoudou Cissé, David W Denning, Christophe Hennequin
Because of the limited access to more powerful diagnostic tools, there is a paucity of data regarding the burden of fungal infections in Burkina Faso. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and prevalence of serious fungal infections in this sub-Saharan country. We primarily used the national demographic data and performed a PubMed search to retrieve all published papers on fungal infections from Burkina Faso and its surrounding West African countries. Considering the prevalence of HIV infection (0...
March 11, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Laura J Schmertmann, Kathryn Stalder, Donald Hudson, Patricia Martin, Mariano Makara, Wieland Meyer, Richard Malik, Mark B Krockenberger
Disseminated cryptococcosis caused by Cryptococcus gattii (molecular type VGI) was diagnosed in an adult free-ranging female koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). Subclinical cryptococcosis was later diagnosed in this koala's joey. In the adult koala, a pathological fracture of the tibia was associated with the bone lysis of marked focal cryptococcal osteomyelitis. Limb-sparing orthopedic intervention, in the setting of disseminated cryptococcosis, was judged to have a poor prognosis, and the adult koala was euthanized...
February 24, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Miguel Fraile López, Ruth de Francisco, Isabel Pérez-Martínez, Begoña García García, Blanca Vivanco Allende, Víctor Asensi, Sabino Riestra
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 5, 2018: Gastroenterología y Hepatología
Althea Campuzano, Floyd L Wormley
Cryptococcus species, the etiological agents of cryptococcosis, are encapsulated fungal yeasts that predominantly cause disease in immunocompromised individuals, and are responsible for 15% of AIDS-related deaths worldwide. Exposure follows the inhalation of the yeast into the lung alveoli, making it incumbent upon the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) of pulmonary phagocytes to recognize highly conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPS) of fungi. The main challenges impeding the ability of pulmonary phagocytes to effectively recognize Cryptococcus include the presence of the yeast's large polysaccharide capsule, as well as other cryptococcal virulence factors that mask fungal PAMPs and help Cryptococcus evade detection and subsequent activation of the immune system...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Qin Xiao, Yongzhou Lu, Min Chen, Bo Chen, Yuming Yang, Daxiang Cui, Bo Pan, Nan Xu
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeast. There is still little quick and effective solution for the diagnosis or treatment of C. neoformans infection at an early stage in clinical. Antibody-conjugated silica-modified gold nanorods (GNR-SiO2 -Ab) can conjugate C. neoformans selectively. It may provide a possibility for treatment of cryptococcosis safely and effectively. METHODS: Gold nanorods (GNRs) were synthesized according to the seed-mediated template-assisted protocol...
March 7, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
Frank A Post, Alexander J Szubert, Andrew J Prendergast, Victoria Johnston, Hermione Lyall, Felicity Fitzgerald, Victor Musiime, Godfrey Musoro, Priscilla Chepkorir, Clara Agutu, Jane Mallewa, Chathurika Rajapakse, Helen Wilkes, James Hakim, Peter Mugyenyi, A Sarah Walker, Diana M Gibb, Sarah L Pett
Background: In sub-Saharan Africa, 20%-25% of people starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) have severe immunosuppression; approximately 10% die within 3 months. In the Reduction of EArly mortaLITY (REALITY) randomized trial, a broad enhanced anti-infection prophylaxis bundle reduced mortality vs cotrimoxazole. We investigate the contribution and timing of different causes of mortality/morbidity. Methods: Participants started ART with a CD4 count <100 cells/µL; enhanced prophylaxis comprised cotrimoxazole plus 12 weeks of isoniazid + fluconazole, single-dose albendazole, and 5 days of azithromycin...
March 4, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Ahmad Mourad, John R Perfect
Cryptococcal meningitis is the most common central nervous system infection in the world today. It occurs primarily, but not exclusively, in immunocompromised individuals and despite substantial improvement in management of clinical events like AIDS, the numbers of cases of cryptococcosis remain very high. Unfortunately, despite several antifungal agents available for treatment, morbidity and mortality rates remain high with this fungal infection. In this Review, we will describe the treatments and strategies for success, identify the failures, and provide insights into the future developments / improvements for management...
2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Cristina Lazzarini, Krupanandan Haranahalli, Robert Rieger, Hari Krishna Ananthula, Pankaj B Desai, Alan Ashbaugh, Michael J Linke, Melanie T Cushion, Bela Ruzsicska, John Haley, Iwao Ojima, Maurizio Del Poeta
The incidence of invasive fungal infections has risen dramatically in the past decades. Current antifungal drugs are either toxic, likely to interact with other drugs, have a narrow spectrum of activity or induce fungal resistance. Hence, there is a great need for new antifungals, possibly with novel mechanisms of action. Previously our group reported an acylhydrazone called BHBM that targeted the sphingolipid pathway, and showed strong antifungal activity against several fungi. In this study, we screened 19 derivatives of BHBM...
March 5, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Yunfang Meng, Yumeng Fan, Wanqing Liao, Xiaorong Lin
Cryptococcus neoformans is a major opportunistic fungal pathogen. Like many dimorphic fungal pathogens, C. neoformans can undergo morphological transition from the yeast form to the hypha form and its morphotype is tightly linked to its virulence. Although some genetic factors controlling morphogenesis have been identified, little is known about the epigenetic regulation in this process. Proteins with the plant homeodomain (PHD) finger, a structurally conserved domain in eukaryotes, are first identified in plants and are known to be involved in reading and effecting chromatin modification...
March 2, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Patricia Escandón, Jairo Lizarazo, Clara Inés Agudelo, Elizabeth Castañeda
The passive and voluntary surveillance of cryptococcosis in Colombia since 1997 has seen an increasing participating rate, revealing its importance to both in immunosuppressed and immunocompetent people. The present work details the national data gathered in 1997-2016, through a retrospective analysis of the information collected in the survey. From a total of 1974 cases reported, an overall incidence of 0.23 cases per 100,000 people was found. This incidence rose to 1.1 cases per 1000 people in the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) population...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Viviana Giustini, Alessandra Sottini, Stefano Belleri, Diego Bertoli, Aldo M Roccaro, Alessandro Montanelli, Matteo Filippini, Marco Fontanella, Luisa Imberti
Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis is the most common infective complication observed in patients with CD4 lymphocytopenia, including sarcoidosis. T-cell immunity is well characterized in HIV-related infections and data regarding immunity in cryptococcosis animal models is now available; on the contrary, little is known about the immune status in non-HIV-related infections. We report on reduced production of new T cells observed in a patient with sarcoidosis, CD4 lymphocytopenia, and cryptococcal-related meningoencephalitis...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
Soraya M Z M D Ferreira, Hellem C Carneiro, Rosemeire B Alves, Ana Carolina S Batista, Eufranio N da Silva, Gleiston G Dias, Jarbas M Resende, Daniel A Santos, Debora L Oliveira, Marcio L Rodrigues, Rossimiriam P Freitas
The conjugation of the synthetic antimicrobial peptide fragment UBI 31-38 to a coumarin derivative showed to be an effective approach for the design of a novel anticryptococcal agent. In addition to antifungal activity, the conjugate exhibited intense fluorescence, which could be valuable to a better understanding of its mechanism of action. In this work, we studied the photophysical properties of the conjugate and used confocal scanning laser microscopy to investigate its distribution in Cryptococcus cell...
February 20, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Nívea Pereira de Sá, Patrícia Pimentel de Barros, Juliana Campos Junqueira, Jéssica Aparecida Vaz, Renata Barbosa de Oliveira, Carlos Augusto Rosa, Daniel Assis Santos, Susana Johann
Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic or primary fungal infection considered to be the most prevalent fatal fungal disease worldwide. Owing to the limited number of available drugs, it is necessary to search for novel antifungal compounds. In the present work, we assessed the antifungal efficacy of three thiazole derivatives (1, 2, and 3). We conducted in vitro and in vivo assays to investigate their effects on important virulence factors, such as capsule and biofilm formation. In addition, the phagocytosis index of murine macrophages exposed to compounds 1, 2, and 3 and the in vivo efficacy of 1, 2, and 3 in Galleria mellonella infected with Cryptococcus spp...
February 19, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Vanessa A Barcellos, Liline M S Martins, Alide C L Fontes, Julia C V Reuwsaat, Eamim D Squizani, Glauber R de Sousa Araújo, Susana Frases, Charley C Staats, Augusto Schrank, Livia Kmetzsch, Marilene H Vainstein
The Cryptococcus gattii species complex harbors the main etiological agents of cryptococcosis in immunocompetent patients. C. gattii molecular type VGII predominates in the north and northeastern regions of Brazil, leading to high morbidity and mortality rates. C. gattii VGII isolates have a strong clinical relevance and phenotypic variations. These phenotypic variations among C. gattii species complex isolates suggest that some strains are more virulent than others, but little information is available related to the pathogenic properties of those strains...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Felipe E E S Gomes, Thales D Arantes, José A L Fernandes, Leonardo C Ferreira, Héctor Romero, Sandra M G Bosco, Maria T B Oliveira, Gilda M B Del Negro, Raquel C Theodoro
Cryptococcosis, one of the most important systemic mycosis in the world, is caused by different genotypes of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii , which differ in their ecology, epidemiology, and antifungal susceptibility. Therefore, the search for new molecular markers for genotyping, pathogenicity and drug susceptibility is necessary. Group I introns fulfill the requisites for such task because (i) they are polymorphic sequences; (ii) their self-splicing is inhibited by some drugs; and (iii) their correct splicing under parasitic conditions is indispensable for pathogen survival...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ashley Flowers, Xin Gu, Guillermo A Herrera, Sandy Gibson, Judy King
Acute renal failure in the setting of infection with human immunodeficiency virus can be due to various causes including pre-renal causes such as hypotension, sepsis, and nephrotoxic agents; thrombotic microangiopathy; or direct renal parenchymal infections by opportunistic organisms. We present a case of cryptococcal nephritis in a patient with systemic cryptococcosis and discuss the clinical findings as well as the histological, immunofluorescent, and transmission electron microscopy findings in the renal biopsy...
March 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
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