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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793019/cryptococcus-neoformans-and-c-gattii-isolates-from-both-hiv-infected-and-uninfected-patients-antifungal-susceptibility-and-outcome-of-cryptococcal-disease
#1
Erika Nascimento, Lucia Helena Vitali, Marcia Regina von Zeska Kress, Roberto Martinez
One of the factors causing treatment failure in cryptococcosis is the resistance of Cryptococcus spp. to antifungal drugs, which has motivated the susceptibility assessment of isolates from patients with cryptococcosis, different clinical conditions and infections outcomes. Clinical isolates of Cryptococcus spp. from three different groups of patients were studied in the present investigation: 19 HIV-positive patients with relapsing and/or refractory meningitis (Group 1), 30 HIV-positive patients who experienced a single and limited episode of cryptococcosis (Group 2), and 19 HIV-negative patients with cryptococcosis (Group 3)...
2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792175/pleuro-pulmonary-cryptococcosis-without-pleural-effusion
#2
Kamal Gera, Nevin Kishore, Andleeb Abrari, Kanika Singh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782323/disseminated-cryptococcosis-mimicking-miliary-tuberculosis-with-generalized-lymphadenopathy-in-immunocompetent-host
#3
Sompal, Manoj Gupta, Shishir Soni, Rohit Mehtani, Anil Bharani
Cryptococcosis is a rare opportunistic infection in the immunocompromised host.1,2 Diagnosis of disseminated fungal infections is rarely thought of in immunocompetent hosts. In developing countries where tuberculosis is endemic, Cryptococcosis is often misdiagnosed as tuberculosis.3,4 A 14 year old girl, misdiagnosed as miliary tuberculosis with Koch's abdomen on ATT, presented with seizures. After extensive workup, she was found to have disseminated Cryptococcosis, not tuberculosis. This case report shows the similarity in presentation of tuberculosis and Cryptococcosis, and hence Cryptococcosis should always be kept as a differential diagnosis of tuberculosis...
June 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776195/clinical-characteristics-and-prognosis-of-pediatric-cryptococcosis-in-beijing-children-s-hospital-2002-2014
#4
Linlin Liu, Lingyun Guo, Yue Liu, Tianming Chen, Shaoying Li, Yonghong Yang, Gang Liu
Cryptococcosis is a rare pediatric disease. The aim of the study is to describe clinical characteristics and prognosis of pediatric cryptococcosis from 2002 to 2014 in Beijing Children's Hospital. A total of 53 cases of cryptococcosis were identified, 69.8% of which were males. The mean age was 7 years. Forty-one (77.4%) patients had no underlying conditions. Fever, headache, and vomiting were the most common symptoms. The most common sites were the central nervous system (CNS), followed by the lungs. Most patients received a combination of amphotericin B and fluconazole with or without flucytosine as their initial regimen...
August 3, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774701/fungal-infections-in-hiv-aids
#5
REVIEW
Andrew H Limper, Antoine Adenis, Thuy Le, Thomas S Harrison
Fungi are major contributors to the opportunistic infections that affect patients with HIV/AIDS. Systemic infections are mainly with Pneumocystis jirovecii (pneumocystosis), Cryptococcus neoformans (cryptococcosis), Histoplasma capsulatum (histoplasmosis), and Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei (talaromycosis). The incidence of systemic fungal infections has decreased in people with HIV in high-income countries because of the widespread availability of antiretroviral drugs and early testing for HIV. However, in many areas with high HIV prevalence, patients present to care with advanced HIV infection and with a low CD4 cell count or re-present with persistent low CD4 cell counts because of poor adherence, resistance to antiretroviral drugs, or both...
July 31, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756537/atypical-morphology-and-disparate-speciation-in-a-case-of-feline-cryptococcosis
#6
S J M Evans, K Jones, A R Moore
A 6-year-old, spayed female cat was presented with acute respiratory signs and pleural effusion. Computed tomography scan revealed a large, lobulated mass effect in the ventral right hemithorax with concurrent sternal lymphadenopathy. A cytologic sample of the mass contained pyogranulomatous inflammation, necrotic material, and abundant yeast structures that lacked a distinct capsule and demonstrated rare pseudohyphal forms. Fungal culture and biochemical testing identified the yeast as Cryptococcus albidus, with susceptibility to all antifungal agents tested...
July 29, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750078/acridine-orange-fluorescent-microscopy-is-more-sensitive-than-india-ink-light-microscopy-in-the-rapid-detection-of-cryptococcosis-among-crag-positive-hiv-patients
#7
Richard Kwizera, Andrew Akampurira, Darlisha Williams, David R Boulware, David B Meya
BACKGROUND: India ink microscopy on cerebrospinal fluid is still utilized in resource limited settings for the diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis despite its poor sensitivity. We hypothesized that staining fungal nucleic acids with fluorescent dyes instead of the capsule with India ink might improve sensitivity for the diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis. METHODS: We enrolled 96 HIV-infected participants with cryptococcal meningitis who provided 194 CSF specimens at serial time points in Kampala, Uganda...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744276/differential-antifungal-activity-of-human-and-cryptococcal-melanins-with-structural-discrepancies
#8
Néstor Correa, Cristian Covarrubias, Paula I Rodas, Germán Hermosilla, Verónica R Olate, Cristián Valdés, Wieland Meyer, Fabien Magne, Cecilia V Tapia
Melanin is a pigment found in all biological kingdoms, and plays a key role in protection against ultraviolet radiation, oxidizing agents, and ionizing radiation damage. Melanin exerts an antimicrobial activity against bacteria, fungi, and parasites. We demonstrated an antifungal activity of synthetic and human melanin against Candida sp. The members of the Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii species complexes are capsulated yeasts, which cause cryptococcosis. For both species melanin is an important virulence factor...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736880/central-nervous-system-infection-due-to-cryptococcus-gattii-sensu-lato-in-india-analysis-of-clinical-features-molecular-profile-and-antifungal-susceptibility
#9
Shayanki Lahiri Mukhopadhyay, Veenakumari H Bahubali, Netravathi Manjunath, Aarthi Swaminathan, Sayani Maji, Marimuthu Palaniappan, Satishchandra Parthasarathy, Nagarathna Chandrashekar
Cryptococcus gattii species complex has evolved as a pathogen in the last two decades causing infection among both immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts. We aimed to analyse the clinical features of CNS infection caused by C. gattii sensu lato, molecular and antifungal susceptibility profile of this pathogen. Cases diagnosed to have CNS cryptococcosis were included in the study. Cryptococcus recovered from patient's specimen was identified by standard protocol. Species confirmation, mating type and molecular type determination were performed by PCR based methods...
July 23, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721333/pulmonary-cryptococcosis-in-a-ruxolitinib-treated-patient-with-primary-myelofibrosis
#10
Anna Hirano, Masahiro Yamasaki, Naomi Saito, Koji Iwato, Wakako Daido, Kunihiko Funaishi, Sayaka Ishiyama, Naoko Deguchi, Masaya Taniwaki, Nobuyuki Ohashi
We present the case of a 79-year-old man who showed multiple pulmonary nodules on chest computed tomography (CT) after being treated for 6 months with ruxolitinib, an inhibitor of Janus kinase (JAK) 1 and 2, to treat primary myelofibrosis. We examined the lesions by bronchoscopy, and the biopsy specimen revealed fungus bodies of Cryptococcus with granulomatous inflammation. As a result, the patient was diagnosed with pulmonary cryptococcosis. The patient was treated with fluconazole (200 mg daily for 2 weeks) with concomitant ruxolitinib administration, but the pulmonary lesions progressed...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720691/disseminated-cryptococcosis-in-an-immunocompetent-patient
#11
Pradeep Mada, Brad Nowack, Beth Cady, Andrew Stevenson Joel Chandranesan
Cryptococcosis is a fungal infection which is commonly associated with immune-compromised state. Disseminated infection in immunocompetent individuals is extremely rare. We present a case of a 56-year-old African American patient who presented with unilateral knee pain and swelling and was subsequently diagnosed with cryptococcal bone mass with dissemination of infection.
July 18, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719295/regional-differences-in-the-prevalence-of-major-opportunistic-infections-among-antiretroviral-na%C3%A3-ve-human-immunodeficiency-virus-patients-in-japan-northern-thailand-northern-vietnam-and-the-philippines
#12
Louie Mar A Gangcuangco, Ikumi Sawada, Naho Tsuchiya, Cuong D Do, Thanh Thuy T Pham, Archawin Rojanawiwat, Marissa Alejandria, Katerina Leyritana, Yoshiyuki Yokomaku, Panita Pathipvanich, Koya Ariyoshi
To identify regional differences in the distribution of opportunistic infections (OIs) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients in Asia, the medical records of antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve patients who attended the following tertiary hospitals from 2003 to 2011 were reviewed: Nagoya Medical Center (NMC, Nagoya, Japan), Lampang Hospital (LPH, Lampang, northern Thailand), Bach Mai Hospital (BMH, Hanoi, northern Vietnam), and Philippine General Hospital (PGH, Manila, Philippines). Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify associations between country of origin and risk of major OIs...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709495/unusual-case-of-coexistent-pulmonary-cryptococcosis-and-tuberculosis-in-an-immuno-competent-host
#13
Sunila Jain, Vrushali Mahajan, Arvind Kumar
Coexistence of pulmonary cryptococcosis with other infections has commonly been described in immuno-suppressed individuals. In immuno-competent hosts, such coexistence is rare and mostly described in disseminated disease or uncommonly involving different sites. The simultaneous coinfection of cryptococcosis and tuberculosis of lung in an immuno-competent host is extremely rare with only one previously reported case in the literature. This is the second such case and the first to be reported in India. We describe a case of a 36-year-old immuno-competent male who presented with haemoptysis and cough...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702763/pharmacokinetics-of-antifungal-drugs-practical-implications-for-optimized-treatment-of-patients
#14
REVIEW
Romuald Bellmann, Piotr Smuszkiewicz
INTRODUCTION: Because of the high mortality of invasive fungal infections (IFIs), appropriate exposure to antifungals appears to be crucial for therapeutic efficacy and safety. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This review summarises published pharmacokinetic data on systemically administered antifungals focusing on co-morbidities, target-site penetration, and combination antifungal therapy. CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSION: Amphotericin B is eliminated unchanged via urine and faeces...
July 12, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687690/cryptococcal-meningitis-causing-obstructive-hydrocephalus-in-a-patient-on-fingolimod
#15
Chengde Pham, Iwan Bennett, Rondhir Jithoo
Cryptococcosis is a recognised opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients. The long-term adverse effect profile of fingolimod, an immunomodulating agent approved for use in multiple sclerosis in 2010, is only just emerging. We report the first case to our knowledge of a patient presenting with obstructive hydrocephalus secondary to cryptococcal meningitis in the setting of fingolimod therapy. Extensive posterior fossa leptomeningeal inflammation with associated cerebellar oedema resulted in effacement of the fourth ventricle and obstructive hydrocephalus requiring urgent ventriculostomy...
July 6, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680034/high-dose-fluconazole-in-combination-with-amphotericin-b-is-more-efficient-than-monotherapy-in-murine-model-of-cryptococcosis
#16
Julliana Ribeiro Alves Santos, Noelly Queiroz Ribeiro, Rafael Wesley Bastos, Rodrigo Assunção Holanda, Letícia Chagas Silva, Estela Rezende Queiroz, Daniel Assis Santos
Cryptococcus spp., the causative agents of cryptococcosis, are responsible for deaths of hundreds of thousands of people every year worldwide. The drawbacks of available therapeutic options are aggravated by the increased resistance of yeast to the drugs, resulting in inefficient therapy. Also, the antifungal 5FC is not available in many countries. Therefore, a combination of antifungal drugs may be an interesting option, but in vitro and theoretical data point to the possible antagonism between the main antifungals used to treat cryptococcosis, i...
July 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673256/cryptococcosis-in-patients-with-hematological-diseases-a-14-year-retrospective-clinical-analysis-in-a-chinese-tertiary-hospital
#17
Rui-Ying Wang, Yan-Qiong Chen, Ji-Qin Wu, Xuan Wang, Ya-Hui Cao, Hua-Zhen Zhao, Li-Ping Zhu
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcal infection has become a public health challenge globally. However, information about cryptococcal infection in patients with hematological diseases remains relatively rare. METHODS: HIV-uninfected cryptococcosis cases with hematological diseases admitted to Huashan Hospital from January 2001 to December 2014 were reviewed. RESULTS: In total, 33 cryptococcosis patients were enrolled, including 12 malignant and 21 non-malignant hematological cases...
July 3, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667348/cryptococcosis-in-hiv-negative-patients-with-renal-dialysis-a-retrospective-analysis-of-pooled-cases
#18
Nan Hong, Min Chen, Wenjie Fang, Abdullah M S Al-Hatmi, Teun Boekhout, Jianping Xu, Lei Zhang, Jia Liu, Weihua Pan, Wanqing Liao
Cryptococcosis is a lethal fungal infection mainly caused by Cryptococcus neoformans/C. gattii species. Currently, our understanding of cryptococcosis episodes in HIV-negative patients during renal dialysis remains scarce and fragmented. Here, we performed an analysis of pooled cases to systemically summarize the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of cryptococcosis among HIV-negative patients with renal dialysis. Using pooled data from our hospital and studies identified in four medical databases, 18 cases were identified and analyzed...
June 30, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656554/fluconazole-non-susceptible-cryptococcus-neoformans-relapsing-refractory-cryptococcosis-and-long-term-use-of-liposomal-amphotericin-b-in-an-aids-patient
#19
Rodrigo de Carvalho Santana, Letícia Aparecida Schiave, Alda Soares Dos Santos Quaglio, Cristiane Masetto de Gaitani, Roberto Martinez
The treatment of cryptococcosis is hampered by inefficacy or intolerance to the recommended antifungal agents. A patient diagnosed with AIDS had multiple relapses of cryptococcal infection, which became refractory to antifungal agents during the course of therapy. During the follow-up, the patient developed renal toxicity due to amphotericin B use and non-susceptibility of isolated Cryptococcus neoformans to fluconazole was detected. Thereafter, antifungal treatment was performed exclusively with liposomal amphotericin B, reaching a cumulative dose of 19,180 mg over 46 months...
June 27, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642475/a-novel-bzip-protein-gsb1-is-required-for-oxidative-stress-response-mating-and-virulence-in-the-human-pathogen-cryptococcus-neoformans
#20
Seon Ah Cheon, Eun Jung Thak, Yong-Sun Bahn, Hyun Ah Kang
The human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans, which causes life-threatening meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised individuals, normally faces diverse stresses in the human host. Here, we report that a novel, basic, leucine-zipper (bZIP) protein, designated Gsb1 (general stress-related bZIP protein 1), is required for its normal growth and diverse stress responses. C. neoformans gsb1Δ mutants grew slowly even under non-stressed conditions and showed increased sensitivity to high or low temperatures. The hypersensitivity of gsb1Δ to oxidative and nitrosative stresses was reversed by addition of a ROS scavenger...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
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