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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736880/central-nervous-system-infection-due-to-cryptococcus-gattii-sensu-lato-in-india-analysis-of-clinical-features-molecular-profile-and-antifungal-susceptibility
#1
Shayanki Lahiri Mukhopadhyay, Veenakumari H Bahubali, Netravathi Manjunath, Aarthi Swaminathan, Sayani Maji, Marimuthu Palaniappan, Satishchandra Parthasarathy, Nagarathna Chandrashekar
Cryptococcus gattii species complex has evolved as a pathogen in the last two decades causing infection among both immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts. We aimed to analyse the clinical features of CNS infection caused by C. gattii sensu lato, molecular and antifungal susceptibility profile of this pathogen. Cases diagnosed to have CNS cryptococcosis were included in the study. Cryptococcus recovered from patient's specimen was identified by standard protocol. Species confirmation, mating type and molecular type determination were performed by PCR based methods...
July 23, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721333/pulmonary-cryptococcosis-in-a-ruxolitinib-treated-patient-with-primary-myelofibrosis
#2
Anna Hirano, Masahiro Yamasaki, Naomi Saito, Koji Iwato, Wakako Daido, Kunihiko Funaishi, Sayaka Ishiyama, Naoko Deguchi, Masaya Taniwaki, Nobuyuki Ohashi
We present the case of a 79-year-old man who showed multiple pulmonary nodules on chest computed tomography (CT) after being treated for 6 months with ruxolitinib, an inhibitor of Janus kinase (JAK) 1 and 2, to treat primary myelofibrosis. We examined the lesions by bronchoscopy, and the biopsy specimen revealed fungus bodies of Cryptococcus with granulomatous inflammation. As a result, the patient was diagnosed with pulmonary cryptococcosis. The patient was treated with fluconazole (200 mg daily for 2 weeks) with concomitant ruxolitinib administration, but the pulmonary lesions progressed...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720691/disseminated-cryptococcosis-in-an-immunocompetent-patient
#3
Pradeep Mada, Brad Nowack, Beth Cady, Andrew Stevenson Joel Chandranesan
Cryptococcosis is a fungal infection which is commonly associated with immune-compromised state. Disseminated infection in immunocompetent individuals is extremely rare. We present a case of a 56-year-old African American patient who presented with unilateral knee pain and swelling and was subsequently diagnosed with cryptococcal bone mass with dissemination of infection.
July 18, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719295/regional-differences-in-the-prevalence-of-major-opportunistic-infections-among-antiretroviral-na%C3%A3-ve-human-immunodeficiency-virus-patients-in-japan-northern-thailand-northern-vietnam-and-the-philippines
#4
Louie Mar A Gangcuangco, Ikumi Sawada, Naho Tsuchiya, Cuong D Do, Thanh Thuy T Pham, Archawin Rojanawiwat, Marissa Alejandria, Katerina Leyritana, Yoshiyuki Yokomaku, Panita Pathipvanich, Koya Ariyoshi
To identify regional differences in the distribution of opportunistic infections (OIs) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients in Asia, the medical records of antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve patients who attended the following tertiary hospitals from 2003 to 2011 were reviewed: Nagoya Medical Center (NMC, Nagoya, Japan), Lampang Hospital (LPH, Lampang, northern Thailand), Bach Mai Hospital (BMH, Hanoi, northern Vietnam), and Philippine General Hospital (PGH, Manila, Philippines). Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify associations between country of origin and risk of major OIs...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709495/unusual-case-of-coexistent-pulmonary-cryptococcosis-and-tuberculosis-in-an-immuno-competent-host
#5
Sunila Jain, Vrushali Mahajan, Arvind Kumar
Coexistence of pulmonary cryptococcosis with other infections has commonly been described in immuno-suppressed individuals. In immuno-competent hosts, such coexistence is rare and mostly described in disseminated disease or uncommonly involving different sites. The simultaneous coinfection of cryptococcosis and tuberculosis of lung in an immuno-competent host is extremely rare with only one previously reported case in the literature. This is the second such case and the first to be reported in India. We describe a case of a 36-year-old immuno-competent male who presented with haemoptysis and cough...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702763/pharmacokinetics-of-antifungal-drugs-practical-implications-for-optimized-treatment-of-patients
#6
REVIEW
Romuald Bellmann, Piotr Smuszkiewicz
INTRODUCTION: Because of the high mortality of invasive fungal infections (IFIs), appropriate exposure to antifungals appears to be crucial for therapeutic efficacy and safety. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This review summarises published pharmacokinetic data on systemically administered antifungals focusing on co-morbidities, target-site penetration, and combination antifungal therapy. CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSION: Amphotericin B is eliminated unchanged via urine and faeces...
July 12, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687690/cryptococcal-meningitis-causing-obstructive-hydrocephalus-in-a-patient-on-fingolimod
#7
Chengde Pham, Iwan Bennett, Rondhir Jithoo
Cryptococcosis is a recognised opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients. The long-term adverse effect profile of fingolimod, an immunomodulating agent approved for use in multiple sclerosis in 2010, is only just emerging. We report the first case to our knowledge of a patient presenting with obstructive hydrocephalus secondary to cryptococcal meningitis in the setting of fingolimod therapy. Extensive posterior fossa leptomeningeal inflammation with associated cerebellar oedema resulted in effacement of the fourth ventricle and obstructive hydrocephalus requiring urgent ventriculostomy...
July 6, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680034/high-dose-fluconazole-in-combination-with-amphotericin-b-is-more-efficient-than-monotherapy-in-murine-model-of-cryptococcosis
#8
Julliana Ribeiro Alves Santos, Noelly Queiroz Ribeiro, Rafael Wesley Bastos, Rodrigo Assunção Holanda, Letícia Chagas Silva, Estela Rezende Queiroz, Daniel Assis Santos
Cryptococcus spp., the causative agents of cryptococcosis, are responsible for deaths of hundreds of thousands of people every year worldwide. The drawbacks of available therapeutic options are aggravated by the increased resistance of yeast to the drugs, resulting in inefficient therapy. Also, the antifungal 5FC is not available in many countries. Therefore, a combination of antifungal drugs may be an interesting option, but in vitro and theoretical data point to the possible antagonism between the main antifungals used to treat cryptococcosis, i...
July 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673256/cryptococcosis-in-patients-with-hematological-diseases-a-14-year-retrospective-clinical-analysis-in-a-chinese-tertiary-hospital
#9
Rui-Ying Wang, Yan-Qiong Chen, Ji-Qin Wu, Xuan Wang, Ya-Hui Cao, Hua-Zhen Zhao, Li-Ping Zhu
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcal infection has become a public health challenge globally. However, information about cryptococcal infection in patients with hematological diseases remains relatively rare. METHODS: HIV-uninfected cryptococcosis cases with hematological diseases admitted to Huashan Hospital from January 2001 to December 2014 were reviewed. RESULTS: In total, 33 cryptococcosis patients were enrolled, including 12 malignant and 21 non-malignant hematological cases...
July 3, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667348/cryptococcosis-in-hiv-negative-patients-with-renal-dialysis-a-retrospective-analysis-of-pooled-cases
#10
Nan Hong, Min Chen, Wenjie Fang, Abdullah M S Al-Hatmi, Teun Boekhout, Jianping Xu, Lei Zhang, Jia Liu, Weihua Pan, Wanqing Liao
Cryptococcosis is a lethal fungal infection mainly caused by Cryptococcus neoformans/C. gattii species. Currently, our understanding of cryptococcosis episodes in HIV-negative patients during renal dialysis remains scarce and fragmented. Here, we performed an analysis of pooled cases to systemically summarize the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of cryptococcosis among HIV-negative patients with renal dialysis. Using pooled data from our hospital and studies identified in four medical databases, 18 cases were identified and analyzed...
June 30, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656554/fluconazole-non-susceptible-cryptococcus-neoformans-relapsing-refractory-cryptococcosis-and-long-term-use-of-liposomal-amphotericin-b-in-an-aids-patient
#11
Rodrigo de Carvalho Santana, Letícia Aparecida Schiave, Alda Soares Dos Santos Quaglio, Cristiane Masetto de Gaitani, Roberto Martinez
The treatment of cryptococcosis is hampered by inefficacy or intolerance to the recommended antifungal agents. A patient diagnosed with AIDS had multiple relapses of cryptococcal infection, which became refractory to antifungal agents during the course of therapy. During the follow-up, the patient developed renal toxicity due to amphotericin B use and non-susceptibility of isolated Cryptococcus neoformans to fluconazole was detected. Thereafter, antifungal treatment was performed exclusively with liposomal amphotericin B, reaching a cumulative dose of 19,180 mg over 46 months...
June 27, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642475/a-novel-bzip-protein-gsb1-is-required-for-oxidative-stress-response-mating-and-virulence-in-the-human-pathogen-cryptococcus-neoformans
#12
Seon Ah Cheon, Eun Jung Thak, Yong-Sun Bahn, Hyun Ah Kang
The human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans, which causes life-threatening meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised individuals, normally faces diverse stresses in the human host. Here, we report that a novel, basic, leucine-zipper (bZIP) protein, designated Gsb1 (general stress-related bZIP protein 1), is required for its normal growth and diverse stress responses. C. neoformans gsb1Δ mutants grew slowly even under non-stressed conditions and showed increased sensitivity to high or low temperatures. The hypersensitivity of gsb1Δ to oxidative and nitrosative stresses was reversed by addition of a ROS scavenger...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633410/cryptococcus-neoformans-and-gattii-promote-dna-damage-in-human-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells
#13
Jéssica Cristina Bilizario Noguerol Andrade, Mariana Gatto, Daniela Ramos Rodrigues, Ângela Maria Victoriano de Campos Soares, Sueli Aparecida Calvi
Cryptococcosis, a systemic mycosis capable of disseminating to the central nervous system with frequent lethal effects, is caused by the species Cryptococus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. Several infectious agents such as virus, bacteria, and parasites may be associated to DNA damage and carcinogenesis in humans. Products of the oxidative metabolism, such as NO, produced as a host defense mechanism to destroy these pathogens, have been implicated in this damage process, due to excessive production related to an established chronic inflammatory response...
June 15, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631642/sporadic-occurrence-of-cryptococcal-meningitis-in-hiv-seronegative-patients-uncommon-etiology
#14
Shukla Das, Shyama Datt, Priyamvada Roy, Rumpa Saha, Immaculata Xess
Cryptococcosis in HIV-seronegative patients is rarely reported from India. This prospective study was conducted to look for cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-seronegative individuals and compare their laboratory features to cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-seropositive patients. Cerebrospinal fluid was collected from 153 suspected cases of meningitis and subjected to India ink preparation, antigen detection, and culture. Nineteen samples tested positive for Cryptococcus neoformans infection. Seventeen and two patients were HIV reactive and nonreactive, respectively...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631547/cryptococcal-maxillary-osteomyelitis-and-osteonecrosis-in-a-18-month-old-dog
#15
Katherine Block, Jean Battig
An 18-month-old neutered male labradoodle was treated with surgical debridement for maxillary osteomyelitis and sequestrum formation. Histopathologic findings of the necrotic bone were consistent with Cryptococcus subspecies, confirmed with latex agglutination serum titer testing. The patient responded to a combination of fluconazole and surgical debridement and was titer negative after 8 months of medical therapy. The patient never exhibited signs of systemic illness which is commonly reported with cryptococcosis...
June 2017: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630940/fluconazole-induced-ploidy-change-in-cryptococcus-neoformans-results-from-the-uncoupling-of-cell-growth-and-nuclear-division
#16
Sophie Altamirano, Diana Fang, Charles Simmons, Shreyas Sridhar, Peipei Wu, Kaustuv Sanyal, Lukasz Kozubowski
Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic yeast that causes lethal cryptococcal meningitis in immunocompromised patients. One of the challenges in treating cryptococcosis is the development of resistance to azole antifungals. Previous studies linked azole resistance to elevated numbers of copies of critical resistance genes in aneuploid cells. However, how aneuploidy is formed in the presence of azole drugs remains unclear. This study showed that treatment with inhibitory concentrations of an azole drug, fluconazole (FLC), resulted in a significant population of cells with increased DNA content, through the following defects: inhibition of budding, premature mitosis, and inhibition of cytokinesis followed by replication in the mother cell...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617817/prevalence-of-cryptococcal-infection-among-advanced-hiv-patients-in-argentina-using-lateral-flow-immunoassay
#17
Claudia Frola, Liliana Guelfand, Gabriela Blugerman, Edgardo Szyld, Sara Kaufman, Pedro Cahn, Omar Sued, Héctor Pérez
BACKGROUND: Globally, Latin America ranks third among regions with most cases of AIDS related cryptococcal meningitis. In 2009, a lateral flow immunoassay (LFA) for the detection of cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) was developed as a potential point-of-care test for diagnosis of cryptococcal infection. In 2011 World Health Organizations recommended on CrAg screening for HIV positive persons with CD4 below 100 cells/μL, followed by preemptive fluconazole treatment. However, in Argentina no formal recommendations for CrAg screening have been issued...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598792/croi-2017-complications-and-comorbidities-of-hiv-disease-and-its-treatment
#18
Judith S Currier, Diane V Havlir
Complications of HIV disease remained a major focus at the 2017 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI), and included studies focused on noncommunicable chronic diseases (eg, cardiovascular disease, obesity, bone disease, and malignancies) and opportunistic infections (Mycobacterium tuberculosis and cryptococcosis). Progress in identifying predictors of specific complications as well as interventions for the prevention and treatment of these comorbidities are summarized below.
May 2017: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596945/treatment-with-pcramoll-alone-and-in-combination-with-fluconazole-provides-therapeutic-benefits-in-c-gattii-infected-mice
#19
Jannyson J Jandú, Marliete C Costa, Julliana R A Santos, Fernanda M Andrade, Thais F Magalhães, Márcia V Silva, Maria C A B Castro, Luanna C B B Coelho, Aline G Gomes, Tatiane A Paixão, Daniel A Santos, Maria T S Correia
Cryptococcus gattii is one of the main causative agents of cryptococcosis in immunocompetent individuals. Treatment of the infection is based on the use of antimycotics, however, the toxicity of these drugs and the increase of drug-resistant strains have driven the search for more effective and less toxic therapies for cryptococcosis. pCramoll are isolectins purified from seeds of Cratylia mollis, a native forage plant from Brazil, which has become a versatile tool for biomedical application. We evaluated the effect of pCramoll alone and in combination with fluconazole for the treatment of mice infected with C...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595777/disseminated-cryptococcus-deuterogattii-aflp6-vgii-infection-in-an-arabian-horse-from-dubai-united-arab-emirates
#20
Jörg Kinne, Marina Joseph, Ulrich Wernery, Nora Nogradi, Ferry Hagen
BACKGROUND: During the past decades there has been an increase in cryptococcal infections caused by the basidiomycetous yeast species Cryptococcus gattii sensu lato, among humans and animals that live in endemic regions in Australia, Europe and the Americas. Unlike human cryptococcosis, little epidemiological data are available about C. gattii sensu lato infections in horses. CASE REPORT: A fatal case of a disseminated C. gattii sensu lato infection in an 11-year-old Arabian gelding imported from South Africa into the United Arab Emitares is reported...
June 5, 2017: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
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